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Biology II 3/24+29

by: Rocket

Biology II 3/24+29 BIO 1144

GPA 4.0

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Finishing up the rest of the circulatory system and final material on exam 3, starting the material for exam 4
Thomas Holder
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rocket on Tuesday March 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views.


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Date Created: 03/29/16
Blood Vessels: tubes carrying blood  1. Arteries (+ Arterioles)  ­Carry blood AWAY from heart  ­Smooth muscle layer in the wall of artery is THICKER than the veins       2.  Capillaries  ­Smallest diameter tubes  ­Arranged in clusters; capillary beds  ­Thin walled; 1 cell thick, need to be thin for oxygen and other gas exchange/diffusion  ­Function as gas exchange site for blood, organs, and tissues of body  ­Oxygen diffuses out of vessels, CO2 diffuses in        3. Veins (+venules)  ­Carry blood TOWARDS heart  ­Thinner smooth muscle layer  ­Lower pressure vessels  ­Blood to heart  ­Some of the veins have valves, they prevent backflow of blood    Black line­ simple squamous  epithelium  Red line­ smooth muscle     Artery → Arteriole → Capillary  (no muscle just 1 layer of epith./  gas exchange occurs here)    Thinner walls  Vein→ Venule   Vein (rich in CO2)  Artery( rich in O2)                      Heart  ­Large organ especially in mammals  +Vertebrate evolutionary advantages  Increase in size  Increase # of chambers  Decrease # of pseudo chambers (A chamber off or outside of the heart receiving pool blood)    ● Fish  ­2 chambers (atrium/ventricle)  ­2 pseudo chambers (conus arteriosus/ sinus venosus)    ❖ Amphibians  ­3 chambers (2 atria/ ventricle)  ­2 pseudo chambers    ➢ Reptiles  ­3 chambers (2 atria/ ventricle)  ­Some have sinus venosus but no conus arteriosus (turtles)  *Crocodiles have 4 chambered hearts/ no pseudos    ➔ Birds  ­2 atria/ 2 ventricles   ­Lack pseudo chambers     ★ Mammals  ­2 atria/ 2 ventricles   ­Lack pseudo chambers     *Both Birds and Mammals have remnants of sinus venosus which is a   Patch of cells in right atrium, its the “pacemaker” of the hear                    +Heart Anatomy: Mammals  ­4 Chambers  ­2 atria: smaller chambers, thinner walls   ­2 ventricles: thicker walls, larger chambers, (left is thickest wall)    Pulmonary Circuit  Right Side: conducts blood to lungs for gas exchange and then back to heart    Systemic Circuit  Left side: conducts blood out to the body and then back to heart      +Heart Valves  ­ Atrioventricular Valves: junction between atrium and ventricle, prevent backflow of  blood into artium  ­ Semilunar Valves: prevent blood from backing up into ventricles when ventricles relax  Pulmonary SV (right ventricle and pulmonary artery)/ Aortic SV (left ventricle and the  aortic)    END OF MATERIAL FOR EXAM 3    Respiratory System Ch. 48  +Gas Exchange  ­ Bringing O2 in and produced CO2 out  ­ CO2 produced by breakdown of glucose by all cells    +For Gas Exchange to occur must have:  ­ Thin, moist surface epithelium  ­ Lots of capillary beds  ­ Barrier­forming concentration gradient (plasma membranes)    +Gills for Gas Exchange  ­ Fish and some amphibians   +Aquatic organism have to exchange with the water they live in, but not much oxygen in water  Air: about 21% O2  Water: about less than 1% of O2  ­ If oxygen concentration is so low in water, exchange is more difficult  ­ Gills must be a more efficient and specific design for this     Typical Gill Design:  ­Fish contain 5 pairs of gills  ­Amphibians have 3 pairs of gills    ­Blood from body carrying CO2 enters back end  of gill region  ­Blood has zero oxygen and picks it up when it  circulates  ­Water with O2 enters front of gill region and  moves to the back  “Countercurrent exchange mechanism”  ­O2 diffuse as long as there is a gradient  ­O2 from water diffuse into deoxygenated blood along entire length of gill regions                        O2 diffusion continues as long as there is a gradient until equilibrium          Oxygen diffuses into blood along  entire gill region  +Fish must open mouth and possibly  swimming all require expenditure of  energy  +As a whole this technique is highly  efficient in water        +Cutaneous Respiration  ­Gas exchange through skin, highly efficient as well  ­Must have thin, moist, capillaries, and no barriers (such as hair/feathers)  ­Found primarily in Amphibians and some fish    +Buccopharyngeal Respiration  ­Not enough to sustain on its own but helps Cutaneous  ­Lining of mouth cavity is thin moist, and contain capillary beds   ­Some Amphibians    +Lung Respiration  ­In Fish/Amphibians: simple sacs  ­In Reptiles/ Birds: larger sacs, more lobes for gas exchange area  +In Mammals: largest lung, more lobes, lung is “vascularized sponge”  ­With each inhalation/exhalation cycle is only ⅙  air replenished          


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