PY 370 Exam 3 Study Questions
Chapter 7: The Birth and Development of the Behaviorist Tradition To understand difficult, complex phenomena, a scientist should seek the simplest explanations. What is this principle called?
Portraying animal behavior in human terms is called
Who introduced the term comparative psychology?
George J. Romanes
What were the animals in the puzzle box supposed to achieve? Escape from it
What does the connectionism principle connect?
Situations & responses
Explain the learning curve
In theory, it should take an experimental animal a lot of time to escape from the box in the first place. Then, with each trial, the animal was supposed to spend less time and make fewer trials before a successful solution was found.
What Pavlov’s informal term for highest nervous activity
conditioned reflexes are also called
Pavlov received the Nobel Prize for what type of research
research of the digestive system and salivary glands
The 2nd signaling system according to Pavlov was
What was Pavlov’s characteristics of the nervous system?
strength, balance, & agility
How did Pavlov explain mental illness?
One of the characteristics of mental illness, according to Pavlov, was the individual’s difficulty or inability to form new reflexes.
What was his view of the use of animals in research?
Pavlov believed that the use of animals in research was necessary for the sake of science, medicine, and, above all, people. Don't forget about the age old question of What are emergent properties?
Bekhterev believed that 2 principal actions underwent significant change during evolution from plants to animals
attack & defense
The study of the emergence, development, & behavior of groups that display their collective activity in unity is called in Bekhterev’s terminology
How did Bekhterev understand immortality?
When a person dies, the decay of the body leads to decomposition of the organism into simple elements. Yet life is not over, it continues. It transforms into new forms of energy, including the thoughts and actions of other people.
Watson became APA president in
There are 3 founding principles of behaviorism: stimulus &response, habit formation &
How did Watson explain mental illness?
A habit disturbance (or a maladaptive reflex).
Who was Little Albert?
A 9-month-old baby who was a subject of psychological experiments on fear formation.
Among the founding principles of behaviorism, in Watson’s theory, are stimulus and response, habit formation, and_____________.
_______________is the term in Pavlov’s theory to describe physiological activities of the brain’s cortex; Pavlov commonly called it behavior
highest nervous activity
___________is the process of coinfluence between excitement and inhibition according to Pavlov. If you want to learn more check out What is general motors installment plan?
Morgan and Romanes were supporters of the ______ approach to comparative psychology.
Thorndike believed that a true psychologist must know:
Thorndike introduced a new experimental method labeled:
the puzzle box We also discuss several other topics like What is consumer behavior?
What was Watson’s view of introspection?
he ruled it out
Second signaling system, according to Pavlov is consciousness false
Jacques Loeb believed that consciousness was little more than the ability of an organism to gain behavioral options as a result of experience If you want to learn more check out Measurements of stars.
Bekhterev was a founder of the first German experimental psychological laboratory in 1879.
Chapter 8: The Birth and Development of Psychoanalysis Historians refer to young people living though WWI as the
Explain scientific perplexity & creative perplexity
Scientific perplexity refers to the scientific theories and new discoveries that interpreted the physical world and life—in all its forms— as extremely complex and multidimensional. Creative perplexity refers to the new forms of reflection and expression in the arts and other human activities.
Explain psychological resistance
Psychological resistance refers to situations in which patients were reluctant or unable to discuss their psychological problems with a therapist.
In Paris, Freud studied brain pathology in the clinic of
The accurate translation of ‘free associations’ is
Name the 3 key steps of psychoanalysis as a new method
Three steps: (1) collects the patient’s reflections, (2) analyzes them, and (3) interprets them to the patient
Dreams according to Freud were largely
Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality introduced Freud’s theory of libido We also discuss several other topics like What is okun's law?
When did Freud travel to the US
How did WWI affect Freud’s views of human beings?
Freud’s worldview became increasingly pessimistic. He saw human behavior as self-destructive and rooted in the repressed instinctual tendencies that lead toward destruction.
This is a repressed desire to destroy and kill: the death drive. Who is an analysand?
a therapist If you want to learn more check out Who is joseph mccarthy?
Which US president did Freud analyze?
How did Freud view & explain religion?
The roots of religion are psychological. Religion is rooted on the individual’s infantile fears, which are reinforced by cultural prohibitions. Religion also is a restraining force on human choices.
Physical or psychological difficulties that become impediments are called organ inferiority
There are 3 outcomes of an individual’s compensatory efforts: genius, degeneration &
What were the main disagreements between Adler & Freud?
Adler questioned sexuality as the most dominant force in human life— one of the central points of Freud’s psychoanalysis. Adler emphasized the importance of the relationships among siblings, not mostly that between the parents and the child.
Explain social interest in Adler’s theory
Social interest is the desire to be connected with other people. Individuals have to take into consideration other people and their interests. Social interest is the desire to adapt positively to the perceived social environment. Adler focused on organ inferiority, the individual’s compensatory tendencies, and on the individual’s social interest.
The process of fulfilling an individual’s potential by integrating opposites into a harmonious whole, by getting away from the aimlessness of life is called
Jung believed he was
Explain 3 main goals of Jung’s therapy?
The first goal of therapy was to teach patients how to learn their neurosis. The second goal of Jungian therapy was balance restoration (the mental energy in us is limited, and if we pursue one activity, other activities receive less energy). The third goal was individuation—the process of fulfilling an individual’s potential by integrating opposites into a harmonious whole
What is collective unconscious?
This is an impersonal layer in human psyche, which is inherited and shared with other members of the species. The content of the collective unconscious consists of archetypes, or images of the primordial (elemental, ancient) character. People, according to Jung, share similar ancestral experiences. These archetypes manifest in three universal ways: dreams, fantasies, and delusions.
In Adler’s vocabulary, attempts to overcome the discomfort and negative experiences caused by their inferiority are called
Freud labeled the repressed instinctual tendencies that lead toward destruction as:
What is the component of the psyche that makes compromises between the id and the environment and is guided by the reality principle?
According to Freud: this is the term standing for all the tendencies that strive toward the integration of living substance
Adler wrote about three major and interconnected social ties appearing in social interest
occupation, society, & love
Freud promoted him for the leadership position in the newly formed international psychoanalytic movement. Who was that person?
Jung modified and developed the method of free association, calling his own method simply:
the ‘association method’
Wish fulfillment—a symbolic attempt to realize an unfulfilled desire. The discharge of a tension by imagining a satisfying situation
Superego is the component of the psyche acting as the source of irrational impulses.
Eros—or life instinct, a collective name for all the instinctual tendencies that lead away from pain and suffering.
Chapter 9: The Paths of Gestalt Psychology
The 1933 German Law of the Prevention of Congenitally III Progeny was aimed at
the mentally ill
How did Nazism affect psychology as an academic discipline?
Nazism required scientists and educators surrender their personal interests and pledge their unconditional support to the state and its leadership. Nazism placed ideology rooted in racism and prejudice above science.
Why did communist ideologues consider psychology a ‘useless’ science?
Psychology was seen as a “useless” discipline because it could add nothing new to biology or physiology. It was believed that a scientist educated in neurophysiology, for example, should explain human experience better than anyone else. History and biology were considered the only disciplines necessary to explain human behavior.
What was another name for Gestalt psychology that didn’t last? Holistic psychology
Gestalt laws refer to
Explain some principles of Gestalt psychology by looking at something or somebody right in front
Take, for example, the Law of Figure and Ground. We perceive a person as somewhat separate from the background: we do not describe a chair,
or a desk, or a wall first; we see a person and then the details surrounding him or her.
Köhler maintained, contrary to Thorndike’s ideas, that the learning process is not gradual
What are the 3 important features of insight-based learning?
The first important characteristic of insight is the animal’s reflection of the whole layout of elements in the field. The second important feature of insight-based solutions is that they are a perceptual reconstruction of the task. The learning process is not necessarily gradual. It is very quick, almost instantaneous. The third feature is that insight-based learning can be transferred from one problem or situation to other situations and tasks.
Where did Köhler collect the data for his book The Mentality of Apes? Tenerife, the largest of the Canary Islands.
Topology in Lewin’s view helps describe
an individual’s intentions, actions, & conflicts
Lewin introduced 3 leadership styles: laissez-faire, democratic & authoritarian
Explain the Zeigarnik effect
Unfinished tasks are remembered much better than the finished ones. Who coined the term organismic psychology?
What were T-groups?
Short-term educational programs, a kind of collective training exercise. As members of a T-group, individuals learn the basic habits of group com munication, learn more about other participants and themselves, discuss group goals, and find different ways to improve the group’s effectiveness.
What were the individual features of some Gestalt psychologists for which they have been informally criticized in the US?
They were perceived (stereotypically) as caring more about impressive demonstrations rather than psychological research; they also appeared formal, dry, and incomprehensible.
In Gestalt psychology, this term stands for the ability of seeing into a situation, understanding its “inner” nature. This is also a sudden, intuitive perception or grasping of useful relations in a given situation. What is it?
What is the term for the correlated phenomena that people experience and the underlying processes in the brain?
He is regarded as the originator of the Gestalt theory. He suggested main theoretical principles and conducted early empirical studies.
If Wertheimer was a “pioneer” of Gestalt psychology, then Koffka was a: spokesperson
The Mentality of Apes was written by:
Köhler maintained, contrary to Thorndike’s assumptions, that the learning process
is very quick, almost instantaneous
Before the war, Köhler was sent to conduct research on animal cognition. What kind of animals did he study?
In Nazi Germany, authors of non-Aryan origin were banned and their books burned.
Gestalt has several meanings including “value” “role,” “norm,” or “custom.” False
In 1913, right before the war, Köhler was sent to conduct research in the United States and Canada
Chapter 10: Theoretical and Applied Psychology After the Great War Francis Cecil Sumner was the 1st African American to
get a PhD in psychology
Early Chinese psychology in the 2oth century was heavily influenced by Japanese scholars
Name at least 3 obstacles that American women choosing a career in psychology faced in the 1920s
Social tradition; gender prejudice; and the common practice of allocating women to assisting positions.
On the basis of measurements of the Army Testing Project, psychologists wanted to create categories of the recruits according to their ______
A particular issue w/which the physicians at Ellis Island had to contend during testing procedure was the identification of cases of
Name the difference between the Alpha & Beta tests
The Army Alpha Test was designed for literate groups and the Army Beta for those who were illiterate, had very poor English written skills, or were non-English speakers. The Alpha test contained eight subtests on analogies, questions on everyday judgments, understanding of directions given, simple arithmetic problems, and so on. The Beta test included picture completion, drawing, and symbol recognition.
What was the popular belief about the sources of human intelligence? it was believed to be inherited
Mental surveys were designed to study
Psychologists at the Iowa Child Welfare Station studied mainly ordinary children
What was the contribution of the Iowa Child Welfare Station to the nature nurture debate?
IQ could be changed by deliberate effort in a particular social and education environment.
Where was the Hawthorne manufacturing plant?
Who is a founder of sports psychology in the US?
What is the Hawthorne effect?
A positive effect of properly organized work relationships on workers’ productivity and satisfaction.
What were Vygotsky’s university degrees?
Law & history/philosophy
What is cultural medication in Vygotsky’s theory of human consciousness?
Every psychological function, thinking as an example, appears twice. First, It is an “outside” social activity or learning. Second, this learning is internalized as thinking. Human consciousness therefore should be understood in the context of interaction of an individual with the outside world. The essence of human consciousness is in its unity with the cultural environment.
What are the practical applications of Vygotsky’s idea of the zone of proximal development?
Not only do teachers and parents follow and accommodate children but also challenge, accelerate, improve, and enhance their potential.
The formal operations stage according to Piaget develops after age
Piaget spent most of his professional life at the
University of Geneva
What was the essence of Piaget’s interview method?
Piaget asked children to solve certain problems or perform educational tasks. First, he would ask a child a standard question and record an answer. Then, he would ask the child additional, nonstandard questions based on the responses. Piaget emphasized the importance of giving full attention to the child, stressing listening, refraining from arguing, paying attention to what the child does, and helping the child say what she or he wants to say. Piaget’s main task was not only to record and interpret the child’s words but also to see how the words and sentences relate to the task that the child performs.
What is genetic epistemology?
Attempts to explain knowledge (scientific knowledge in particular) from the standpoint of knowledge’s history.
A method requiring participants to explore their own internal conflicts through acting out their emotions in front of one another was called
What is the difference between personality & character?
Character is rather a moral category. Personality refers to the objective self, the fundamental adjustment patterns that an individual forms over the course of his or her experience.
What is the authoritarian personality?
Such individuals are prone to mystical thinking and prejudice against particular social groups. They are obedient to authority figures, resistant to innovation, and prone to anger and violence. These individuals—because of their psychological features—eagerly accept limits on their freedom and accept social injustice.
This term was coined by German psychologist William Stern and stood for the branch of applied psychology directed toward treatment of human problems:
This was an approach initiated by Allport who argued that personality consists of a potent collection of qualities or traits
In the Vygotsky’s system, the difference between a child’s learning progress with help or guidance and learning achievement without guidance of an adult is called
zone of proximal development
Vygotsky considered speech a special ________, which our ancestors acquired in the process of evolution
Vygotsky is remembered as a founder of the field called
Approximately in the 1920s, American psychologists generally accepted the term character to describe the moral aspect of behavior. Temperament referred largely to
Muzafer Sherif showed in his experiments how people form _______________ or patterns of actions or judgments that influence the behavior of individuals later on.
Overall, the results of the Army Testing Project did not bring significant changes to the way the military selected and placed its recruits.
Researchers and practitioners as well as the general public in the United States in the early 20th century believed that human intelligence was socially determined
In collaboration with the National Research Council, the Western Electric Company conducted research at its Hawthorne-Bloomberg manufacturing plant in New York