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Mizzou Ornithology Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Dragon Note

Mizzou Ornithology Exam 2 Study Guide 2600

Marketplace > University of Missouri - Columbia > Biological Sciences > 2600 > Mizzou Ornithology Exam 2 Study Guide
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About this Document

These are old questions from Dr. Faaborg's test that he usually reuses
Dr. Faaborg
Study Guide
Ornithology, Faaborg, Bio Sci 2600
50 ?




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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dragon Note on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2600 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Dr. Faaborg in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Ornithology in Biological Sciences at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 03/29/16
OLD EXAM QUESTIONS FOR SECOND EXAM TERMS: Phylogenic species concept: the concept of a species as an irreducible group whose members are derived from a common ancestor and all who possess a combination of certain defining or derived traits Cladistics: distinguishes whether a trait is primitive or derived and uses that to compare groups Long-distance migrant: those that have a complete shift between breeding and wintering areas Short-range migrant: make short migrations Partial migrant: some of a population migrates while some remain for the harsh period Status signaling: male displaying status through plumage Colony: large congregation of individuals of one or more species of bird that nest or roostin proximity at a particular location Torpor: an state of physical or mental inactivity, a hibernation like state in birds Gular flutter: cooling behavior in which birds rapidly flap membranes in the throat to increase evaporation Site dominance: the bird holding a territory is usually dominant Brood patch: patch of featherless skin that is visible on the underside of birds during the nesting season Type b territory: having overlapping territories with birds of the same species Type a territory: all-purpose non overlapping territory Mixed species flock: flock consisting of birds from different species following the same cues and foraging the same food Philopatry: tendency of an organism to stay in or habitually return to a particular area 1. Briefly describe the resource patterns promoting territorial versus group foraging behavior. Resource patterns that are evenly dispersed tend to favor territorial behavior. Resource patterns that are patch or clumped tend to favor group foraging behavior. 2. In the Spotted Sandpiper, females arrive first to the breeding grounds and fight with other females to acquire and hold territories that they use to attract mates. What predictions might you make about sex-related differences in wintering range in this species and why? I would suspect that females also arrive first and fight with other females as there behavior is more similar to males of other species than females. 3. Describe two reasons why more species can live in flocks in the tropics than in the temperate zone. There amore clusters and more resources in the tropics which allows more flocks to exist. 4. List and briefly describe two mechanisms that birds use for navigation and/or orientation and describe a general experimental approach that has been used to study this mechanism. Birds use the sun and the stars to navigate. Some birds also navigate using the magnetic fields of the earth. They trined pigeons to find food in a certain direction using a sun and when they moved mirrors to show the sun in a different location the pigeon followed the sun. Place a magnet on the back of a pigeon and releace it on both a sunny day and a cloudy day and compare the results. 5. Two major but different ecological forces can work to favor flock foraging. List these and give the general conditions in each that favor the formation of flocks. Recourse availability and distribution: flock foraging is usually done when there is sufficient resources clumped together in a specific location Predation: flocks of birds are attacked less often than solitary birds. The birds also spend less time looking up for predators. 6. List and briefly describe three different physiological adjustments made by birds to adapt to cold conditions. Fat storage: fat storage allows the bird to stay warmer through added insulation Change foraging time: foraging closer to dark allows less of a fasting period throughout the night Torpor: a hibernation like state which allows birds to use less energy during non-foraging times 7. How might a short distance migrant (a Robin that breeds at MU but winters in Oklahoma) differ from a long-distance migrant (a Yellow Warbler that breeds here but winters in Panama) in the type and relative importance of the cues used to time when it migrates? Why? A short distance migrant can travel later and use less energy than a long distance migrant. Long distance migrants respond to earlier cues to migrate so they can obtain sufficient energy and time to migrate. 8. What might the occurrence of a brood patch on both males and females in a species tell you about incubation behavior? Does it suggest anything about the mating system employed by the species? It tells me that both the male and female are responsible for incubating the eggs. A brood patch on a male could indicate a mature male or even be used as an attractant to the female. 9. List and briefly describe three advantages of group foraging with regard to resource acquisition. Find food faster and more efficiently: more eyes increase the probability of finding food Decreased predation: flocks are less likely to be attacked than solitary birds Reduce variation of daily food intake: there are less hungry days 10. Discuss one advantage mixed species flocks have over single species flocks and one disadvantage of mixed species flocks. If the species have different food preferences food pressures are reduced. 11. Discuss briefly one morphological, one behavioral, and one physiological adaptation to extremely cold conditions in birds. Morphological: Darker feathers reduce heat loss, increased feathers Behavioral: Nest in cavities or burrow in the snow to keep out of wind, expose more of their body to direct sunlight Physiological: shivering to increase body temperature, torpor to decrease energy loss 12. Briefly describe an experiment or experiments that test at least two of the hypotheses about how nocturnal migrants navigate. Keeping the birds in the dark but provide constellations and on by one cover up the stars and see what direction the birds fly in. 13. You have just been given the study skins of ten species of birds collected in January from two different regions, one very cold in the winter and the other tropical. You do not know where each species comes from. Given that you only have the study skins, what measurements could you make or what things could you look for to figure out where each species came from and why would you take these measurements? You could look at the feathers and the beaks as insectivore frugivorous and seed eaters migrate to warmer area during the winter. 14. We know that modern avian systematists use various measures of the DNA molecule to do their studies about avian relationships. Compare the value of studies using DNA hybridization (as described in the book) with studies using some sort of DNA sequencing (where you measure the base pairs for a long strand of DNA in different species or individuals) for the two taxonomic levels listed: a) Determining which populations are the same species. B) Determining which species are in the same order. With DNA hybridization you only have to compare a few select strands to determine how closely the species are relationship in both cases DNA hybridization is much faster than sequencing the DNA. 15. Molecular biology has totally changed how one does systematics in ornithology, but it still is not perfect. Discuss the differences in approaches used between a researcher attempting to see which orders are most closely related versus someone trying to understand if two allopatric populations may or may not be separate species. Someone studying allopatric populations would most likely study the mating behavior, foraging behaviors and song of the two populations. Someone studying whether the two orders are related would use methods like claudistics or traditional systematics 16. Describe a factor that might limit the size of single species foraging flocks? In contrast, describe a factor that might limit the size of a mixed species flock of tropical birds feeding on insects in the rainforest understory. A limiting factor of single species foraging flocks is the amount of the food they are foraging. The limiting factor for mixed species flock would be if they all ate the same type of insect. 17. Compare the characteristics of feathers and feather distribution between a bird species living in the Arctic and one living in the desert. Feathers of species living in the artic would be heavier probably containing more after shafts than birds that live in the desert. There would also be no bare patch around the cloaca in bird in the artic to better conserve heat. 18. Where do most migratory birds that breed in the US and Canada but winter in the tropics actually spend the winter? Why here and not other parts of the New World tropics? Mexico, Latin America, and northern South America due to the insects that have also gathered there. 19. Describe briefly 3 different mechanisms used by birds to navigate during migration. Sunlight: some birds will follow the orientation of the sun, geomagnetism: some birds use the earth's magnetic field, constellations: some birds use the position of the stars to navigate. 20. Describe one major possible advantage and one major possible disadvantage to defending a territory that is much bigger than really needed during an average year. Advantage: bird will have more resources available Disadvantage: bird will expend more energy trying to defend and forage in a larger area


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