Biology II 3/24+29
Biology II 3/24+29 BIO 1144
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rocket on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views.
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Date Created: 03/29/16
Blood Vessels: tubes carrying blood 1. Arteries (+ Arterioles) Carry blood AWAY from heart Smooth muscle layer in the wall of artery is THICKER than the veins 2. Capillaries Smallest diameter tubes Arranged in clusters; capillary beds Thin walled; 1 cell thick, need to be thin for oxygen and other gas exchange/diffusion Function as gas exchange site for blood, organs, and tissues of body Oxygen diffuses out of vessels, CO2 diffuses in 3. Veins (+venules) Carry blood TOWARDS heart Thinner smooth muscle layer Lower pressure vessels Blood to heart Some of the veins have valves, they prevent backflow of blood Black line simple squamous epithelium Red line smooth muscle Artery → Arteriole → Capillary (no muscle just 1 layer of epith./ gas exchange occurs here) Thinner walls Vein→ Venule Vein (rich in CO2) Artery( rich in O2) Heart Large organ especially in mammals +Vertebrate evolutionary advantages Increase in size Increase # of chambers Decrease # of pseudo chambers (A chamber off or outside of the heart receiving pool blood) ● Fish 2 chambers (atrium/ventricle) 2 pseudo chambers (conus arteriosus/ sinus venosus) ❖ Amphibians 3 chambers (2 atria/ ventricle) 2 pseudo chambers ➢ Reptiles 3 chambers (2 atria/ ventricle) Some have sinus venosus but no conus arteriosus (turtles) *Crocodiles have 4 chambered hearts/ no pseudos ➔ Birds 2 atria/ 2 ventricles Lack pseudo chambers ★ Mammals 2 atria/ 2 ventricles Lack pseudo chambers *Both Birds and Mammals have remnants of sinus venosus which is a Patch of cells in right atrium, its the “pacemaker” of the hear +Heart Anatomy: Mammals 4 Chambers 2 atria: smaller chambers, thinner walls 2 ventricles: thicker walls, larger chambers, (left is thickest wall) Pulmonary Circuit Right Side: conducts blood to lungs for gas exchange and then back to heart Systemic Circuit Left side: conducts blood out to the body and then back to heart +Heart Valves Atrioventricular Valves: junction between atrium and ventricle, prevent backflow of blood into artium Semilunar Valves: prevent blood from backing up into ventricles when ventricles relax Pulmonary SV (right ventricle and pulmonary artery)/ Aortic SV (left ventricle and the aortic) END OF MATERIAL FOR EXAM 3 Respiratory System Ch. 48 +Gas Exchange Bringing O2 in and produced CO2 out CO2 produced by breakdown of glucose by all cells +For Gas Exchange to occur must have: Thin, moist surface epithelium Lots of capillary beds Barrierforming concentration gradient (plasma membranes) +Gills for Gas Exchange Fish and some amphibians +Aquatic organism have to exchange with the water they live in, but not much oxygen in water Air: about 21% O2 Water: about less than 1% of O2 If oxygen concentration is so low in water, exchange is more difficult Gills must be a more efficient and specific design for this Typical Gill Design: Fish contain 5 pairs of gills Amphibians have 3 pairs of gills Blood from body carrying CO2 enters back end of gill region Blood has zero oxygen and picks it up when it circulates Water with O2 enters front of gill region and moves to the back “Countercurrent exchange mechanism” O2 diffuse as long as there is a gradient O2 from water diffuse into deoxygenated blood along entire length of gill regions O2 diffusion continues as long as there is a gradient until equilibrium Oxygen diffuses into blood along entire gill region +Fish must open mouth and possibly swimming all require expenditure of energy +As a whole this technique is highly efficient in water +Cutaneous Respiration Gas exchange through skin, highly efficient as well Must have thin, moist, capillaries, and no barriers (such as hair/feathers) Found primarily in Amphibians and some fish +Buccopharyngeal Respiration Not enough to sustain on its own but helps Cutaneous Lining of mouth cavity is thin moist, and contain capillary beds Some Amphibians +Lung Respiration In Fish/Amphibians: simple sacs In Reptiles/ Birds: larger sacs, more lobes for gas exchange area +In Mammals: largest lung, more lobes, lung is “vascularized sponge” With each inhalation/exhalation cycle is only ⅙ air replenished
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