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verified elite notetaker
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verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
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verified elite notetaker
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Daniella Gonzalez on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 250 at University of Miami taught by Elyse Hurtado in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 03/29/16
Terms: Primary memory: the initial repository information is available to constant inspection and retention. Secondary memory: information cannot be retrieved without initiating a long term cognitive process Each one can be differentiated by level of consciousness needed to access them James was the 1 to differentiate between short term (primary) and long term (secondary) memory Chunking: Also found chunking items together can improve your memory. Sensory memory: A buffer; information that comes in through your senses are held in there for a very short time (fraction of a second) before it moves on to short term memory When you pay attention to it, it moves into short term memory Transfer short term memory into long term memory using encoding When we need to retrieve the information later, we need to go through a retrieval process Information can be lost from any 3 of the memory storers If you do not attend to your sensory memory, it won’t get transferred to short term memory Information in your sensory storer lasts longer than any other storers (can answer a question you didn’t even know you heard) You have information in your long-term memory that you may never recover Modality specific: Echoic: auditory sensory storer Information stays for 3 seconds (longest) Can answer a question you weren’t paying attention to Iconic: visual sensory storer refreshes constantly with microsaccades Lasts for a fraction of a second Using a sparkler at night to draw out letters Flip book Haptic memory: touch Lasts for up to 2 seconds Can still feel warmth/cold after you move your hand away Decay versus interference theory: Waugh and Norman (1965) – Subjects given lists of digits to remember – Probe-digit method – Digits presented fast or slow Wanted to look at the difference between decay (issue of time) and interference (retroactive) Given a list of digits Given a probe (one of the numbers) and have to say what number came after it If its decay theory, better recall if it is very fast b/c it is just a matter of time. If its interference theory, numbers at the beginning of the list would have more interference, number at the end would have a better recall. Digits at the end of the list would be remembered better than digits at the beginning of the list Interference theory 1965: concluded support for interference theory Current: see an interaction between decay and interference At the beginning of the list, fast words are remembered better At the end of the list, slow words are remembered better *Interference has more of an effect Conclusion: Support for interference theory. Dismissed importance of decay. Small effect of decay & large effect on interference. Weak evidence for decay. Primacy and recency effects: Ebbinghaus When asked to recall a list of items in any order people tend to begin recall with the end of the list, recalling those items best (the recency effect) Among earlier list items, the first few items are recalled more frequently than the middle items (the primacy effect). Serial position effect: tendency to remember words at beginning & last. Prime and recency effect: stronger effect when done auditorily. Effect of length list- Regardless of length of list, there is a strong recency effect due to it being in short-term memory. The beginning of the list are being rehearsed so it stays in long term memory. More retroactive interference as list gets longer. o Will not affect recency o Will affect primacy Retroactive interference: When new information interferes with the ability to remember old information Can’t remember 1 language because learning a new language Proactive interference: When old information interferes with the ability to learn new information Found that as they continued to test subjects through multiple trials, performance declined Baddaley’s working memory model: Working memory: storage area Stores information and manipulates information You use it when you are working through a problem or trying to understand a passage Has 4 components: o 1. Center is the Central Executive: which is in charge of controlling attention. o 2. Stemming off that is 2 subsystems; Visuo-spatial scratch pad and phonological loop o 3. Episodic Buffer Two tasks using the same working memory system cannot be performed simultaneously Two tasks using different working memory systems can be performed simultaneously Independent capacities- working memory: Baddeley & Hitch (1974) – Subjects given VSS decision task – Simultaneous digit span task (PL) – Findings – subjects made no more errors • Given stimuli such as shown above, and asked to answer simple true/false questions • At the same time, given a digit memorization task • Found that it took a little longer for them to complete the task, but they did not make any more errors • Using 2 systems at once • Verbal and visual tasks can be performed simultaneously Brooks (1968) – Navigate around a mental image – Is this corner at the extreme top or extreme bottom? • Point – VSS • Speak – PL – Findings - subjects took considerably longer when pointing Asked them to either point to a yes or a no OR verbally speak yes or no – Found that it took significantly longer to point because already using visual spatial system to do the task Baddeley et al. (2002) – Subjects given VSS memory task – Simultaneous task • Spatial - track a ladybug • Verbal – repeat a sequence of numbers – Findings - ladybug task interfered, digit span did not • Asked them to memorize a mini checker board • Also had to track a ladybug on a screen OR repeating a sequence f number • Found they could not track the ladybug because using the visual spatial system for two different tasks, but could easily say the digits Phonological loop: For verbal and auditory information. • Two components – Phonological store – Articulatory loop Phonological store: is the storage aspect. Info will be forgotten unless it is actively rehearsed “Inner ear” Articulatory loop: Allows you to rehearse and therefore refresh the memory “Inner voice” Phonological similarity effect: harder to remember things in order when they don’t rhyme. -Because your phonological loop gets confused -Evidence of the phonological loop Articulatory suppression: rehearsing things in order to keep info fresh in your mind -ex: Repeating phone numbers in your head Visuospatial sketchpad: VSS - visual processing • For visual and spatial information: when you think of any mental image • Two components (Logie, 1995) – Visual cache – “what” • Temporary store • The storage area that is also responsible for “what” • Helps you recognize the object – Inner scribe – “where” • Refreshes visual cache • Needs to continually be refreshed so you can move around it and see it at different angles Episodic buffer: • Integrates information from the other sub-systems • Communicates with long term and short term memory • Includes conscious awareness and a sense of time • Last addition to Baddeley’s theory • There were a few patients that had total anterograde amnesia, but they could perform short term memory tasks that go beyond the capacity of the phonological loop • -Could recall short stories very well • -Couldn’t explain where that information was going • -Developed the episodic buffer to explain this • Episodic Buffer integrates information from PL and VSS • -Communicates with long-term memory and working memory to make information more complex • -Also keeps track of time • -A component of the working memory system that is episodic, keep track of chronological order Central executive: which is in charge of controlling attention. Controls and regulates attention and inhibition Allocates to the subsystems Integrates with long term memory PASAT task: Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task Need to use working memory to complete this task, because basically performing 3 tasks at once Correlates with IQ scores Short-term memory: Short term memory exists largely in the frontal lobe Hippocampus is also involved in the short-term memory. Duration of short term memory: 17-30 seconds Almost always, damage to hippocampus (in the medial temporal lobe part of the limbic system) results in short term memory loss Medical term for short term memory loss: anterograde amnesia Long-term memory: Long-term memory is stored all over the brain. If the information is interesting enough, it gets sent to hippocampus, which decides whether the information will get transferred to long time memory. Implicit and explicit memory: Explicit= declarative which are: a. Episodic b. Semantic Implicit (unconscious memory)= non-declarative which are: a. Procedural (skills) b. Emotional conditioning Ex: riding bike, tying your shoes (Don’t have to think about it, comes automatic) Priming effect- implicit memory in which exposure to one stimulus influences response to another. Episodic and semantic memory: LONG TERM MEMORY Episodic- biographical events, memory of your life, autobiographical past, emotional, personal, located in the right hemisphere, more difficult to retrieve. Semantic- words, ideas, definitions, facts, logical, either know answer or don’t, relatively permanent. Two types: retrospective & prospective HERA model: (hemispheric encoding retrieval asymmetry) o Encoding episodic memory: left prefrontal cortex o Retrieval episodic memory: right prefrontal cortex Retrospective and prospective memory: Retrospective back (personal past) Prospective ability to remember to something in the future. Retrograde and anterograde amnesia: Amnesia: damage to the brain Retrograde amnesia- o Preserved memories o Lost memories o People recover from o Couldn’t not be in school Anterograde amnesia- o This amnesia is not usually by itself it’s sometimes followed with retrograde amnesia. o Could be in school o Person just doesn’t remember personal experiences. (What you had for breakfast etc.) o New information Amygdala: Responsible for memory, decision-making, emotional reactions. When damaged, emotional content of memory is lost. Primary role of fear and anger (negative emotions) At the same time, information is going to the amygdala so we can respond to highly emotional information Helps prepare us to react to something, make judgments Memories are stored and retrieved with emotional content -Emotions draw our attention to things à make us alert à our memory improves due to increased alertness Amygdala = “almond” Also communicates with the hypothalamus, which is responsible for breathing, heart rate, etc. When there is damage to amygdala -The emotional context to memories is lost; can remember actual event but not emotion linked to it The ability to judge facial expressions is lost Flashbulb memories: September 11, 2001 Remarkably vivid memory, high emotional content or personal effect. “Etched permanently in their mind” Patient HM (Henry Moliason)- Mirror tracing task: had his hippocampus surgically removed (due to severe seizures), and we learned that our explicit and implicit memories are stored differently. First patient that this was seen with, he was studied very greatly. Had severe epilepsy when 9 years old Removed medial temporal lobe including the hippcoampus Helped scientists discover that the hippocampus is critical for memory Pro-founded anterograde amnesia, some retrograde. Mirror task: motor skills in tact, but cannot remember. Did an experiment where they had him perform a mirror-tracing act, outline a star from vision through a mirror. Just like the control, HM got better at this task with practice, even though he had no memory of previous trials. Implies that implicit memory is different, does not depend on the hippocampus. Hippocampus: In the medial temporal lobe People with damage to the hippocampus cannot store things in long term memory When you need to retrieve information, the hippocampus is responsible for going out to the specific location and bringing it out into consciousness Hippocampus is responsible for both memory encoding and memory retrieval Hippocampus is also involved in the short-term memory. If the information is interesting enough, it gets sent to hippocampus, which decides whether the information will get transferred to long time memory. Episodic memory relies heavily on hippocampus. Retrieval memory is independent of hippocampus. Encoding specificity: when you encode info, there is context-specific information that is encoded along with the memory, and if you use that context during retrieval, you enhance the likelihood of remembering it. Being in the same context can help you remember. • Smith (1979) – Students given learning task in a distinctive room – Surprise memory test – Findings • Same room – recalled 22% • Different room – recalled 15% • Different room, think about the distinctive room – recall 21.5% • Marian & Fausey (2006) – English and Spanish bilinguals heard stories and answered questions • Half questions matched the story language • Half questions mismatched the story language • When questions asked in different language performed badly. • Memory was enhanced when question was in language of, matched language of story/context. Superior autobiographical memory: Jim McGaugh (2012) – Neuroanatomical differences in nine structures including the amygdala – Associated with obsessive-compulsive tendencies – These individuals do not use memory strategies – The main difference between these people and regular people is that they don’t forget (less about remembering) – Aren’t using strategies to remember; they just know – Bigger temporal lobe and cordite nucleus, as well as differences in the structure of the amygdala – These people tend to have obsessive compulsive behavior Feeling of knowing: Nelson et al. (1984) – Subjects first rated their feeling of knowing – Then asked to circle the answer – Answers were highly correlated with feeling-of-knowing Subjective experience of knowing something before actually knowing it; knowing that you know it People who have a good Feeling of Knowing are usually more correct EX: 1. Who painted the Mona Lisa? (Da Vinci, Galileo) 2. What is the largest desert on earth? (Gobi, Sahara) 3. What is the capital of New York? (New York City, Albany) Tip of the tongue: Tries to invoke the experience of tip of the tongue Give people definition of uncommon nouns Sources of misattribution: misattribute the origin of a memory, leads to lots of false memories. Incorrectly remembering source of a memory. External: discriminating between 2 external sources o Which of 2 friends told you something Internal: discriminating between 2 internal sources o Whether you thought something or said something Reality Monitoring: implies one thing happening and one thing not happening o What actually happened and what didn’t? Internal misattribution is an example of reality monitoring Sources of monitoring: trying to decipher what the origin of a memory is; if it actually happened or if it was just a thought EX: garage door open Eyewitness memory: • Under stress- Weapon focus: likely to remember the weapon used, but then you can’t remember other incidental things (hair color) • Also stressed during the interrogation process • Leading questions • Plausible misinformation • After long delays- Time allows you to create false memories • Repeated questioning • Positive feedback • Over-confidence- Confidence has no correlation with accuracy The cognitive interview: Technique that improves eyewitness interviews. Geiselman et al. 1. Bring the witnesses back to the scene of the crime à encoding specificity 1. If not possible, imagine being back in the scene 2. Have witnesses report using free recall 3. Have witnesses report the sequence of events in reverse chronological order 1. Used to enhance memory because eliminates tendency to unconsciously fill in gaps of the story that you don’t remember Results in 45% increase in correct memory Mnemonic devices: • First letter technique • Method of loci • Method of story • Peg word mnemonic • Rehearsal only keeps things fresh in short term memory; not good at solidifying • 1 letter technique: PEMDAS • Method of loci: associating what you’re trying to remember with a specific location • Method of story: links images in a narrative method • Peg word mnemonic: pre-memorized set of peg words EX: • Gun rhymes with one • Zoo rhymes with two • Tree rhymes with three Total time hypothesis: study skills and study habits are much more important than the amount of time you put in. Retrieval practice effect: testing yourself. Distributed practice effect: better off to spread out studying over multiple sessions rather than clumping it all together (no cramming) Mental imagery: Mental representation of stimuli when those stimuli are not physically present. Can be auditory, olfactory, touch, visual. Top-down because all being created in your mind Schnurr & Atkinson compared role learning & mental imagery. Mental imagery group had better recall Top down and button up processing: Unitization: Compared role learning, separation imagery, & interactive learning Interacting group free recalled twice as many word pairs. Analog code: just like visual representation; actual perception that takes place; resembles the physical object Way that the thermometer represents temperature, and way that clock represents time; the clock is not actually time, but it represents it. Ex: Visual Map Ex: Star of David- limitations Propositional code: the way that we represent mental images is more like language; it’s abstract, not visual; it doesn’t physically resemble the stimulus Ex: Written directions Picture superiority effect: Shepard (1967) Nickerson (1968) Dual code hypothesis Sensory semantic theory o Pictures are distinct o Pictures are easily associated with meaning Visual Memory Memory test for 600 photos Immediate recognition- 98% Recognition after 1 year- 63% Dual-code hypothesis: Paivio Used the idea that the formation of mental images aids in learning. There are two ways a person could expand on learned material: verbal associations and visual imagery. Dual-coding theory postulates that both visual and verbal information is used to represent information Sensory semantic theory: – Pictures are distinct – Pictures are easily associated with meaning Mirror neurons: – Simulate other people’s actions, intentions and emotions – Neurological basis for empathy and social learning – Emulate other’s actions, thoughts, desires, and emotions – “Relating” to the other person – Proof that we are wired to identify with other people, not just a logical process Theory & Research: Ebbinghaus (1885) early memory research: Used himself as the subject and tested his memory Memorized nonsense syllables (to eradicate associations with words) and then would try to relearn it after some period of time Method of savings: memorize a list to perfect retention and then memorize it again the subsequent day much more easily Found the learning curve: learn the most at the very beginning and then it steadies out Forgetting curve: forget most of the stuff quickly early on, and then forget little by little after that George Miller’s magical number research: Our short term memory has a limited capacity We are limited in what we can do, how much info we can hold Digit (memory) span: how much info you can store in your short term memory at any given time Research shows you can store 7 items plus or minus 2 in your short term memory; depends on person, state Most people could memorize 7 items in one trial or less Also found chunking items together can improve your memory à can now memorize 7 “chunks” Worked to make the phone number 7 digits long (didn’t have an area code back then) Put dashes in between numbers to make them more memorable Atkinson & Shriffin’s standard model of memory (1968): The most famous memory model Proposed 3 different memory stores: sensory, short term, long term Sensory memory: a buffer; information that comes in through your senses are held in there for a very short time (fraction of a second) before it moves on to short term memory When you pay attention to it, it moves into short term memory Transfer short term memory into long term memory using encoding When we need to retrieve the information later, we need to go through a retrieval process Information can be lost from any 3 of the memory storers If you do not attend to your sensory memory, it won’t get transferred to short term memory Information in your sensory storer lasts longer than any other storers (can answer a question you didn’t even know you heard) You have information in your long-term memory that you may never recover Brown/Peterson (1958, 1959) backwards counting and duration of short term memory: o Remember a trigram o Count backwards by three o Recall interval Believed information in our short term memory decays Had subjects remember a trigram (3 letters) and then had them count backwards by 3 from a certain high number Actually a pretty difficult task Cutting out possibility of rehearsal to remember trigram Varied the time that the subjects were counting backwards by Found that duration of short term memory is about 18 second, because after counting back for this length of time, subjects were unable to remember the trigram Problem: The task they had them complete also takes cognitive mental processes, so is counting backwards interfering with the short-term memory rather than time alone? Findings: o STM decays over time o Duration of STM is 18 seconds The task itself causes interference. Wickens (1972) release from proactive interference: • Multiple trials in P1 • Release from P1-change category & performance improves. • The more dissimilar it is, performance improves. Had subjects learn lists of fruits over multiple trials and then given recall tests Found that with each trial, performance declines On the 4 trial, changed the category that the subject had to remember Found that the more dissimilar the category is, performance th inclines more drastically during the 4 trial “Large release from proactive interference” Sternberg-short term memory scanning, parallel, serial- terminating and serial exhaustive search: With long-term memory, when you find the answer, you stop looking With short-term memory, we actually do an exhaustive search; we look through everything in our short term memory, and we don’t stop looking when we find the answer Presented subjects with a series of items (varied number of items) Said a word and asked whether or not that word was in the list A: parallel search: everything in your short-term memory at the exact same time; response time is not dependent on position and answer. Search everything in short-term. B: serial self-terminating search: with more items, the results depend on position and answer. Search until you find the answer. C: serial exhaustive search: with more items, still takes the same time regardless of the answer. Search all items in memory, search does not terminate whether you find probe or not. Found evidence for serial exhaustive search Seems inefficient that we search everything even after we find the answer Short term memory is part of your consciousness, and you can’t really terminate that Sternberg’s explanations: o Saw evidence for serial exhaustive search o There are certain steps that occur, and they happen sequentially. o Could also be that searching through everything at once, but process is slower with more items in the memory set Sternberg’s Process Model: o Mental process occur sequentially & operate independently. o Encode probe scan & comparison with memory set items binary (yes/no decision) execute motor response Talarico & Ruben (2003)- 911 versus everyday memory research findings: – Tested and retested after various delays about 9-11 and recent events – Similar pattern for flashbulb and ordinary memory – Ratings of confidence declined for everyday event but not for flashbulb memory Looked at both how much people remember that is true and how much is not true For every day memories and for 9/11, memory decreases the same Implies that flashbulb memories are just as susceptible to memory loss The difference is that when it means a lot, you tend to talk about it a lot and think about it more, also tend to elaborate Craik & Tulving (1975)- depth of processing- structural, phonemic, sentence: – Three different levels of processing, followed by recall test – Three times more likely to recall words used in a sentence If something is personally relevant, or if we process it in a meaningful way, it will be easier to remember Asked subjects to process words in 3 different ways: -Structural (processing the word for its look) -Phonemic (processing the word for its sound) -Sentence (processing the word for its meaning) Found that the more deep you process it (sentence), the better you’ll remember it Bower (1970)- separation & interacting imagery: – Subjects induced to feel happy or sad – Given a learning task – Before recall, subjects were primed to feel happy or sad – If you learned when you were sad, you’re more likely to recall when you are sad. – If you learned when you were happy, you’re more likely to recall when you are happy. Goodwin et al (1969)- sober & intoxicated encoding & recall (SA, AA, AS, SS) State Dependent Learning Medical students memorized sentences sober or intoxicated Memory test either sober or intoxicated If you learn drunk, you should take the test drunk Similar results for caffeine and Adderall Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) procedure-critical lure: • Deese (1959) – 84% falsely recalled the critical lure ‘sleep’ – False recall rate varies - average 44% • Say 15 words having to do with sleep but not including sleep, and then have subjects recall as many words as possible. • Distinguished between actually remember & just knowing. • Critical lure in this case was sleep • 72% actually just knew • An example of a source monitoring error; was the word said or did I just think it? à distorted memory Loftus (1978) memory distortion work-post event misinformation: Misleading questions – Questioned eye-witnesses – The language of the question influenced speed estimates and likelihood of reporting broken glass Subjects observed a film of automobile crashes Asked questions, and the way that the question was worded affected the way the subjects remembered the event Found that the estimate of the speed went up as the intensity of the words went up Asked if there was broken glass at the crime scene Subjects with more intense verbs were more likely to report broken glass even though there wasn’t any Relevant in the courtroom Findings o Consistent post event misinformation reinforced memory o Inconsistent information distorted memory Loftus & Pickwrell Implanted memory: Had college students think they were participating in a study where their family gave events that happened in their childhood Gave the subject 3 real events and 1 false event, but said all were true, and asked them to write about each event 1 out of 4 subjects created false details about the fake event (being lost in a shopping mall) Ceci (1994)- mousetrap, repeated questioning: Mousetrap Study – Asked children same questions repeatedly for 11 weeks – All of the children falsely remembered – Repeatedly asked children about getting their finger caught in a mouse trap – Every child made at least 1 false assent – Calculated how many of the assents made were false (graph) Zaragoza (2001) forced to lie & positive reinforcement: – Interviewed about a Disney movie • Forced-confabulation group • Control group – Experimenter gave positive or neutral feedback – Looked at when subjects were forced to lie (consciously lying) – Looked at positive feedback Picked a person from a photo that committed a crime, and then picked someone in an actual in person line up Experimenter would say “oh yeah he committed another crime” or nothing at all People watched an 8 minute segment and then given an interview Forced confabulation group were told to answer every question even if it didn’t happen, control group told to only report what they remember Experimenter gave positive or neutral feedback 1 month later: asked more questions Even though they knew they were told to lie, the act of lying misconstrued the memory Lying creates false memories even if they know they’re being told to lie Positive feedback reinforces confidence in false memories Roediger & Karpicke (2006)- testing effect research: Slight studying advantages at 5 minutes. Testing advantages at 2 days & 1 week. Learning is enhanced by taking tests. Strategies for studying: If its material you understand, studying in groups will enhance what you know, if you do not know the material, better to study alone. Total time hypothesis (1) o Time you put into it is not indicative, study habits and skills are more important= (not effective) Retrieval practice effect (2) o Testing yourself = (effective) Distributed practice effect (3) o Distributive study time over multiple session/days = (effective) Hegarty (1992)- pulley system visualization: 1. The upper pulley is attached to the ceiling 2. The upper pulley turns counterclockwise when the rope is pulled 3. The middle pulley turns counterclockwise when the rope is pulled Spatial questions take longer than visual questions Increase in error rate with increasing mental animation Subjects mentally animate only to the degree necessary to answer the question Kosslyn (1975)- image manipulation- rabbit, fly, elephant: – Imagine a rabbit next to an elephant or a rabbit next to a fly – Faster responses with the rabbit next to a fly Asked questions about the rabbit and measured response time Showed that the way we access our mental images is the way we look at images Takes longer to look at the rabbit next to the elephant because we have to mentally zoom in Support for the analog code Cooper & Shepard (1973)- mental rotation: – Subjects used the shortest direction to upright R – Larger degrees of rotation take longer Asked subject If a rotated R was facing the right way or if it was inverted Found that subjects rotated the R the quickest way, left or right Reed & Johnsen (1975)-hidden components in geometric shapes: – Subjects performed slightly better than chance, correct 55% of the time Slezak (1991)-ambiguous figures: – Only one third were able to identify other animals So, images do not always function as mental images – Limitation of analog code – Asked to MENTALLY rotate these images in their mind to the right and identify the new animal
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