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Bio exam 3

by: William Sebastian

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Biology 1081 exam 3 study guide. Check it out very useful
General Biology
Dr. Brian Kinkle
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by William Sebastian on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL1081 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Dr. Brian Kinkle in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 253 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.


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Date Created: 03/29/16
BIOLOGY 1082        Spring  2015         Third Lecture Exam Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 57) Innate immunity _____. A) is activated immediately upon infection B) depends on an infected animal's previous  exposure to the same pathogen 62) Which of the following is the best definition of  C) is based on recognition of antigens that are  autoimmune disease? specific to different pathogens A) a condition in which B cells and T cells respond  D) is found only in vertebrate animals independently to antigens and do not interact  correctly 58) Immunological memory accounts for _____. B) a condition in which the adaptive immune  A) the human body's ability to distinguish self from  system fails to recognize the second infection by the non­self same antigen B) the observation that some strains of the pathogen C) a condition in which self molecules are treated as that causes dengue fever cause more severe disease  non­self than others D) a condition in which the immune system creates  C) the ability of a helper T cell to signal B cells via  random antibodies without being triggered by an  cytokines antigen D) the ancient observation that someone who had  recovered from the plague could safely care for  63) In animals, nitrogenous wastes are produced  those newly diseased mostly from the catabolism of _____. A) starch and cellulose 59) What major advantage is conveyed by having a  B) triglycerides and steroids system of adaptive immunity? C) proteins and nucleic acids A) It enables a rapid defense against an antigen that  D) phospholipids and glycolipids has been previously encountered. B) It enables an animal to counter most pathogens  64) Urea is _____. almost instantly the first time they are encountered. A) insoluble in water C) It results in individual effector cells with  B) the primary nitrogenous waste product of  specificity for a large number of antigens. humans D) It allows for the destruction of antibodies. C) the primary nitrogenous waste product of most  birds 60) T cells of the immune system include _____. D) the primary nitrogenous waste product of most  A) CD4, CD8, and plasma cells aquatic invertebrates B) cytotoxic and helper cells C) plasma, antigen­presenting, and memory cells 65) Ammonia is likely to be the primary  D) lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells nitrogenous waste in living conditions that include  _____. 61) A patient complaining of watery, itchy eyes and A) lots of fresh water flowing across the gills of a  sneezing after being given a flower bouquet as a  fish birthday gift should first be treated with _____. B) lots of seawater, such as a bird living in a marine A) a vaccine environment B) sterile pollen C) a terrestrial environment, such as that supporting C) antihistamines crickets D) monoclonal antibodies D) a moist system of burrows, such as those of  naked mole rats potential 66) Among the following choices, the most  concentrated urine is excreted by _____. 72) Self­propagation and refractory periods (states)  A) frogs B) kangaroo rats are typical of _____. C) humans D) freshwater bass A) action potentials B) graded hyperpolarizations C) excitatory postsynaptic potentials 67) Materials are returned to the blood from the  D) threshold potentials filtrate by which of the following processes? A) filtration B) selective reabsorption C) secretion D) excretion 73) For a neuron with an initial membrane potential  at ­70 mV, an increase in the movement of  68) What is the function of the osmotic gradient  potassium ions out of that neuron's cytoplasm  found in the kidney? The osmotic gradient allows  would result in the _____. for _____. A) depolarization of the neuron A) electrolytes to move from low to high  B) hyperpolarization of the neuron concentrations in the absence of ATP C) replacement of potassium ions with sodium ions B) the precise control of the retention of water and  D) replacement of potassium ions with calcium ions electrolytes C) the loop of Henle to deliver water to the renal  74) Action potentials move along axons _____. vein A) more slowly in axons of large than in small  D) the filtration of large cells at the glomerulus diameter B) by activating the sodium­potassium "pump" at  69) In a simple synapse, neurotransmitter chemicals each point along the axonal membrane are released by _____. C) more rapidly in myelinated than in non­ A) the dendritic membrane myelinated axons B) the presynaptic membrane D) by reversing the concentration gradients for  C) axon hillocks sodium and potassium ions D) cell bodies 75) Acetylcholine released into the junction  70) The operation of the sodium­potassium "pump"  between a motor neuron and a skeletal muscle binds moves _____. to a sodium channel and opens it. This is an  A) sodium and potassium ions into the cell example of _____. B) sodium and potassium ions out of the cell A) a voltage­gated potassium channel C) sodium ions into the cell and potassium ions out  B) a ligand­gated sodium channel of the cell C) a second­messenger­gated sodium channel D) sodium ions out of the cell and potassium ions  D) a chemical that inhibits action potentials into the cell 76) Neurotransmitters categorized as inhibitory are  71) The "threshold" potential of a membrane is the  expected to _____. _____. A) act independently of their receptor proteins A) lowest frequency of action potentials a neuron  B) close potassium channels can produce C) open sodium channels B) minimum hyperpolarization needed to prevent  D) hyperpolarize the membrane the occurrence of action potentials C) minimum depolarization needed to operate the  77) After eating a large meal, which nerves are most voltage­gated sodium channels active in your digestive system? D) peak amount of depolarization seen in an action  I) parasympathetic nerves II) somatic (motor) nerves III) sympathetic nerves  A) only I B) only II C) only III D) only II and III 78) The central nervous system is lacking in  animals that have _____. A) a complete gut B) bilateral symmetry C) radial symmetry D) a closed circulatory system 84) Sensory transduction of light in the vertebrate  retina is accomplished by _____.  79) Calculation, contemplation, and cognition are  A) ganglion cells human activities associated with increased activity  B) amacrine cells in the _____. C) bipolar cells A) hypothalamus D) rods and cones B) cerebrum C) cerebellum 85) Rods exposed to light will _____. D) spinal cord A) depolarize due to the opening of sodium  channels 80) The regulation of body temperature derives  B) hyperpolarize due to the closing of sodium  from the activity of the _____. channels A) cerebrum C) depolarize due to the opening of potassium  B) cerebellum channels C) thalamus D) hyperpolarize due to the closing of potassium  D) hypothalamus channels 81) Immediately after putting on a shirt, your skin  86) Which of the following sensory receptors is  might feel itchy. However, this perception soon  correctly paired with its category? fades due to _____. A) hair cell — mechanoreceptor A) sensory adaptation B) muscle spindle — electromagnetic receptor B) accommodation C) taste receptor — mechanoreceptor  C) reduced motor unit recruitment D) rod — chemoreceptor D) reduced receptor amplification 87) Countercurrent exchange in the fish gill helps to 82) The middle ear converts _____. maximize A) air pressure waves to fluid pressure waves A)  endocytosis. B) fluid pressure waves to air pressure waves B)  blood pressure. C) air pressure waves to nerve impulses C)  diffusion. D) fluid pressure waves to nerve impulses D)  osmosis. 83) Hair cells in the vertebrate ear are responsible  88) The vertebrate ectoderm is the origin of the for transducing sound pressure waves. Ion channels  A) nervous system. in the hair cell membrane open when _____. B) stomach. A) a chemical ligand binds to the ion channel C) pancreas. B) light is absorbed by a molecule in the membrane D) muscles and bones C) the cell membrane reaches a threshold voltage D) the membrane is distorted mechanically Last Name ____________________  First Name ____________________ UCID# M_____________ In class figure #6. Draw a labeled graph of an action potential. Below the rapidly increasing portion of the  graph, draw a labeled cross section of the neuron membrane, showing what is causing the rapid change in  membrane potential during this portion of the action potential. (5 points) Version A


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