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Biology 121 Midterm Study Guide

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by: De'Ondre Goodley

Biology 121 Midterm Study Guide 121

Marketplace > University of Louisiana at Lafayette > 121 > Biology 121 Midterm Study Guide
De'Ondre Goodley
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
GPA 3.6

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About this Document

These notes cover the topics that are being covered in Dr. Griffard's midterm. (Dead or Alive; Bodies; Sex; Birth; Cleanliness; Public Health; Thinking and Feeling; Death; Disease; Eating; Breathing)
Biology of Organisms 1
Griffard, Phyllis B.
Study Guide
Biology 121 Phyllis Griffard Midterm Exam Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by De'Ondre Goodley on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 121 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Griffard, Phyllis B. in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views.

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Date Created: 03/29/16
Atoms -> Molecules -> Organelles -> Cells -> Tissues -> Organs/Organ Systems -> Organism -> Population -> Community -> Ecosystem -> Biosphere Dead or Alive Life – A characteristic distinguishing physical entities having biological processes. Order: All living things are made up of at least one cell. Henceforth, anything that contains one living cell can be considered alive. This applies to other organisms besides animals. Microbes, fungi, and plants can also be considered alive. DON’T BE MAMMALOCENTRIC OR VERTEBROCENTRIC! Sensitivity or Response to Stimuli: All living things respond to their environment (i.e. seasons, light, threat, nutrition, gravity, mating). Most responses, such as chemical reactions, changes in growth rate or pattern, and gene expression, are not fast or visible in organisms. Reproduction: All living things reproduce, whether sexually or asexually. Sexual reproduction occurs when the gametes become fertilized. Asexual reproduction occurs by cell division, cutting, or regeneration. Adaptation: All living things have adaptations to their environment that evolved over time. This includes molecules, cells, genes, behaviors, and instincts. Natural Selection – Individuals w/ characteristics that made them better suited to their environment produce more. Growth and Development: All living things grow and develop during their lifetimes. Regulation and Homeostasis: Regulation – Living things have ways to control processes. Homeostasis – Living things have ways to modify the control mention in regulation in response to the environment. Energy Processing: All living things transform energy in their cells. This energy ultimately comes from the sun. Plants trap energy from the sun in bonds of sugar. They, as well as other living things, burn that fuel to produce ATP, a form of cellular energy. Viruses are not considered to be alive because they lack many of the properties associated with living things. For example, the inability to reproduce without a host cell or not using cell division to replicate. Sex/Birth Reproductive organs (gonads) produce and transport gametes. (Female = Ovary + Male = Testes) Ovaries and testes form from same embryonic tissue. Testes descend from abdomen. Penis and clitoris form from same embryonic tissue. Urethra passes through penis, but is separate opening in females. Millions of sperm forms by cell division in seminiferous tubules of testes. (Spermatogenesis) Females ovulate every month to release an egg and are born with all the eggs they will ever have. Semen composition:  Human ejaculate is usually 2.5-5 ml, w/ 50-150 million sperm per ml.  Semen contains mucus, fructose, antibiotic (seminalplasmin), some prostaglandin, a coagulant, and an anticoagulant. Both asexual and sexual reproduction occur in eukaryotes.  Asexual reproduction occurs when an offspring’s created without egg and sperm. (Binary fission in bacteria, vegetative cuttings in plants, budding/fragmentation/regeneration)  Sexual reproduction produces offspring via gametes (sperm and egg) to form a zygote. Asexual reproduction can always reproduce, is quick and simple, but doesn’t introduce genetic diversity. Sexual reproduction requires to individuals and allow genetic diversity. Insects, spiders, and some vertebrates use spermatophores (mass containing male spermatozoa) to inseminate females internally by depositing it during sex, or the male will deposit it on the surface, and the female will later take it into her cloaca. Reproductive strategy is dependent on ecological conditions. A solution to this is hermaphroditism, which allows an individual to be male or female. (Some self-fertilize, while others are sequential hermaphrodites.) Some eggs can divide to make offspring without fertilization. This occurs during parthenogenesis (unfertilized egg). Human females have 2 X chromosomes. Human males have one X and one Y chromosome. Oogenesis – Development of mature oocytes (eggs). During the menstrual cycle, the uterus sheds layers, the pituitary gland secretes hormones, and the follicle builds to rebuild wall. Ovarian cycles lasts 28 days in humans. Eggs contain stored nutrients and are much larger than sperm. Meiosis begins in fetus and is not complete until fertilization. Women are most fertile around the time of ovulation (2 weeks after period begins). Fertilization usually occurs in the oviduct. Blastocyst is a ball of 32-150 cells that enters the uterus and implants. (After blastocyst formation, the embryo implants into the endometrium.) Changes in mother during pregnancy:  Ovulation and menstrual cycle ends.  Breast enlargement.  Nausea (prevents eating toxic foods dangerous to developing embryo). Contraceptives and how effective they are:  Vasectomy (vans deferens is cut off) <1.0%  Tubal ligation (oviducts are tied and cut off) <1.0%  Diaphragm (inserts into vagina and covers the cervix so sperm can’t get to womb) 5-20%  Condoms 2-15%  Oral contraceptive 1-2%  Intrauterine device (IUD) 1-2% Bodies Muscular System: Consists of layers of muscle that cover the bones of the skeleton, extend across joints, and can contract and relax to produce movement. Skeletal System: Strong yet flexible framework of bones and connective tissues. Provides support for the body and protection for many of its internal parts. Circulatory System: Consists of the heart and a network of vessels that carry blood. Supplies oxygen and nutrients to the body’s cells and remove waste products. Nervous System: Body’s main control system. Consists of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves that extend out the body. Immune System: Network of vessels that collects fluid from tissues and returns it to the blood. Contains cells that protect the body against infection. Respiratory System: Centered on the lungs. Also rid the body of waste product, carbon dioxide. Endocrine System: Body processes, such as growth and energy processing, are directed by hormones. These chemicals are released by the glands of the endocrine system. Digestive System: Takes in the food the body needs to fuel its activities. Breaks food down to nutrients, and absorbs the nutrients into the blood. Excretory System: The body’s cells produce waste products, many are eliminated by urine. The urinary system makes urine and expels it from the body. Reproductive System: Produces the sperm and egg needed to create another life. Vertebrate Animals have 4 Categories of Tissues Tissue – Group of similar cells coming together to serve specific functions. Epithelial: Lines surfaces in the body. Connective: Loose connective tissues acts as padding under skin and elsewhere. Bone and cartilage are made up of cells in a hard or stiff extracellular matrix. Blood is made up of cells in a liquid matrix. Nervous: Cells with projections that transmits electrical signals. Muscle: Made up of fibers that contract. A cell, such as bacteria and archaea, can be prokaryotic (no nucleus or membrane-bound organelles and unicellular). A cell, such as protists, fungi, animals, and plants, can also be eukaryotic (multicellular). Eukaryotic cells are larger and more complex because they were probably bacteria that took in other bacteria and let them stay. Evidence of this idea comes from the mitochondria and chloroplasts having prokaryotic DNA and ribosomes. They are also now endosymbionts and gave rise to all animals, plants, fungi, and protists. Regardless of where it is, all cells have a cell membrane (outer boundary), contain long strands of DNA, have cytoplasm (interior fluid), and have ribosomes (which makes proteins). FUN FACT! (A human cell is approximately 50 micrometers in diameter.) Blood is a fluid that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to cells, while transporting metabolic waste away. Blood types:  O – Can donate to anyone.  A - Can donate to A and AB.  B – Can donate to B and AB.  AB – Can donate to AB; universal recipient. FUN FACT! (Donating blood can help up to three people.) BREATHING Heat (Energy) -> Producers (Plants) -> Decomposers (Fungi, Bacteria, Worms) -> Heat Heat (Energy) -> Producers (Plants) -> Consumers (Animals) -> Decomposers (Fungi, Bacteria, Worms) -> Heat Respiration is trading big energy resources (fat, glucose) for smaller denominations cells can use (ATP). You can get 2 ATP per glucose in absence of oxygen, but 36 in presence of oxygen. Cellular respiration – Set of metabolic pathways that oxidizes fuels to generate ATP. The point of cellular respiration is to add a phosphate to ADP (Adenosine Diphosphate) to make ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate). Glycolysis splits glucose into 2 pyruvic acid. Pyruvate decarboxylation generates carbon dioxide. Citric Acid cycle generates carbon dioxide and releases high energy electrons from burning food molecules. NADH carries the electrons to the electron transport chain. Energy is released and used to make ATP. This requires oxygen and produces water. FUN FACT! (Burning 1 glucose molecule in the presence of oxygen releases enough energy to make ~30-36 ATP) If there isn’t enough oxygen, NADH needs to give its electrons away to regenerate enough NAD to keep glycolysis going. This happens because of a process called fermentation, which is a metabolic process that converts sugar to acids, gases, or alcohol. Some organisms ferment lactic acid, while other ferment alcohol. In lactic acid fermentation, pyruvate is reduced to lactic acid (which burns). No carbon dioxide is produced, and the step is reversible in humans. In alcohol fermentation, pyruvate is converted to ethanol in two steps, w/ the first releasing carbon dioxide. The respiratory system is adapted for getting oxygen to the blood and carbon dioxide from it. (Inhaling happens when the lungs inflate by contracting the diaphragm and rib muscles.) Hemoglobin carries oxygen and carbon dioxide. (Hemoglobins are in erythrocytes, which are carried by capalaries.) Sickle cell disease is due to a mutation in hemoglobin which causes protein to crystallize and deform red blood cells, causing pain and eventually anemia. The circulatory system is adapted for getting nutrients and oxygen to every cell, and taking away nitrogen waste and carbon dioxide. (Also circulates antibodies and hormones.) It consists of vessels and the heart. (Arteries carry blood away from heart; Veins carry blood toward heart; Capillaries are the only site of exchange) The heart pumps blood into two circuits: (systemic) to and from the body (pulmonary) to and from the lung. The heart beat 1-2 times per second for your entire life. This is controlled by the nervous system, depending on oxygen demand and acid buildup. CLEANLINESS Our bodies keep themselves pretty clean.  Oil glands make oil and waxes. (Oil waterproofs and lubricates; slight acidity reduces risk of infection)  Mucosa produces mucus. (Mucus contains antibodies, enzymes, acid, and antibacterial proteins)  Resident microflora outcompete potential pathogens.  Epithelial turnover/shedding. (Our outer coverings and inner linings are constant expose to the environment and are frequently replaced) Soap is made from a reaction of vegetable fat w/ alkaline substances (ashes or lye), which creates molecules that can bridge between water and fat to create micelles (lipid molecules in spherical form) that trap oil and wash it away. Germs on that surface also get washed away. Hand sanitizer relies on 60% alcohol in a gel to kill germs. Antibacterials like triclosan were added to interfere w/ bacterial metabolism. They need time to work and can lead to antibiotic resistance. Pathogen – Anything that can produce disease. Antibiotics are drugs purified from living things or synthesized in a lab to kill bacterial pathogens, not viruses nor fungi. Antibiotics interfere w/ metabolic processes like protein synthesis or cell wall formation that are very different from our own. Many fungi and bacteria make antibiotics naturally to outcompete other soil microbes for food. Antibiotics have saved numerous lives and improved food safety, but drug resistant bacteria can multiply while the bacteria that is not drug resistant will die off, leaving the mutations to thrive. Infections in youth train immune systems. The rise in autoimmune and allergy conditions has been attributed to modern societies living too cleanly. EATING Biosynthesis (anabolic processes) make new molecules. Not all food molecules are broken down for fuel. Many are used to build new macromolecules, using the digested monomers from food, to become part of new cells and tissues. The digestive system is adapted for maximizing extraction of fuel molecules.  Mouth, teeth, saliva, and chewing increases surface area of food particles.  Saliva and stomach add a few enzymes.  Pancreas adds the most enzymes.  Small intestine breaks down final enzyme and absorbs nutrients.  Large intestine reabsorbs water. Digestive enzymes break down large molecules into smaller units that cells can absorb. Bile helps enzymes break down more fat globules. After enzymes are added, the breakdown of large molecules continues as food moves down the GI tract. Deamination (removal of NH3) produces ammonia, which is converted to urea, the major component of urine (2%). Urea in the blood is filtered by kidneys. Urine contains urea, water, salt, toxins, other metabolites, and travels from the kidneys to the bladder. Whatever food that is not absorbed through the digestive tract is passed to the large intestine. Major components of food:  Proteins  Carbohydrates  Fats Urine – Urea, water, salt, and toxins. Feces – Water, undigested food, and bacteria.


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