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Test 2

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by: Lindsey Kangas

Test 2 10043-080

Lindsey Kangas

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Study guide for Medieval through Napoleonic Style pieces of art
Intro into Art History
Dr. Jessica Fripp
Study Guide
Art, medieval, Renaissance, Gothic, neoclassical, Baroque, Romanesque, rococo
50 ?




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This 43 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lindsey Kangas on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 10043-080 at Texas Christian University taught by Dr. Jessica Fripp in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Intro into Art History in Art at Texas Christian University.


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Date Created: 03/29/16
MEDIEVAL ART Focus on Western (Catholic) Church Dark Ages/Middle Ages Between two golden periods of art- Roman and Renaissance Fusion between Christian beliefs and non-Roman people Dominance of Christianity 432 AD- St. Patrick Christianized Celts Hiberno= ancient Ireland, Saxon= England Carolingian Period Rule of Charlemagne (786-814) Empire encompasses Germany, Spain, some of France, modern Belgium/Holland Crowned emperor by Pope on Christmas 800 Connection of church and state Wanted revival of glory from Roman Empire Ottonian Period (936-1002) 3 brothers fought against each other for land, ended up splitting land between them Otto I crowned emperor by Pope Mix of Roman, Byzantine, and Carolingian Large-scale sculptures of bronze and wood Romanesque Period (11 and 12 centuries) Not named after people or ruler Not made by Romans Resurgence of rounded arches Renovations due to increasing prosperities People thought world was going to end, so when it didn’t they built a lot Pilgrimage and Reliquary 1. Chi-Rho-Iota Page, (from the Book of Kells), Hiberno-Saxon Culture, 800, tempera on vellum.  Manuscript illumination  Found in monastery, sacred object  Most elaborate gospel books found during this time  Made into a scriptoria  Vellum= paper made of animal skin (150 calves used for this book)  Book of Matthew; birth of Christ story  Chi-Rho-Iota seen abbreviated, interlace; ornate  Elevated word of God beyond words  Private/personal contemplation/meditation/spirituality  Highlights complexity of God’s words _____________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Saint Matthew, (from the Gospel Book of Charlemagne), Carolingian Period, 800, ink and tempera on vellum.  Full page portrait at beginning of each gospel  Not heavy outlines; emphasis on color to make form instead of lines  Clothes resemble Pompeii mural o Good sense of bodies underneath clothes o Foreshortening of feet and legs  Varying shades for 3D volume  Artist could have seen style in a book or fled Constantinople during iconoclasm 3. Saint Matthew, (from the Ebbo Gospels), Carolingian Period, 816-835, ink and tempera on vellum.  More expression; tension in face, more detailed  Drapery is busier, could symbolize frenzy of inspiration  Windswept appearance  Landscape and foreshortening _____________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Doors of Bishop Bernward, Germany, Ottonian Period, 1015, bronze.  Cast for bishop and St. Michael Church  Most ambitious cast since antiquity  16ft tall  Old Testament (left) o God with Adam and Eve o Eve giving Adam apple o Interrogation and Adam telling on Eve o Expelled from garden o Life on Earth outside garden o Cain with vegetable offering and Abel with animal offering o Cain kills Abel  New testament (right) o Enunciation of Mary o Gifts for Jesus o Jesus in temple o Images of crucifixion*** (first time seen) o Cave o Ascending to Heaven  Direct connection between two sides  More organized than Early Christian  Medium-relief, stage setting for figure, long limbs like Byzantine  Expression of bodies  God clothed like warrior- naturalism/Roman style _____________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Reliquary of Sainte Foy (Saint Faith), Romanesque Period, late 10 -early 11 th c., gold, silver gilt, jewels over wood.  Believed to have some type of power  Created to house skull of St. Faith  Someone stole it and took it to another church- Holy Theft  Elaborate; head sculpted around a Roman helmet, wearing martyr crown  Cameo= precious stones that have been engraved and added to the reliquary over time  Cross with Jesus on her back, connection of their suffering (martyrs) 6. Saint-Sernin, Romanesque Period, Toulouse, France, 1070-1120.  Used to educate people on pilgrimages, money making opportunity st  1 bishop of Toulouse wanted it built/dedicated to him  Quiet façade, elaborate inside  Less chance of burning down because made of stone and not wood  Super vertical, eyes drawn up to Heaven; distribution of weight  Can walk all the way around without having to turn around or walk through middle _____________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Last Judgement, GISLEBERTUS, Romanesque Period, 1125-1135, stone.  Intense representation of Christ coming back; very expressive  Above entrance of Saint-Sernin church  Jesus- hierarchy of scale, body halo; looks all-powerful instead of all- merciful o Surrounded by angels and demons casting judgment  Poor souls are in the lintel  Our left/Jesus’ right- people who are saved and being helped into Heaven  Our right/Jesus’ left- people who are damned, demons o Angel Michael weighing souls and pushing down on them  Most action coming from everything except Jesus  Message of terror: be good or else  Pilgrimage people walking through are putting salvation in their own hands o People with pilgrimage satchels on saved side  Byzantine bodies- long Terms:  Interlace- intricate doodles within a piece or art  Scriptoria- where manuscripts are made  “Christs Autem Generatio”- the birth of Jesus  St. Sernin o Cruciform layout- cross o Crossing- everything measured off of this o Choir o Apse- where the altar is o Ambulatory- walking, cruise around apse o Radiating chapels o Tribune- open balcony, let’s more people in; supports tall ceiling o Groin vault- aisle arches, transfer force to 4 corners o Buttress- support tribune that supports the ceiling o Barrel vault- Roman arches, round o Compound pier- lines the nave, engaged columns o Transverse arch- arch of ceiling  Portal (Autun)- front entry o Tympanum- rounded o Voussoirs- archivolts made of this o Lintel- above door o Trumeau- central post between doors o Jambs- either side of doors GOTHIC ART Begins in Paris and radiates out People shift toward cities Goths= barbarians invading Europe during this time 1. Ambulatory and radiating chapels, Abbey Church, Saint-Denis, France, Gothic Period, 1140-1144.  Saint-Denis is displayed as man holding his decapitated head; Romans cut it off  King of France, buried in this church  Abbot Suger- creates radiating chapels (pointed) o Gets rid of extra walls o Distributes weight better o Let’s in more light and color; bigger open spaces _____________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Chartres Cathedral (aka Cathedral of Notre-Dame), France, Gothic Period, 1194-1200.  Dedicated to Virgin Mary  Held relics, a piece of Mary’s linen  Influenced by Suger  Pointed arches and groin vault o More flexible, can cover different sizes of space with same heights o Looks higher  Removes tribune and turns it into triforium and adds another level called clerestory  Flying buttress on outside hold up building  Compound pier, bottom to top  Allows added height and removed walls  Allows added glass o Light and color to bring closer to God/transform church into a paradise _____________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Rose Window and Lancets, north transept, Chartres Cathedral, France, Gothic Period, c. 1220, stained glass.  Lux nova  Process: sketch outline, glassblowers, cut into forms, painters add extra detail with enamel, heated, put together with iron bands, thick tracery  Over northern porch  Royal and priestly marriages of Jesus  A gift from Louis VIIII, his mother was Regent before him  Fleur-de-lys= clear association to kings of France and Catholic church _____________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Jamb Figures, (from Chartres Cathedral), Gothic Period, 1145-1230, stone.  Kings and queens of Old Testament  13 century clothing; ancient people in their present day clothing  Long bodies (Byzantine)  Attached to columns (high-relief)  Naturalism of faces- individualized o Drapery- sense of fabric and bodies underneath o Individual styles of sculptures _____________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Saint-Chapelle, Paris, France, High Gothic, 1243-1248.  Even taller  “radiant” gothic  Smack, middle of Paris  Louis VIIII made to house holy relics from Christ’s Passion (crown of thorns)  Later is Sainted because he is so pious- delivered relics in peasant clothes and bare feet  Two stories o Two chapels o Upper: 49ft tall, 50 wide, largest stained glass, tight buttress= no shadows  Stained glass- Old and New Testament, Passion, etc. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Virgin of Jeanne d’Evreux, Gothic Period, 1339, silver and gilt enamel.  Reliquary, royal patronage  Rich material (gold), fleur-de-lys  Holds Mary’s hair  Close relationship between mother and Son  Exaggerated pose= Gothic Sway Terms:  Abbot Suger- creates Gothic style in France  Chartres Cathedral o Cruciform layout o Crossing- ceremonial center; stand for measurements for rest of building o Choir- bigger o Apse- wider o Sanctuary o Ambulatory o Chapels o Ribbed groin vault- pointed arches o Flying buttress- extra support on outside o West façade o Crusader  Stained glass o Lux nova- new light o Glaziers o Cames- iron bands holding glass pieces together o Lancet- windows under portal  Fleur-de-lys—symbol of royal family LATE GOTHIC AND EARLY RENAISSANCE IN ITALY Virgin and Child Madonna Enthroned Form/medium/co  Encaustic on wood  Tempera on wood lor  Blue  Real gold  Smaller- more personal,  Bigger- larger audience portable  Altar piece  Icon  Reverse accents of Virgin and Child Composition  Slight 3D- shadows,  More 3D drapery, hand emerging  Registers from Heaven  Inspired by Byzantine-  Darker body type, noses  Symmetrical  Scene is in Heaven  Scene is in a church/on Earth Figures  Long bodies and noses  Hierarchy of scale  Pale  Details of drapery- better  Solemn sense of body, form, and volume  More engagement with Mary (eyes looking at us)  Men at the bottom are not idealized- beards, looked aged  Mary and angels are idealized Space  Little background  Throne= a piece of  Curve of wall behind angels architecture  3D space- apse pushed back into its space Cimabue Giotto Form/medium/co  Tempera on wood  Tempera on wood lor  Bright gold  Darker gold  Big altar piece  Big altar piece Composition  Stacking of angels  Foreshortening of saints and angels  Focus on Mary because of size and everyone is looking at her Figures  Tilted heads  Profiles of faces  Gold skin tones  Naturalistic  Using folds of clothes as  Natural skin tones decoration  Even greater sense of body- chest and knees  Mary is a little more hefty Space  Two perspectives- looking  Looking forward onto scene down and forward  The saints and angels are surrounding her more realistically Giotto  Observation of nature captured- did not focus on older pieces of art  Accurately represents people- looked at people instead of Byzantine pieces of art Renaissance= re-birth (of Greco-Roman style) th th Early Renaissance 14 -mth 15thentury High Renaissance 15 -16 century Leonardo Da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael 1. Madonna Enthroned, CIMABUE, Gothic Period, 1280-90, tempera on wood.  In chart --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------------- 2. Lamentation, GIOTTO, Gothic or Early Renaissance Period, 1305, fresco.  Chapel that this piece is in is part of pretty much the complete story of the Bible  Scene from crucifixion that was not in the Bible  Focus of Jesus- eyes looking at him, diagonal line of mountain leads to him  Tree at top of mountain= tree of knowledge/original sin (symbolism)  Space- crowd of people; shading to get volume, different hues and tones  We can relate to the people because some of them have their backs to us like we are in the scene watching  Expressionism of faces (anguish) and body language (arms up, hands clasping face)  Inspiration from Mystery Plays (theatrical arrangement of painting) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------- 3. Gates of paradise (Baptistery of San Giovanni, Florence), GHIBERTI, Early Renaissance Period, 1425-1452, gilded bronze.  Jacob and Esau  Linear perspective  Brothers- Esau older than Jacob and held birth rights of money/property o Mother prefers Jacob, tells him to disguise himself as Esau to trick blind father to give him his blessing (therefore, the right to money and property) o Story of trickery and deception  Roman arches, Corinthian columns  Toga-like clothes, contropasso  Natural proportions  Works of art proclaim city pride 4. Jacob and Esau (from the Gates of Paradise), GHIBERTI, Early Renaissance Period, 1425-1452, gilded bronze. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------- 5. The Trinity, MASACCIO, Early Renaissance Period, 1428, fresco.  Crucifixion  Eyes drawn up to center, triangle  Mary is pointing to him  Color- reds and blues  Space- linear perspective o Jesus’ feet=vanishing point o Looks like an extension on church (painted on wall, 3D on 2D surface) o Tomb at the bottom looks like it is coming out of the space/wall o Foreshortening and highly illusionistic manner  Triumphal arch- triumph over sin  “I was once where you are. What I am you will be.” o Means everyone dies but there is eternal life through Jesus 6. David, DONATELLO, Early Renaissance Period, ca. 1430-1450, bronze.  Old Testament story o Son of king of Israel, David stands up to Goliath o He knocks him out with rocks and a slingshot, then cuts off his head  Important to Florence: symbolizes the little guy standing up to the big guy  David represents the Medici family  Contrapposto pose, young boy, *one of the first full sized nudes since Greek (except for Adam and Eve)  He is naked because he is so sure he can defeat Goliath that he only needs God to protect him, not armor  Harkens back to nude antique sculptures  Demeanor: smug, hand on hip- cocky  Florentines are proud of art and culture, and their “republic” --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------- 7. Birth of Venus, BOTTICELLI, Early Renaissance Period, 1482, tempera on canvas.  Depicts Greek/Roman mythology, does NOT represent biblical scene  Story- Uranus castrated by Cronos and genitals were thrown in the ocean, out pops Venus who is blown to shore where a nymph awaits her arrival  Movement of clothes, hair, flowers in the wind  Flatness to scene, looks like a stage set; volumetric bodies- shadows and light  Venus= Aphrodite (similar proportions and pose like the Roman sculpture)  Artist gets away with nudity because it is a classical reference and it’s for the patron to show off his intelligence o Not intended to be dirty or sexual o Spiritual beauty  Associated with Mary- divine love  Visual poetry (figurative/lyrical rather than literal) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------- 8. Camera Picta (Ducal Palace, Mantua), MANTEGNA, Early Renaissance Period, 1465-1474, fresco.  Courtly art  Artist hired to decorate palace for Ludweiga  Trompe l’oeil  Bedroom/meeting room= casual setting  Painted to go along with the architecture  Not a specific event; average spectacle  King is painted on the walls, so even if he is not physically there he is has a presence  Painted to match other decorations in the room  Painted oculus surround by Roman emperors and other Greek/Roman characters  Captures nature as you would see it o People are peeking in through oculus; humor, cheeky; putti= baby angels o The room makes you feel in awe, shoes wealth and power, entertaining o Delight and joy were goals of courts in the Renaissance o Artist signed painting= important as an individual, has special gifts from God Terms:  Arena Chapel- home of Lamentation  Giorgio Vasari- built Arena Chapel with Giotto who painted it  Humanism- emphasis on education and on expanding knowledge, explorations of individual potential and a desire to excel, and commitment to civic responsibility and moral duty o Focus on what is around us, not just trying to get to Heaven o Combined classical philosophy and Christianity  Atmospheric perspective- looking at a landscape, cooler colors for far away, becomes fuzzy  Scientific Perspective (aka linear perspective)- depicts a 3D space on a 2D surface o Vanishing point and horizontal line o Orthogonal- lines that lead to vanishing point  Florence- republic (in name only), voice of the people, rich patrons gave artists freedom/diversity  Gilding- bronze with gold on top  Medici family- powerful banking family  Brancaccio Chapel  Chiaroscuro- light and dark, using bright lights to emphasize drama and highlight figures  Trompe l’oeil- to dissolve the wall HIGH RENAISSANCE Leonardo  Sculptor/painter, Renaissance man, science/nature/objects  Perfect proportions of human body and how it mimics harmony of universe  Does military designs for Milan; prototype for helicopter  Focuses on gestures and illusions Raphael  Idea that artists aren’t just copying nature but improving it  Beyond realm of earthly beauty Michelangelo  More of a sculptor  Felt like God making 3D things 1. Virgin of the Rocks, LEONARDO, High Renaissance Period, 1485, oil on wood.  Altar piece  Perspective= atmospheric  Figures make a triangle- references Trinity but is also very stable and tranquil  Gestures: the angel pulls us in by pointing at Mary and JtB; JtB is praying and Jesus is blessing him; Mary has arm around JtB and is reaching toward Jesus with her other hand o Unified action among them  Chief objects of Leo= painting man and the intentions of the soul  Lights and shadows  Looks at objects outside in natural world  Message about Mary: very nurturing and protective, wants to bring Jesus closer and possibly stop his fate, but not being able to reach him --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------- 2. Last Supper, LEONARDO, High Renaissance Period, 1495-98, oil and tempera on plaster.  Leo frustrated with the limitations of fresco; tried to invent new technique (fresco secco= dry fresco)  Degrades quickly, constantly being restored  Figures are about life size  Scene: the night Jesus is arrested; he is telling his apostles that one of them has betrayed him- they are blaming each other, some are shocked, “not me!”  Judas is darker, not reacting strongly, clutching bag of silver, him and Jesus are reaching for bread at the same time, knocking over salt= bad luck  Narrative and symbolic  Basis of Mass- sacrament (bread/wine=body/blood)  Extension of the room; liner perspective- vanishing point is Jesus --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------- 3. Mona Lisa, LEONARDO, High Renaissance Period, 1503-05, oil on wood.  Maybe a wife of a Florentine merchant o Leo never gives the husband the painting; he travels with it  Maybe not finished- notorious for not finishing his works  Maybe using it as an example of his work  Sfumato  Demeanor: smirk, turning to look at you, intimate glance  Triangular composition  Eyes follow you, torso adjusts position- due to sfumato and chiaroscuro and that her eyes are at the horizon o Optical illusion- living sense and attitude  Ideal high forehead, veil draws attention, thin eyebrow (Renaissance beauty) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------- 4. Madonna in the Meadow, RAPHAEL, High Renaissance Period, 1505-06, oil on wood.  Influence of Leo: triangle, interaction, same attitude from Mary, JtB in same position, but Jesus is reaching to play with him and Mary is trying to stop him  More saturated and vibrant  Atmospheric perspective  Less sfumato and chiaroscuro o Takes away mystery (Leo) and replaces with clarity 5. School of Athens (aka Philosophy), (from the Stanza della Segnatura, the Vatican), RAPHAEL, High Renaissance Period, 1509-11, fresco.  Humanism  Philosophy vs theology  Romanesque- barrel vaults, antique world  Apollo and Athena- art and wisdom  Liner perspective takes us to Plato and Aristotle (everything is organized around them and their ideas  Plato looks like Leo  Makes the patron look good (Julius)  Michelangelo in front- solitary nature of creativity  Raphael painted himself in- associates himself with classical philosophers --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------- 6. David, MICHELANGELO, High Renaissance Period, 1501-04, marble.  More manly and idealized  Depicts him before the battle with his rocks  Demeanor: concerned and concentrating; tense/engaged muscles  Florence celebrating kicking out the Medici family  Classical sculpture, but distrustful of perfect proportions the Greeks strove for o Bigger hands and eyes, not perfectly proportional, stretched out legs/torso  Michelangelo compares himself to David- both blessed by God 7. Creation of Adam (from the Sistine Chapel ceiling), MICHELANGEO, High Renaissance Period, 1508-12, fresco.  God in Heaven, Adam on Earth  God’s pose: o Reaching movement fill Adam with life/soul  Adam’s pose: o Gently reaching out, lifeless  Michelangelo is basing paintings off sculptures- heaving outlines  Woman: Eve or Mary because maybe baby Jesus?  Not a lot of perspective: not a 3D extension, it is in an ambiguous space  Painted architecture  Ignudo= naked men; acorns= Pope Julius; swords/shields= warrior pope Terms  Fresco secco vs Buon fresco- dry vs true  Lisa del Giaconda- Mona Lisa  Pope Julius II- gives Raphael commissions; has secular goals, all about patron of art; he gets the church in trouble by spending too much money  Plato- cave theory; mysteries about the world, platonic ideal, pointing up  Aristotle- the need to study natural world, pointing down  Heraclitus- Michelangelo, sulky looking guy  Euclid- on the right, geometry  Pythagoras- idea about harmony/unity of universe (left)  Diogenes- middle of Plato and Aristotle, has both views  Plaza della Signori  Sfmuato- smoky, hazy/shadowy/mysterious effect that softens the background; due to oil paint (can thin it down and build up colors) NORTHERN RENAISSANCE ART  Money from wool trade then switches to banking  Merchant class leads to capitalism o Similar to modern day art practices o Art collecting, free artists  Not a lot of classical sculptures or buildings in this area  ***intense naturalism, NO idealization 1. Ghent Altarpiece, JAN VAN EYCK, Renaissance Period, completed 1432, oil on wood.  Van Eyck- masters oil paint as first a miniature painter, then to a larger scale  Intense naturalism  Backdrop to a Mass  Polytych= many folds  CLOSED: o Bottom- two donors (became mayor after painting- political move) praying to patron saints of Ghent (2 sculptures in the middle- John Evangelist and John the Baptist), grisaille- monochrome version of painting (illusion to look like real sculptures) o Middle- enunciation (Gabe and Mary) in a domestic space somewhere in Ghent; clothes are hard/harsh/stiff o Top- female prophets foreshadow New Testament stories  OPEN: o Top- decorative earthly materials to demonstrate secular power; jewels sparkles and there is a difference among fabrics o Insane detail to many things only possible through oil paint  Choir of angels reflects what is happening in the church  Adam and Eve- look like real people; her belly is swollen= childbearing (now will be very painful), Adam looks sunburned and has wrinkles  “sculptures” of Cain and Abel o Bottom- people coming to worship triumph of lamb= sacrificed Jesus  Coming from four corners of the earth- confessors, prophets, apostles/martyrs o Mimics Catholic Mass o 4 virtues= temperance, prudence, fortitude, justice//hermits, pilgrims, prudents, knights 2. Arnolfini Portrait, JAN VAN EYCK, Renaissance Period, 1434, oil on wood.  Hard edge naturalism  Return to portraiture; importance of the individual o Desire of wealthy people to memorialize themselves  Donor is a wealthy banker and agent to the Medici family o With his second wife o Legal oath taking gesture o Wedding/engagement portrait  Above the mirror- “Jan van Eyck was here 1434” o A witness, document of wedding o 4 figures reflected in the mirror ( 2 facing the mirror and 2 facing away)  Everything is in the portrait for a specific purpose/meaning o Pregnant, wedding bed with curtains drawn back o Oranges from Spain- very expensive, symbolize fertility o Carving of St. Margaret- childbirth o Dog=Fido=loyalty o Single burning candle- presence of Jesus o Mirror= all seeing eye of God o No shoes=sacred ground  Gender roles o Not equal; not clasping hands o Woman- passive, looking down and away o Man- active, looking forward; closer to window=closer to outside world 3. Four Apostles, DURER, Renaissance Period, 1526, oil on panel.  Durer- painter, art celebrity, business man o First to sue someone for copying work o Lutheran o Not on commission, his art was his own ideas  John, Peter, Mark, Paul (left to right)  Arrangement important o John draws in the attention: super bright; Durer loves him o Peter- first pope; in the background; head is down and he is listening to John read the gospel; emphasizes that the pope does not speak the word of God, but only God can do that o Paul- best teacher of Christianity  Quotes on the bottom are in German, not Latin- promotes bible in common language o Access to Christianity; warns against false prophets (aka popes) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------- 4. Adam and Eve, DURER, Renaissance Period, 1504, engraving.  Engraving- carved and covered with ink that sinks into the grooves, and then paper is pressed into it (hatching and cross-hatching)  Made for people who want to own art {(art market)- inexpensive  Speculation not commission  Durer is aware of classicism- seen in the body types (muscular and proportional)  Eve hasn’t eaten the apple, but illness is surrounding them- 4 humors o Elk=melancholy, cat=aggressiveness, ox=phlegm/laziness, bunny=lustful, mouse=Satan, parrot=false wisdom  Prominent signature  Adam and Eve do not know they are naked yet but are still covered= German modesty --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------- 5. The French Ambassadors, HOLBEIN, Renaissance Period, 1533, oil and tempera on panel.  (in England)  Holbein is a portraitist for Henry VIII  Portrait and still life (worldliness and travel) o Globe shows Africa, sun dial, non-European rug o Broken string on lute= discord between France and England o Reference to Luther (10 Commandments)  Music is fleeting=life is fleeting o Blob=anamorphic  Skull- fleeting life  Reminder of death, momento-mori (?)  Pin on hat=skull  Surprise, you are going to die! Terms  Flanders (Flemish)  Triptych- 3 folds  St. Margaret- saint of childbirth  Martin Luther- 95 Theses; had problems with the church spending too much money  Protestant Reformation- did not like images in religious practices, turned away from idols/slight iconoclasm; due to area becoming really wealthy  Engraving- easy to reproduce many copies, but loses quality o Intaglio- ink goes into the negative spaces o Hatching and cross-hatching: to give shadows and depth  Anamorphic- stretched out image that when looking at a certain angle turns into something  King Henry VIII- makes separate religion in order to divorce his wife and marry someone else; discord with France MANNERISM AND THE COUNCIL OF TRENT Venice  Cosmopolitan  Money from trade 1. Venus of Urbino, TITAN, High Renaissance Period, 1583, oil on canvas.  Famous Venetian painter  Similar to other Venuses, but NOT mythological  More naturalistic th  Setting in a domestic place, 16 century home  People in the back= servants, holding her clothes  Erotic piece for a private chamber o In a bedroom; she is looking at you, draws attention to where her hand is placed o Curtain behind her pushes her into our space  Created for male gaze  Impacts history of female nude  Color: common in North/Venice o Softness, warm, rich, not sculptural, fleshy o Evokes sense and feeling 2. Last Judgement (from Sistine Chapel), MICHELANGELO, High Renaissance/Mannerist Style, 1536-41, fresco.  Reference to uneasiness in Italy  Paul III calls back Michelangelo to make  Not very legible, swirling masses of bodies  No painted architecture; the wall is “blown out” and you are seeing the end of the world  Bottom left: people are being ripped out of graves  Center: Jesus about to slap someone= not merciful o Muscular body o Mary is next to him cowering  Angels without wings are fighting over souls  Lower right: souls unloaded into Hell, reference to Dante’s Inferno (contemporary literature)  St. Bartholomew martyred holding his own skin is a reference to the Reformation; face on skin looks like Michelangelo o Michelangelo always thought he was going to hell because he made beautiful things like God did  Change of style to Mannerist 3. Entombment of Christ (from the Capponi Chapel), PONTORMO, High Renaissance Period/Mannerist Style, 1525-1528, oil on wood.  Placed over patron’s tomb  Composition: no linear perspective, no real sense of setting  No triangle form; instead, chaotic mass of people  Role of Mary: devastated, heightened emotions  Crazy expression of body positions, weird anatomy, Jesus in an S-curve  Color: pastel, not natural, sickly tones, washed out, pale, bizarre 4. Madonna with Long Neck, PARIGIANINO, High Renaissance Period/Mannerist Style, 1535, oil on wood.  Small man sculpture= St. Jerome  Not sure who other people are  Setting: stormy, random column (reference to old medieval poem about the Madonna having a long neck like an ivory column)  Baby Jesus: giant, creepy beauty  Gets the church in trouble during the Refomation  Commissioned by a noble 5. Venus, Cupid, Folly, and Time, BRONZINO, High Renaissance Period/Mannerist Style, 1546, oil on wood.  Not religious  Complexity, multiple meanings  Composition: movement, intertwined bodies, weird poses  Venus: stealing arrow from Cupid; disarming him while seducing him (seduction and trickery)  Time= old man grabbing curtain; clock and wings (?)  Oblivion= back of head missing, no brain or memory  Pleasure/Play= standing on thrones  Deceit= holding honeycombs, has talons, owns thornes  Jealousy= represented by syphilis  Love birds vs. masks= deceit  Allegory about diversity of love  Strange/bizarre 6. Feast in the House of Levi, VERONESE, High Renaissance, 1573, oil on canvas.  For monastery; commissioned to do last supper  Excess people, party-like  Artist called before Inquisition o Makes it a spectacle to astound people o Does not follow Reformation guidelines o Changes name to fit another story in Bible in order to follow guidelines Terms:  Mannerism o Artful and artificial- does not closely follow nature o Bizarre, sensual o Esoteric imagery, requires decoding o Complex poses- “busy” o Artist and patron are after intellectual cleverness and demonstration of painterly excellence o Focus is on astounding viewer  Council of Trent- (1545-1563), 18 years of content control, guidelines for art o Counter Reformation o Decree on Images (1563)  Religious imagery useful but do not mistake as idols  No more sexy paintings, no more naked Jesus  Paintings need to be accurate, from Bible  Pope Julius II- Warrior Pope, names himself after Julius Caesar  “Design versus color” o Design- lines, harsh, sculptural (Creation of Adam) o Color- soft, fleshy, warm; paint is an intrinsic act (Venus of Urbino) BAROQUE ART Irregularly shaped pearl Exaggerated, dramatic Takes Counter Reformation to heart  Council would review proposals first 1. Entombment of Christ, CARAVAGGIO, Baroque Period, 1603-4, oil on canvas.  Artist= poster child for Baroque  Subject matter: 6 people- 2 carrying dead Jesus, 2 Marys, John the Baptist, Nicodemus; scene unclear, taking Jesus of cross and to tomb  Composition: compact organization, focus on Jesus, asymmetrical, eyes flow from top right to bottom left (diagonal), audiences POV is slightly below  Formal elements: light coming from left (tenebrism), red behind Jesus=his blood, Jesus is pale  Figures: very naturalistic, no idealization  Powerful effects of movement, dramatic interpretations 2. Judith Slaying Holofernes, (ARTEMISIA) GENTILESCHI, Baroque Period, 1614- 20, oil on canvas.  Jewish woman killing a General- seduces him and cuts off his head  Bright light  Lines: looking down, sword, arms draw us in, Holofernes is looking at audience, blood splatters  Figures: expression and exertions  Color: blood against white sheets, red sheets like blood, certain colors stand out  Female painter o Female characters displayed as powerful o Psychoanalysis 3. Ecstasy of St. Teresa, BERNINI, 1645-52, Baroque Period, marble.  Counter Reformation Saint who finds a new order of barefoot nuns o Obsessed with poverty o Has visions of ecstasy- angel with fiery spear piercing her heart=burning love for God, spiritual pain  Sweetness of angel vs. moaning from Saint Teresa (pleasurable pain)  Looks like she is floating  Installation piece  Dramatic 4. The Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq (aka Night Watch), REMBRANDT, Baroque Period, 1642, oil on canvas.  Celebrating militia with parade  Tenebrism  Everyone’s name in the painting is on shield in background  Depicts different ways to hold/use a musket  Audience is walking up on scene/ encountering people  Little girl has her own light source o Symbolizes yellow= victory o Dead chicken=dead enemy  Dutch vs. Flemish 5. Self-Portrait, REMBRANDT, Baroque Period, 1660, oil on canvas.  Holding tools of his trade  Displaying message about himself: modesty, with pride; sense of a man who has lived through a lot  “painterly”= soft, fluid 6. Arrival of Marie de Medici at Marseilles, RUBENS, Baroque Period, 1622-25, oil on canvas.  For queen of France  Marriage by proxy  Nike and Neptune and sea nymphs- Greek/Roman mythology, not accurate  Paint giving effect of water without hard lines/outlines  Sea nymphs fat= Rubenesque o Fertility, ideal beauty 7. Las Meninas, VELAZQUEZ, Baroque Period, 1656, oil on canvas.  Use of shadow  3D space  Painted himself, princess of Spain, court dwarf, servants, brother, dog  Story: Phillip IV and wife in mirror like they are the audience, having interaction with the painting  Painter in relation to king and his importance 8. Louis XIV, RIGAUD, Baroque Period, 1701, oil on canvas.  Rules 1660-1715; uses art for political propaganda  Kimbo stance (?), coronation rose with fleur-de-lys  Column in back with statue of Justice, scepter with hand  Wig=bigger hair, more important  Shoes are a privilege to wear, legs shown=youth, dancer  Makes people remember place in hierarchy Terms:  Council of Trent  Counter Reformation- from Catholic church  Tenebrism- chiaroscuro X12, intense light and dark, “shadow”  Methodologies: o Feminism- powerful depiction of women o Psychoanalysis  History painting  Royal painting  Genre painting  Philip IV- from Spain  Infant  Order of Santiago ROCOCO Pebble-decorations put into caves 1. Salon de la Princesse, BOFFRAND, NATOIRE, and LEMOYNE, 18 -Century th France/Rococo Style, 1737-1740, (no medium).  Gathering place/living room  Oval shape; intimate entertaining place  Natural materials: shells, leaves, etc.  Balance with asymmetry  Painting tells the story of Cupid and Psyche o Classical/myth o Focus on love and romance  Unusual shape of painting- irregular 2. Pilgrimage to the Island of Cythera, WATTEAU, 18 -Century France/Rococo Style, oil on canvas.  Painted by artist to get into Art Academy; seen by the public  Lots of foliage  Playful painting (festive, light-hearted); “painterly”  Fete galante= about rich people hanging out, about love  Figures are coupled up, starting at the bust of Aphrodite: as it gets closer to the boat the women are more and more willing  Flirty 3. The Swing, FRAGONARD, Rococo Style, 1766, oil on canvas.  Playful, nature, mythological busts o Cupid in mischievous pose  Dude=patron=looking up skirt  Dude in back=Bishop  Girl is the Baron’s mistress  Inside joke about receiving gifts from the clergy  “Painterly”, pastel colors; fashionable clothes th 4. Saying Grace, CHARDIN, 18 -Century France, 1740, oil on canvas.  Enlightenment ideas  Middle class people, average  Message: good Christian behavior  JJR had ideas about how to raise children 5. The Frontispiece of the Encyclopédie, COCHIN and PREVOST, 1764, engraved in 1772.  Project by two men of letters  Compact all human knowledge; took 28 years to make 20 volumes  Demonstrates: Truth unveiled by Reason and Philosophy; Theology is kneeling to Truth; Memory, Ancient History, and Modern History leaning on Father Time; Imagination is crowning Truth  Art is on one side and Science on the other- both are important o Separate religion from morality  Clouds, curvy people, doll-like proportions- similar to Rococo but ideas are completely different th 6. An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump, WRIGHT OF DERBY, 18 -Century England, 1768, oil on canvas.  Candle-light picture, Enlightenment idea  Pneumatics: study/movement of air  Experiment: bird in a glass container, air gets sucked out through a vacuum, dude opens container right before the bird dies and it recovers  Dramatic expressions and poses  Skull in water- impending death of bird/everyone  Sensibility in young girls- we learn through our emotions 7. Marriage à-la-mode: 1. The Marriage Settlement, HOGARTH, 18 -Centuryth England, 1745, oil on canvas.  Satire/irony  One of six total paintings  Making fun of wealthy in England  A-la-mode= fashionable o Not a good reason to be married  Story of a tragic marriage o Contract is being signed o Groom’s dad=Baron, foot is bandaged due to gout, has run out of money to build building seen out the window o Girl’s dad is a merchant who wants to move up social ladder, and has a big dowry for daughter o Both sides have ulterior motives o Bride and groom not happy  Groom is narcissistic- looking in mirror/half a man; high fashion/vain; black spot on neck=syphilis o Two dogs chained together= satire about marriage o Art on the walls suggest doomed marriage  Medusa head  Jupiter not paying attention to an oath  Other tragic stories- Judith, Daivd, massacres o Husband ends up dying in a duel o Wife gets syphilis and also gets charmed by Silvertongue (who is whispering in her ear) Terms  The Art Academy- in France, regulated art  Fête galante- outdoor party for rich people  Genre painting- scene of everyday life (#4)  The Enlightenment- new way of thinking independently of religion o Science, data, reason; secular  Empiricism  Jean-Jaques Rousseau- French aristocracy; believed man was inherently good but corrupted by civilization  Denis Deiderot  Jean le Rond d’Alembert  Philosophies (men of letters)  John Locke- empirical knowledge, laws of nature, government for the people  Satire- (#7) NEO-CLASSICISM Increasing truthiness about ancient clothing, living, etc. 1. Cupid Seller, VIEN, Neoclassical Style, 1763, oil on canvas. th  Not set in 18 century home; it is a classical setting (togas, columns)  Copying a fresco found in Pompeii o Prints of art found in Pompeii made and given to important people; Vien was able to see a print and copy it  Compared to original: o Fancy still life on table- more contemporary France decoration o Fuses contemporary and ancient o Cage vs basket of Cupids- basket lightens up the mood  Like Rococo, still about love and playfulness 2. Cornelia, Mother of the Gracchi, KAUFFMANN, Neoclassical Style, 1785, oil on canvas.  Woman artist- Swiss born, lived in Rome then England; one founding member of Royal Academy of Painting  Clothes and architecture like ancient  Cornelia is plain- says her children are her jewels o Life is not about material things o Daughter is paying with friend’s jewels, Cornelia is pulling her away  Moralizing content prominent in neoclassical art 3. Oath of Horatii, DAVID, Neoclassical Style, 1784, oil on canvas.  Shown at a public exhibition in France o Encourages artists to make big paintings  Based off a play about history o 2 towns are at war- the Horatii and Curatii o Three guys from each side are sent to battle to the death the determine the winning side o Painted are the three soldiers from Horatii pledging and oath o Their families are there:  Woman in the middle (Camila) is betrothed to a soldier on the other side  Another woman is married to a Horatii soldier  One of the Horatii soldiers ends up killing one of the women for treason  Moral of the story: don’t be a traitor, you have a civic duty; country above private life  Starts the ball rolling for the French Revolution without knowing it  Composition: figures are very linear in foreground (like watching a play), box-like/stage-like setting; chiaroscuro to emphasize shadows  Licked, smooth surface  Enlightenment ideals: importance of individual 4. Portrait of Marie-Antoinette and her Children, VIGEE-LEBRUN, 18 -Century France, 1787.  The people of France do not like the queen: she is accused of spending too much money, being unfaithful, and other rumors  Female artist; queen’s personal artist; gets into French Academy  1787, cusp of Revolution; people are tense  Painting is a maternal message to fight rumors: o Empty crib= death of her baby o She is dressed very simple, no jewelry o Her job is to have babies, especially a son  Stable composition: pyramid-like  Similar to Cornelia- no jewelry, good mother, kids are her jewels  Public work, but does not sway people 5. Death of Marat, DAVID, Neoclassical Style, 1793, oil on canvas.  Dead guy=lawyer; has a skin disease so has to stay in a tub, is killed in the tub by a woman named Charlotte who was a Moderate  Marat was involved in the Revolution, he answered people’s letters who needed legal help  Charlotte wrote him a false letter to get his attention, he invited her to meet him, and she killed him  Marat became a martyr of the Revolution o Peaceful smile, innocence, willing to die for beliefs o Plain background, all attention on him, the letter, and the murder weapon  DAVID was really into the Revolution and painted this to honor Marat’s memory  Morals are no longer a thing represented by the past in paintings, but instead in the present (not ancient setting)  Painting represents what is happening in their present/immediately 6. Napoleon Visiting the Pest House at Jaffa, GROS, Napoleonic Style, 1804, oil on canvas  Political propaganda through art  Refers to event in 1790s o Napoleon leading his army to conquer Egypt to disrupt British trade routes and exploration  Scene: French army took Jaffa, but then the army gets the bubonic plague, medical treatment in a mosque o Napoleon is touching a sick guy with his bare hands= he is strong/not afraid of disease  Cites Michelangelo  Gros is David’s student; differences: o More detailed, very busy o Orientalism 7. Pauline Borghese as Venus, CANOVA, Napoleonic Style, 1808, marble.  Pauline is Napoleon’s sister  Represented as Venus; originally intended to be represented as Dianna (goddess of the hunt)  Pauline is a rebel, and kind of risqué  Got away with being portrayed as Venus because she claimed her lineage traced back to origins of Rome  Statue on a rotating platform surrounded by candle-light  Influenced by Roman tombs  Her husband and brother hated it o He husband was put in charge of some country by Napoleon Terms  Pompeii- rediscovered in 1738; dug up, people began to understand ancient living  History painting- moral lessons for audience from history  Orientalism- interest in exotic places


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