Exam 1 Study Guide
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This 34 page Study Guide was uploaded by Christine Czyzewski on Tuesday January 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 0310 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Jennifer Ganger in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 224 views.
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Date Created: 01/27/15
Intro to Child Development 01132015 Chapter 1 0 Reasons to Learn to Child Development 0 Raising Children Answers questions such as if my daughter starts walking and talking early should I consider placing her in a school for gifted children How to help their children control their anger and other negative emotions 0 Choosing Social Policies Make informed decisions not just about ones own children but also about a wide variety of socialpolicy questions that affect children in general 0 Understanding human nature Does learning start only after children are born or can it occur in the womb 0 Historical Foundation of the Study of Child Development 0 From ancient Greece to early years people have observed children 0 Early Philosopher s View Earliest Plato and Aristotle n Both believed that longterm of society depended on the proper raising of children n Plato selfcontrol and discipline as the most important goals 0 Children acquired knowledge innately n Aristotle more concerned on tting childrearing to the needs of the individual child 0 Knowledge comes from experience Locke believed the same 0 Social Reform Movements Devoted to improving children s lives by changing the conditions in which they lived o Darwin s Theory of Evolution Inspired number of scientists to propose that intensive study of children s development might lead into important insights into human nature 0 The Beginnings of ResearchBased Theories of Child Development Frued psychoanalytic theory argued that children s development is determined by environmental factors especially the rewards and punishments that follows that children s actions 0 Enduring Themes in Child Development 0 Nature and Nurture How do nature and nurture together shape development Nature our biological endowment physical appearance intellect Nurture the environments both physical and social that in uences development Genome each person s complete set of hereditary information in uences behavior experiences etc Epigenetics the study of stable changes in gene expressions that are mediated by the environment a Methylation biochemical process that in uences behavior by suppressing gene activity and expression 0 The Active Child How Do Children Shape Their own development Not just environment and genetics children also in uence own actions 0 ContinuityDiscontinuity In what ways is development continuous or what was is it discontinuous Continuous the idea that changes with age occur gradually in small increments pine tree growing taller and taller Discontinuous the idea that changes with age include occasional large shifts like transition from caterpillar Debate has been going on for years Children of all different ages seem qualitatively different Stage theories agerelated phases Cognitive development development of thinking and reasoning o Mechanisms of Development How does Change occur Neurotransmitters chemicals involved in communication among brain cells n Variations among children in these genes are associated with variations in the quality of performance on tasks that require effortful attention 0 The SocialCultural Context How does the social cultural context in uences development Sociocultural the physical social economic and historical circumstances that make up any child s environment In uences every aspect of child s development Socioeconomic status SES a measure of social class that is based on income and education 0 Individual Difference How Do Children Become So different form one another Genetic difference Differences in treatment by parents and others Differences in reactions to similar experiences Difference choices of environment 0 Research and Children s Welfare How Can Research Promote Children s WellBeing Educational innovations Methods for Studying Child Development 0 The Scienti c Method An approach to testing beliefs that involves choosing a question formulating a hypothesis testing the hypothesis and drawing a conclusion a Choosing a question to be answered a Formulating a hypothesis educated guess regarding the question a Developing a method for testing the hypothesis H Using the data yielded by the method to draw a conclusion regarding the hypothesis 0 Importance of Appropriate Measurement Reliability the degree to which independent measurements of a given behavior are consistent El El nterrater reliability the amount of agreement in the observations of different raters who witness the same behavior Testretest reliability the degree of similarly of a child s performance on more occasions Validity the degree to which effects observed within experiments can be attributed to the factor that the researcher is testing El El Internal Validity the degree to which effects observed within experiments can be attributed to the factor that the researcher is testing External Validity the degree to which results can be generalized beyond particulars of the research 0 Contexts for Gathering Data About Children Interviews most obvious way to collect data El Structured a research procedure in which all participants are asked to answer the same queonns Clinical a procedure in which questions are adjusted in accord with the answers the interviewee provides Naturalistic Observation El El Environment is not controlled Limitations Contexts vary on many dimensions so it is often hard to know which ones in uenced the behavior of interest 0 Many behaviors of interest occur only occasionally in the everyday environment Structured Observation El A method that involves presenting an identical situation to each child and recording the child s behavior Offers important advantage over naturalistic it ensues that all the children being studied encounter identical situations Correlation and Causation Variables attributes that vary across individuals and situations such as age sex and popularity Correlational Designs D To determine whether children who different in one variable also different in predictable ways in other variables a Correlation association between two variables 0 Does not imply causation Directionof casuation a correlation does not indicate which variable is the cause and which is the effect Thirdvariable problem the concept that a correlation between two variables may stem from both being in uenced by some third variable Experimental Designs n Indicates cause u Quasi Experimental some force of nature did the RA for us 0 Natural experiments with preexisting groups 0 Effects of military service on later career success 0 Was it due to military service correlational design 0 After Vietnam lottery who got enlisted RA quasi a Multiple Regression 0 When you can NOT apply an experimental deggn 0 Example quotcool kids studyquot Outside variable parental supervisionpersonality traits Do these have any effect on the relationship At what variance Note how strong a predictor each variable is above and see how much is left for your original variable Find hidden variables a Random assignment equal chance to be assigned to each group within an experiment n Experimental control the ability of researchers to determine the speci c experiences that children have during the course of an experiment a Experimental group a group of children in an experimental design who are presented the experience of interest a Control group the group of children in an experimental design who are not presented in the experience of the experiment a Independent variable the experience that children in the experimental group receive and that children in the control group do not receive a Dependent variable a behavior that is measured to determined whether it is affected by exposure to the independent variable 0 Designs of Examining O O O CrossSectional Designs a research method in which children of different ages compared on a given behavior or characteristic over a short period Longitudinal Designs a method of study in which the same children studied twice or more over a substantial length of time Micro genetic Design method of study in which the same children are studied over a short period Countingon strategy counting up from the larger addend the number of times indicated by the smaller addend Ethical Issues in ChildDevelopment Research 0 00000 Be sure that the research does not harm children physically or psychologically Obtain information contest for participating Preserve individuals anonymity Discuss with parents or guardians any information Try to counteract any unforeseen negative consequences Correct any inaccurate impressions that the child may develop Prenatal Development Epigenesis the emergence of new structures and functions during development Conception 0 Each originated from a sperm and an egg cell 0 Meiosis cell division that produces gametes o Conception joining of sperm and egg Fertilized egg becomes the zygote Developmental Process 1 Zygote weeks from 12 0 conception gametes zygote o Twins identical one egg one sperm monozygotic fraternal two egg two sperm dizygotic 0 First cell division mitosis But not differentiation 0 Implantation 79 days Placenta support organ for the fetus n Keeps the circulatory systems of the fetus and other separate but as a semipermeable membrane permits the exchange of some materials between a Rich network of blood vessels In Production of estrogen n Increases the ow of maternal blood to the uterus n Progesterone suppresses uterine contraction that could lead to prenatal birth 0 Through continued cell division over the course of 38 weeks the barely visible zygote becomes a newborn consisting of trillions of cells 0 2 Embryo the name given to the developing organism from 38th week of prenatal development 0 Stage of most rapid development and most vulnerability 0 Cell Differentiation Embryonic stem cells embryonic cells which can develop into any type of body cells Initially all the cells are equivalent none has any xed funcUon After several cell divisions they begin to become different Major mystery I Since all cells in the body have the identical set of genes what factors determine which type of cell a given stem cell will become In uence on hormones on development a Crucial role in sexual differentiation 0 Cell death apoptosis natural thing 0 4 weeks heart is beating 14 inch long 0 5 weeks facial features rapid brain development movement beginsgt not felt by mother until later 3 Fetus the name given to the developing organism from the 9th week to birth growing and nishing stage 0 9 weeks all internal organs present tactile stimulation 0 11 12 weeks external genitalia developed breathing grasping swallowing sucking 0 1620 weeks movement can be felt by the mother 0 2226 weeks viability fetus can probably survive if its born 28 weeks sleep cycles external sounds 38 Weeks from conception to birth 0 40 weeks of pregnancy according to obstetrics starts from rst day of last menstrual period 0 Trimesters are according to the patient not the fetus Cell Migration the movement of newly formed cells away from their origin point Early Development 0 Inner cell mass arrange themselves into a hollow sphere with a bulge of cells Where identical twins usually originate from splitting in half of the inner cell ass and thus having same genetic makeup Fraternal twins results when two eggs happen to be released from the ovary into the fallopian tube and both are fertilized a Two eggs two sperms Implantation end of 1st week of fertilization n Zygote embeds itself in the uterine lining and becomes dependent on the mother for substances n Inner mass becomes the embryo and the rest of the cells become an elaborate support system Amniotic sac and placenta that enables embryo to develop a Tops layer nervous system nails teeth inner ear lens of eyes and outer surface of skin a Middle layer muscles bones circulatory system and the innter layers of the skin and other internal organs n Bottom layer digestive system lungs urinary tract and glands n Neural tube a groove formed in the top later of differentiated cells in the embryo that eventually becomes the brain and spinal cord n Amniotic Sac transparent uid lled membrane that surrounds and protects the fetus Operates as a protective buffer for the developing fetus providing it with a relatively even temperature and cushioning it against jolting n Umbilical Cord Tube containing vessels connecting the feturs and the placenta n Oxygen nutrients minerals and some antibiotics are transported through the mothers blood 0 An Illustrated Summary of Prenatal Development 0 Cephalocaudal development the pattern of growth in which the areas near the head develop earlier than areas father from the head 0 Fetal behavior 0 O O O O 0 Movement 56 weeks after conception babies begin to move Moves its limbs wiggles its ngers grasps the umbilical cord moves its head and eyes and yawns Continuity extends into the postnatal period more active fetus more active infants Fetus have regular periods of sleep and waking Swallowing fetus drinks amniotic uid which passes through gastrointestinal system At birth the newborn must start breathing Behavioral Cycles 0 Rest Activity Cycles bursts of high activity alternating with little or no activity for a few minutes at a time Emerge as early as 10 weeks and become very stable during the second half of pregnancy Longerterm patterns including daily circadian rhythm also become apparent with less activity in the morning and more activity in the late evening 0 Fetal Experience o Sight and Touch Visual experience of the fetus is minimal a Only bright light Does experience tactile stimulation as a result of its own activity a Move limbs touches face responds to touch 0 Taste Amniotic uid contains a variety of avors Can detect some better than others have a sweet tooth Carrot juice experiment 5 12 months carrot juice prenatally preferred carrot juice compared to other types those who didn t have exposure didn t like it o Smell Amniotic uid smells coming from what the mother eats Recognizes mothers uid 0 Hearing External sounds are audible to the fetus including the voice Internal and external a Heart beat blood pumping Fetal Learning 0 Habituation simple form of learning that involves a decrease in response to repeated or continued stimulation Baby will at rst respond to the rattle and heart rate will rise eventually it will slow down and heart rate will stop The baby is learning and becoming habituated Heart Rate a New heart starts to decrease to something new n Goes back up to normal that s habituation getting bored back to baseline n Decelerates again to indicate dishabituation o Dishabituation response to new stimulus rebound in response due to subsequent change in stimulus recovery from habituation o Lecanuet et Al 1995 9th month of gestation 32 weeks babi biba hear the difference between I and A n can hear vowel change but not consonants too muf ed 0 Cat in the Hat baby will recognize and preferred the rhythmic patterns from the story they heard in the womb Faster sucking allows them to hear Cat in the Hat slower sucking when another book is read Infants who had heart cat in the hat prenatally they sucked in the right pattern to hear it 0 Sounds remembered postnatal Mother s voice Mother s language general stress pattern of different languages I NonNutritive Sucking for neonates Sucking indicates there interest in something 0 New suck a little faster when interested and slows when it gets bored opposite of heart rate Hazards to Prenatal Development Miscarriages spontaneous abortions Environmental in uences 0 Effect of mercury in Bay Teratogen external agent that can cause damage or death during prenatal development n Insight to disordersproblems a Window into prenatal development a Factors that in uence severity 0 Dose Genetic Predisposition of baby and mother Combinations of drugsteratogens o Agetiming Sensitive Period many teratogen s cause damage only during this period embryotic stage is more vulnerable l look at graph 0 Period of time during which a developing organism is most sensitive to the effects of external factors 0 Thalidomide was prescribed to treat morning sickness among other things that turned out to have severe effects such as limb deformities o DoseResponse Relation a relation in which the effect of exposure to an element increases with the extent of exposure Greater the fetus s exposure the more likely it is that the fetus will suffer damage 0 Cumulative impact presence of multiple risk factors 0 Individual differences effect of teratogens can vary due to genetic susceptibility Sleeper effects the impact of a given agent may not become apparent for many years Legal Drugs 0 Some overthecounter medicines are not safe 0 Cigarettes She gets less oxygen and so does her fetus Baby gets cancercausing agents Effects n Fetal growth and low birth weights n Increase SIDS sudden infant death syndrome a Lower IQ a Hearing de cits a Cancer 0 Alcohol Most common human teratogen Most common leading cause of fetal brain injury and is generally considered to be the most preventable cause Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder n FAS fetal alcohol syndrome from persistent heavy drinking throughout the pregnancy Harmful effects of maternal alcohol consumption on a developing fetus including facial deformities small eye lids upturned nose no crease in face mental retardation attention problems hyperactivity slow growth small head seizures n ARND Alcohol related neurodevelopmental disorder No physical symptoms De cits in attention hyperactivity 0 Effects are variable unpredictable Prescription drugs read Thalidomide limb de ciency DES symptoms turned up later Mercury Minimata disease and other pollutants PCBs read lHegaldrugs Marijuana o Affecting memory learning and visual skills after birth Cocaine 0 Growth retardation and premature birth impaired ability to regulate arousal and attention Environmental Pollutants Most American bloodstreams contain a noxious mix of toxic metals synthetic hormones Occupational hazards Working with factories telephone booths Maternal Factors 0 Age 0 Infants born to girls 15 years or younger are three to four times more likely to die before their rst birthday than are those born to mothers who are 23 to 29 0 Nutrition 0 Fetus depends on its mother for all its nutritional requirements 0 Disease 0 o Maternal emotional state A typically developing neonate s day full cycle is every 24 hours 0 Sleeping 16 hr 0 Active REM 8 hr More time in REM than we do 0 Quiet NREM 8 hr 0 Crying 2 hr 0 Why get peoples attention what they need 0 Colic crying excessively o Drowsiness 1 hr 0 Awake 5 hr 0 Active 25 hr moving limbs are moving 0 Alert 25 minds are awake but still Premature Birth 0 quotPrematurityquot not fully mature 0 Low birth weight 0 2500 grams 55 lbs or less 0 Preterm 0 Birth before beginning of 36th week 0 3640 weeks considered quotfull termquot 38 0 35 weeks as a breakpoint 35 weeks is better than 34 n Fewer illnesses n Fewer medical problems a Shorter hospital stay 34weeks more likely to have n Less physical growth a Mild to moderate cognitive delays in early and middle childhood Prematurity Immediate lssues 000000 More passive less responsive Fussier harder to soothe More trouble falling asleep rousing and staying alert Less regular schedule Delayed motor cognitive milestones Consequences at risk for abuse attachment dif cultiesl due to hard parenting issues Long term issues MAJORITY of pretermLBW babies catch up with their peers in mental and physical development and lead normal lives a Frequent illness n Attention problem a Hyperactivity n Sensory impairments hearing vision a Poor motor coordination n Languagedelays a Low IQ scores low achievement I Poorer pee and parent relationships a Most cognitive and social effects dissipate later in childhood unless severe n In general the lower the birth weight the worse the outcome 0 Causes 0 Teratogens 0 Multiple births o Viruses The Newborn Infant 0 State of arousal 0 State level of arousal and engagement in the environment ranging from deep sleep to intense activity 0 Sleep REM sleep active sleep state characterized by quick jerky stage movements under closed lids and associated with dreaming in adult heavy breathing and accelerated heart rate I Some researchers believe it helps develop visual systems 0 Visual experience is experienced in the womb So much time in sleep they do not have much opportunity to amass waking visual NonREM a quiet or deep sleep state characterized by the absence of motor activity or eye movements and more regular slow brain waves breathing and heart rate Newborns may be learning while they sleep because their slumbering brains do not become disconnected from external stimulation to the same extent that the brains of older individuals do a Can learn speech sounds Newborns generally cycle between sleep and waking states several times in a 24 hour period more sleep at night then during the day Age that infants start to match adult sleep patterns depends on cultural practices and pressures o Crying Much more common than people think it is Distinctive sound to baby After newborn period crying behavior typically increases cresting at about 6 weeks old then declines to about an hour per day for the rest of the year Soothing n Swaddling a soothing technique used in many cultures that involves wrapping a baby tightly in cloths or a blanket Constant level of tactile and warmth a Touch can be very soothing n Crying infants showed sharper decreases in heart rate physical movement and crying when carried about their mother a Newborns enjoy sugar tasting Response to distress n Assessing the severity of the infant s distress before responding may be a key factor Coic n Excessive inconsolable crying by infant for no reason a High pitched unpleasant cries Negative Outcomes at Birth 0 Infant Mortality 0 Death during the rst year of birth 0 Rare in industrial world however the relative ranking of US has generally gotten worse over the past several decades because the infant mortality rates in many other countries have had a higher rate of improvement 0 Low Birth Weight small for gestational age 0 Less than 55 pounds or 2500 grams Some infants are premature and LBW born 35 weeks after conception or earlier Higher rates of neurosensory de cits more frequent illness lower IQ scores and lower educational achievement Multiple births are more common with this Longterm outcomes In Suffer from higher levels of hearing language and cognitive impairments n Majority of LBW children turn out quite well when the negative effects of their birth status gradually diminish Intervention Programs n Parents are now encouraged to have as much physical contact and social interaction with their hospitalized infant 0 Infants need sensory input 0 O 0 Being touched cuddled and carried is a vital part of a newborn s life Special therapy massaging LBW babies and exing their arms and legs gained weight faster and mental development Singing to infants helps Infant Health and Development Project intervention group with medical and training interventions for parents at home early childhood education from 13 years of age At age 3 years 39 of intervention group is in normal range of intelligence and only 9 of control group 14 point difference in IQ At 5 and 8 years high preschool attendance 13 years of age predicts higher gains at age 8 4 point difference in IQ between intervention and control not as big as the original worth it Concluded that their results provided support for early intervention to promote the development of LBW infants less likely to work with children who are extremely small effects interact with birth weight n Attending the free school made a difference in itself only correlational n Heavier birth weight to begin with have higher IQ than lower 0 Parenting a LBW O O O O 0 May be fussier Experience guilt fear stress Misunderstanding inappropriate stimulation loss of emotional bonding abuse Have more trouble falling asleep waking up and staying alert and irregular feeding schedules Developmental milestones are delayed Training How to interact with fragile babyappropriate stimulation Characteristics of premature babies to set expectations Research shows that training parents ln infant development leads to better mental development in short term and 7 years later ln con dence and responsiveness leads to less aggression and attention de cit at age 5 MultipleRisk Model Risk factors tend to occur together Whatever the cumulative effects of these prenatal risk factors they will be likely be compounded after birth by the mother s continuation of the unhealthy lifestyle 0 Poverty as a Developmental Hazard 0 All factors drugs stress poor nutrition etc are more likely to occur in poverty 0 Risk and Resilience 0 Developmental Resilience successful development in spite of multiple and seemingly overwhelming developmental hazards Two factors in favor a Certain personal characteristics especially intelligence responsiveness to others and a sense of being capable of achieving goals n Responsive care from someone 0 Nature and Nurture Complex Relationship Genome the complete set of genes of any organism 0 DNA basic component of hereditary transmission Genetic and Environmental Forces Genotype the genetic material and individual inherits in particular which alleles of each gene Phenotype observable expression of the genotype body and behavior 0 Environment every aspect of an individual and his or her surroundings other than genes EENDTYPEIP aianit EV EENH39ITYlPEIGhIilId P IllEllilllil39llquot39PElr Parent 1 Parent s Genotype Child s Genotype iENUllRINMIENTfEhiild 2 Ch i lid 5 Ge notype C h i Id 395 Phenotype 3 Child39s Environment Child39s Phenotype Chilid s Phenotype Chiiid e Environment Chilld e EnvironmenFChild s Genotype 1 Parents Genotype Child s Genotype transmission of genetic material chromosomes and genes from parent to offspring Chromosomes molecules of DNA that transmit genetic information made up of DNA 0 23 pairs 0 DNA molecules that carry all the biochemical instructions involved in the formation and functioning of an organism these instructions are then packaged into genes 0 Genes sections of chromosomes that are the basic unit of heredity in all living things Aees Proteincoding each gene is a segment of DNA that is the code for the production of particular proteins I Some proteins are building blocks for cells and other regulate ce s functions Regulating 0 Human Heredity 46 chromosomes are actually 23 pairs n For each pair of chromosomes one from mom and one from dad Every individual has two copies of each gene 0 For each gene one allele from mom and one from dad 0 Sex Determination Sex chromosomes the chromosomes x and y that determine an individual s gender Are an exception to the general pattern of chromosome pairs being the same size and shape and carrying corresponding genes always dad who determines sex a Females are two x n Males are XY 0 Diversity and Individuality Several Mechanisms contribute to genetic diversity among people a Mutation a change in the sequence of DNA 0 Some are spontaneous and some are environmental most are harmful Some are bene cial such as increasing their resistance to some disease or by increasing their ability to adapt to a crucial situation 0 Provide the basis for evolution a Random assortment of chromosomes in the formation of egg and sperm 0 Odds are zero that any two individuals would have the same genotype except identical twins Crossing over the process by which sections of DNA switch from one chromosome to another promotes variability among individuals 2 Child s Genotypelehild s Phenotype relationship between ones genotype and ones phenotype Gene Expression Developmental Changes 0 Some cells are turned on in only a few cells and for only a few hours and then are switched off permanently Regulator Genes control this genes that control the activity of other genes n External factors can affect this 0 Thalidomide on limb development o A given gene can function multiple times in multiple places during development a All cells have same genes Cellfatedifferentiation Regulation 0 Gene Expression Dominance Patterns 0 Many individuals genes are never expressed or only partially Alleles two or more different forms of a gene a Given gene in uence the same trait or characteristic but they contribute to different developmental outcomes DominantRecessive Pattern n Dominant the allele that if present gets expressed a Recessive the allele that is not expressed if a dominant allele is present a Two possibilities with this pattern 0 A person can inherit two of the same allele two dominant or two recessive and thus be 0 Homozygous having two of the same allele for a trait corresponding trait will be expressed o The person can inherit two different alleles one dominant and the other recessive and thus be 0 Heterozygous having two different alleles for a trait instructions for dominant aee will be expressed Polygenic Inheritance inheritance in which traits are governed by more than one gene a Shyness aggression thrillseeking and language learning several different genes contribute to any given phenotypic outcome 3 Child s Environment Child s Phenotype connected to arrow 5 o GeneEnvironment Interaction arrows 2amp3 0 Norm of Reaction all the phenotypes that can theoretically result from a given genotype in relation to all the environments in which it can survive and develop A given genotype will develop different in different environments Plants who were superior would do well at any elevation same genes not the case environment affected them arrow 5 gene regulation impact of environment on gene regulation 0 Examples of genotypeenvironmental interaction 0 Can be studied by randomlyassigning nonhuman animals with known genotypes to be raised in a wide variety of environments Genetically identical animals develop differently environment has an effect Phenylketonuria PKU a disorder related to a defective recessive gene on chromosome 12 that prevents metabolism of phenylalanine u If they eat a normal diet impaired brain development a Identi ed shortly after birth intellectual impairment can be avoided as long as the diet is carefully maintained 0 Thus a given genotype can depend totally on how raised in the environment Effects of abusive parenting varying in severity In Why some kids who experience abuse turn out antisocial why others don t I In general those abused as child are more likely to abuse or become antisocial a Result combination of environmental and genetic factors 0 Low MOMA and abuse more antisocial High MOMA and abuse less antisocial Affects of gene depends on the level of the environment 0 Parental contributions to the child s environment 0 Parents behavior towards children is genetically in uenced Parents who like music or books child is more likely to hear music or be read too 0 Passive GeneEnvironment Correlation arrows 76312 0 parents pass on genes and environment these are correlated 0 example parents with musical talent tend to play more music in one providing both genes and environment for musical success was the love of music due to genes or environment of parent Both from parent 0 parents gene are in the child s environment arrow 2amp3 are correlated early 4 Child s PhenotypeChild s Environment Child affects its own environment arrow 4 0 Active Child Theme the in uence of a child s phenotype on his or her environment 0 They actively evoke certain kinds of responses from others Like to cuddle baby will get cuddled more 0 Actively selecting surroundings and experiences that match their interests talents and personality characteristics Start selecting certain objects in the environment for exploration Leads to more GeneEnvironment Correlation arrows 23 and 4 o Evocative Child because of genetic dispositions change environment in ways that affect expression of those very genes quotevocative a Child shows musical promise so parents get him piano lessons I How cute the baby is how much it cries a early 0 Active quotNichepicking Children choose their own environments ex friends sports Tends to come into play a little bit later 5 Child s Environmentl Child s Genotype epigenetics alteration of a gene expressed by environmental factors 0 why identical twins do not have identical pathways in life different environment can alter gene expression that are mediated by the environment process called methylation silence gene expression Behavior Genetics 0 The science concerned with how variation in behavior and development results from the combination of genetic and environmental factors quotTeasing Apartquot effects of genes and environments on individual differences 0 All behavior traits are heritable any trait or characteristics in uenced by heredity o Multifactorial refers to traits that are affected by a host of environmental factors as well as genetic one 1 Behavior patterns should quotrun in familiesquot children should be closer to parents or siblings than distant relatives 2 Individuals who are reared together should be more similar than people reared apart Behavior Genetic Research Design 0 1 Higher for more closely related individuals than far less closely related people 0 2 Higher for individuals who share the same environment than for individuals who do not 0 TwinStudy Design Classic Compares correlation for identical twin design ldentical and fraternal 100 identical vs 50 fraternal Equal environments If identical twins are more highly correlated than fraternal twins Do not separate twins If M2 is greater than DZ all we know is that there is positive contribution to genetic differences to individual differences Heritability If M2 and DZ are equal the environment has an effect and genetic differences do not make any impact 0 Adoption Study Where adopted children s scores on a given measure are correlated more highly with biological or adopted pa rents Correlation with genetic relatives biological parents Correlation with environmental relatives adoptive family 0 Adoptive Twin Study Compares identical twins who grew up together vs apart Not that easy to nd now people really don t split identical twins 0 Family Studies of Intelligence Both environmental and genetic As twins get older the degree of variance in lW scores increases TABLE 31 l Summary of Family Studies of lntelligenoe Average Familial ll Borreiatiorrs R Note MZ monorzygotic DZ dizygotic Relationship Average R Number or Pairs Rearedtogether biological relatives NlZ twiris 086 4572 02 twinis 050 5533 Siblings 047 26473 Parehtoffsprihg 042 8433 llalf zsiblirrgs 035 200 Cousins 015 1176 Rearedlaipert biological relatives Ni twirrs 072 55 Silblings 024 203 Parerrtoffeprirrg 024 720 Heartedtogether niorlbiologicall relatives Siblings 032 714 Pareritoffeprihg 024 720 Source lVicGue Bouohard lacono amp Lylckerr 1993 Heritability statistical estimate of the proportion of the measured variance on a trait among individuals in a given population that is attributable to genetic differences among those individuals lf M2 is greater than DZ all we know is that there is positive contribution to genetic differences to individual differences Heritability Estimate how much of the variation among a given population of people is due to difference in there genes only to populations 0 if IQ is 50 is heritable it means that 50 of individual difference in IQ in the population studied are due to difference in genes 0 or 50 of variance in a IQ o NEVER about an INDIVIDUAL ALWAYS POPULATION Heritability estimate applies only to a particular population living in a particular environment 0 High heritability does not imply immutability Proportion of variance that is due to genetic difference among those individuals 0 Just a statistic speci c to population measured 0 Substantial for most traits most traits have heritability Rectangles single rectangle you cant say multiple rectangles you can tell differences what of genes can be attributed to genes and not environment all about the multiple rectangles Brain Development Structures of the Brain Neurons cells that are specialized for sending and receiving messages between the brain and all parts of the body as well as within the brain itself 0 Sensory neurons transmit information from sensory receptors that detect stimuli in the external environment or within the body itself 0 Motor Neurons transmit information from the brain to muscles and glands Interneurons intermediates between sensory and motor 0 Components of Neurons Cell Body contains basic biological material that keeps the neuron functioning specialized for fast communication Dendrites neural bers that receive input from other cells and conduct it toward the cell body in the form of electrical impulses RECIEVE Axons neural bers that conduct electrical signals away from the cell body to connections with other neurons SEND Neurons communicate with one another at synapses Synapses connection between axon terminal and dendrite of next don t physically touch a Electrical and chemical messages cross the synapses and cause the receiving neurons either to re sending a signal on to other neurons or to be inhibited from ring O n Trillions of them a A single neuron may have up to 15000 synapses a Foundation for brain and behavior 0 Glial Cells cells in the brain that provide a variety of critical support functions brains white matter 0 Formate the myelin sheath fatty covering over the axon to increase speed and efficiency of information transmission Deterioration MS The Cortex Cerebral Cortex quotgray matterquot of brain that plays a primary role in what is thought to particularly humanlike functioning from seeing and hearing to writing to feeling emotion Major Areas Primary motor cortex Primary somatosensory cortex lFronit all lobe Parietal lobe Prefrontal cortex Primary Visual cortex mostly hidden from View Primary olfactory c0rtex 39 ill I V mostly hidden from View O ClPlt r Dbe Primary auditory cortex mostly hidden from View Temporal lobe Lobes major areas of the cortex that is primarily involved in processing visual information o Occipital processing visual information 0 Temporal declarative memory visual recognition and the processing of emotion and auditory information auditory cortex language left 0 Parietal spatial processing as well as integrating sensory input with information stored in memory 0 Frontal organizing behavior the one that is thought responsible for the human ability to plan ahead memory and decision making attention 0 Association areas parts of the brain that lie between the major sensory and motor areas and that process and integrate input from those areas Cerebral Lateralization the specialization of the hemispheres of the brain for different models of processing o If you pick up a hot pot with your right hand it is the left side of the brain that receives the sensory response registers the pain and initiates the motor response to let go immediately 0 Corpus Callosum how the right and left hemispheres communicate o Cerebral ateraization the specialization of the hemispheres of the brain for different models of processing Developmental Process Neurogenesis and Neuron Development 0 Neurogenesis the proliferation of neurons through cell division Essentially complete 18 weeks after conception Occurs in hippocampus Second developmental process migrating to their ultimate destinations formed at base of neural tube a Programmed cell death Then take on speci c structural and functional characteristics of the different structures of the brain Main change in dendrites quotarborizationquot an enormous increase in size and complexity of the dendritic tree a Formation of spines formations on the dendrites of neurons that increase the dendrites capacity to form connections with other neurons Myelination formation of myelin sheath Neural tube neuron that is produced here migrates to its nal destination 0 Mapping the Mind 0 Electrophysiological Recording EEG recordings of electrical activity generated by neurons Eventrelated potentials ERP s changes in the brain s electrical activity that occur in response to the presentation of a particular stimulus Determine speci c thoughts feelings and behaviors in an individual 0 Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging fMRl uctuations in cerebral blood ow in different areas of the brain determine which areas of the brain are activated by different tasks and stimuli o Other Techniques PET measures brain activity by detecting the brains metabolic processes and brain development Synaptogenesis neurons form synapses with other neurons results in trills of connections 0 Begins prenatally and proceeds very rapidly both before birth and after 0 Formation of connections 0 Continues through life Synapse Elimination o Synaptogenesis can result in many neurons and connections that the brain cannot use Consequence newborns may experience synesthesia the blending of different sensory input 0 Synaptic pruning which synapses are rarely activated and are eliminated Increasing throughout early development and then decreased Visual is way more right after birth levels off sooner o Surplus A toddler has almost 2x as many synapses in visual cortex as an adult 40 are pruned by the time we are adults Continues through adolescence The Importance of Experience 0 What determines pruning Experience 0 You either use it or lose it The more a synapse is activated the stronger it will be come and therefore it will not get pruned o Plasticity the capacity of the brain to be affected by expenence A normal part of development 0 Nature and Nurture ln building the brain occurs differently for two kinds of plasticity n 1 involves the general experiences that almost all infants have just by virtue of being mean u 2 involves speci c idiosyncratic experiences that children have as a result of their particular life circumstances ExperienceExpectant Process 0 ExperienceExpectant Plasticity normal wiring of the brain occurs in part as a result of experiences that every human who inhabits any reasonably normal environment will have Experience that a normal human can expect 0 The brain requires particular stimulation at a particular time to develop normally 0 Speciestypical Downside vulnerability must hear it during our critical period ex language Patterned visual stimulation Voices and other sounds Movement and manipulation Bene t experience helps shape the brain fewer genes need to be dedicated to normal development Downside vulnerability if for some reason experience that brain is expecting for netuning its circuits does not occur development may be compromised 0 When an expected sensory experience is absent Can be partially reorganized to serve some other funcUon 0 Our experience of the external world plays a fundamental role in shaping the most basic aspects of the structure of the brain 0 Sensitive Periods Key element in experienceexpectant plasticity is timing especially sensitive to external stimuli 0 Learning Happens throughout life no critical period Individual differences Examples instruments new skills Governor was confusing these two processes Brain Damage and Recovery 0 Plasticity is better in children than in adults more adaptive 0 Kids can recall more of there language development 0000 O O 0 Adults may have permanent loss in the ability to comprehend or produce speech 0 Overall the likely of recovery depends on the severity of the injury overall The Body Physical Growth and Development 0 Growth and Maturation 0 Growth is uneven over time Boys and girls grow evenly at rst then girls grow quicker Body composition also changes with age body fat is highest at infancy and gradually declines o Variability Secular trends marked changes in physical development that have occurred over generations Failure to thrive a condition in which infants become malnourished and fail to grow or gain weight for no obvious reason Nutritional Behavior 0 Infant Feeding mothers milk is free of bacteria strengthens the infant s immune system and contains mothers antibodies again infectious agents the babe is likely to encounter after birth 0 Breast milk has positive effects on cognitive development but problem is breastfeeding is correlated with social class 0 Development of Food Preferences and the Regulation of Eating 0 Some are innate 0 Infants have strong preference for sweet Taste sensitive to own mothers milk Obesity 0 All over the world are increasingly adopting a quotwestern dietquot of foods high in fat and sugar low in ber 0 Genetic and Environmental Factors Weight of adoptive children is more strongly correlated with biological parents Identical twins including those reared apart are more similar in weight than fraternal twins Under nutrition Inadequate supply of protein calories vitamins and minerals or any combination
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