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GEOL 101. Exam 3 Review

by: Natalee Stanton

GEOL 101. Exam 3 Review 101-017

Marketplace > University of South Carolina > Geology > 101-017 > GEOL 101 Exam 3 Review
Natalee Stanton

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These notes cover what will be on the exam, along with all the answers to the sample exam questions.
Geology 101-017
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Geology 101
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Natalee Stanton on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 101-017 at University of South Carolina taught by in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see Geology 101-017 in Geology at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 03/29/16
GEOL 101 TEST 3 Review The amount of ground displacement is an earthquake is called a ___. a. Dip b. Epicenter c. Focus d. Slip   Which set of waves are most likely surface waves? a. Set a b. Set b c. Set c d. Set a, b, and c are all surface waves What is the maximum amount of slip on a fault during an earthquake? a. About 1 meter b. About 20 meters c. About 100 meters d. About 200 meters Earthquakes that originate at depths greater than 10KM are associated with __ plate  boundaries. a. Convergent b. Divergent  c. Transform  d. Convergent, divergent, and transform The Mercalli intensity scale measures ___. a. The amount of destruction caused by an earthquakes b. The amount of slip on a fault plan caused by an earthquake c. The amplitude of the surface waves d. All of the above The average time between large earthquake events along a fault is known as the __  interval. a. Seismic b. Hazard c. Fault slip d. Recurrence  P seismic waves travel faster than S seismic waves. a. True b. False The shape of the earth is a sphere. a. True  b. False What is the approximate distance from the surface to the center of the Earth? a. 700 km b. 2900 km c. 6400 km d. 24000 km Which layer in the Earth does NOT transmit S waves? a. Crust b. Inner core c. Mantle  d. Outer core What type of seismic wave is depicted by the ray path in the diagram? a. P wave b. S wave c. A surface wave d. All of the above Which of the following statements about the MOHO is false?  a. The Moho marks the top of the outer core b. The Moho separates  denser rocks below from less dense rocks above c. The Moho separates the crust form the mantle  d. The speed of seismic waves increases as they pass down through the Moho. Which of the following is not a greenhouse gas? a. Carbon dioxide b. Methane c. Sulfur dioxide d. Water vapor The earth albedo is the fraction of __.  a. The Earth’s surface that is covered by land b. The earth’s surface that is covered by oceans c. Solar energy absorbed by the Earth’s surface d. Solar energy reflected by the Earth’s surface Which of the following do we think had most significantly changed the carbon cycle over  the past 150 years? a. Burial of organic carbon b. Burning of fossil fuels c. Deposition of carbon – rich sediments d. Volcanism  How much of the land surface is covered by ice? a. Approximately 10% b. Approximately 50% c. Approximately 30% d. Approximately 80% Which of the following would cause sea level to rise  a. Melting of a very large iceberg b. Melting of the Ross ice shelf c. Melting of the Greenland ice cap d. All of the above  Which of the following is an extremely slow­moving sheet of ice that covers vast land  areas?  a. An arête  b. A continental glacier c. An ice shelf d. A valley glacier  The following can be cited as evidence that CO2 may not be the driving forces of climate: a. Temperature leads CO2 increase b. The troposphere isn’t warming as Fast as the earth’s surface c. Global temperatures fell during the post­war industrial boom d. All of the above In the diagram at the right, Point B is call the earthquake  a. Epicenter b. Focus  c. Strike  d. Dip  In the diagram at right, Point A, where slip initiated during the earthquake a. Epicenter  b. Focus c. Strike d. Dip  Tsunamis can be generated by__. a. Undersea earthquakes b. The eruption of an oceanic volcano c. Undersea landslides d. All of the above Earthquakes the originate at depths greater than 100KM are associated with ___ plate  boundaries a. Transform b. Convergent c. Divergent d. All three S waves do not travel through the outer core because the outer core is a dense fluid a. True b. False  Approximately how often does the earth magnetic field reverse itself?  a. Every 5000 years b. Every 50,000 years c. Every 500,000 years d. Every 50 years  The two most common chemical elements in the earth’s atmosphere are __ and __. A. Carbon dioxide and water B. Nitrogen and oxygen  C. Oxygen and carbon dioxide D.  Water and oxygen  During the peak of the last ice age, sea level was ___ than sea level today a. 10 meter lower b. 1000 meters c. 1 meter d. 100 meters  Earthquake terminology  I. Earthquakes   Focus – site of initial rupture, where the slip initiates during an earthquake  Epicenter­ point on surface above the focus   Foreshocks – small earthquakes that occur in the vicinity of, but before, a main  earthquake   Aftershocks – follow the main earthquake in sequences, and their foci are  distributed in and around the rupture  ­ The size of the aftershocks depends on the size of the initial large earthquake  Modified Mercalli scale ­ Intensity measures the amount of destruction caused by an earthquake II. Seismic  Seismology – study of the propagation of mechanical energy that is released by  earthquakes  ­ When energy is released, waves of motion move through the rocks  surrounding the focus   Seismic waves – vibrations form earthquakes that travel through the earth ­ Ground vibrations caused by rocks slipping along opposite sides of a  fault  ­ Instruments used to measure seismic waves are called seismographs  Seismic risk – describes the potential for earthquake damage over a long term  for a specific region  Seismic hazard – describes the intensity of seismic shaking and ground  disruption over a long time in a specific region  III. Two types of body waves  1. Body waves – travel through the earth a. P waves – primary/ compressional  ­ Travel as a series of contractions and expansion, pushing and  pulling particles in the direction of their path of travel  ­ Highest speeds b. S waves­ secondary/ shear  ­ Travel a little slower ­ Push material at right angles to their path of travel   Horizontal and vertical planes  Do not pass through liquids  2. Surface waves  ­ Travel along the earth’s surface  Retrograde elliptical motion  Transverse movement  a. Most devastating waves  Earth’s Interior  I. Behavior of waves and boundaries ­ Waves travel with spherical waves fronts  Reflection – when energy “reflects” back form the boundary between materials with different physical properties   Refraction – when energy “refracts” (is transmitted but changes directions) at a  boundary between materials with different physical properties  o Think of a laser going through a fish bowl filled with water   Passive source seismology ­ Study of the earth’s interior using earthquakes as  sources for seismic waves  II. Isostasy   Isostasy­ This is what causes an iceberg to float on water. o Mechanism by which the less dense continents float on the denser  mantle o Over long periods, the mantle has little strength and behaviors  Moho – is the seismically defined boundary between crust and mantle  o In order for continents to be higher they must be thicker  III. Earth’s interior heat   Condition (lithosphere) : transfer of heat through matter with no particle  displacement  o Energy moves through the substance   Convection (Mantle) – transfer of heat through matter though particle  displacement  o Move it from one place to another to cool off IV. Earth’s magmatism   Declination – horizontal angle between magnetic north and geographic north  Inclination – angle made with horizontal  o Not stable  ­ We have hand hundreds of magnetic reversals  The Climate System   Climate – describes the average surface conditions and their variation during daily,  yearly, and long­ term cycles of solar heating  Climate system ­ includes all parts of the earth system and all of the interactions in  space and time V. The 5 Main Components of Earth’s Climate System  1. Atmosphere  2. Hydrosphere  3. Cryosphere 4. Biosphere  5. Lithosphere – most carbon  VI. The Carbon system  ­ Humans add carbon to atmosphere  ­ Plants and air­sea gas exchange removes some of it  ­ There is a net annual increase VII. Milankovitch cycle  ­ Orbital variations of the Earth ­ Effect the incidence of solar radiation o Eccentricity  o Tilt  o Precession  Glaciers   Glacier – moving body of ice that forms form accumulation and compaction of  snow o Two Glacier Types  1. Valley (alpine) – form in the cold heights of the mountains, where snow accumulates usually in preexisting valleys, and they flow down the  bedrock valley 2. Continual – extremely slow moving, thick sheets of ice that cover   Ablation – total amount of ice that a glacier losses each year  o These great ice burgs   Sublimation – solid becomes a gas (doesn’t go into a liquid)  VIII. Evidence of erosion   Striation – are grooves created by rocks scratching against bedrock at the base  of a glacier o  Are evidence of the direction of ice movement  ­ U shaped valleys  ­ Heads of a glacial valleys   Moraines­ accumulation of rocky, sand, and clayey material carried and  deposited by ice 


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