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UA / Psychology / PSY 370 / What jacques loeb believes?

What jacques loeb believes?

What jacques loeb believes?

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School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Psychology
Course: History and Systems
Professor: Steele
Term: Fall 2015
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Cost: 50
Name: PY 370 Exam 3 study questions
Description: practice questions for test 3
Uploaded: 03/30/2016
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PY 370 Exam 3 Study Questions


What jacques loeb believes?



Chapter 7: The Birth and Development of the Behaviorist Tradition To understand difficult, complex phenomena, a scientist should seek the  simplest explanations. What is this principle called?

Parsimony  

Portraying animal behavior in human terms is called

Anthropomorphism

Who introduced the term comparative psychology?

George J. Romanes

What were the animals in the puzzle box supposed to achieve? Escape from it

What does the connectionism principle connect?

Situations & responses  

Explain the learning curve

In theory, it should take an experimental animal a lot of time to escape  from the box in the first place. Then, with each trial, the animal was supposed to spend less time and make fewer trials before a successful  solution was found.


Induction is the process of what?



What Pavlov’s informal term for highest nervous activity

behavior

conditioned reflexes are also called

acquired

Pavlov received the Nobel Prize for what type of research

research of the digestive system and salivary glands  

The 2nd signaling system according to Pavlov was

language

What was Pavlov’s characteristics of the nervous system?

strength, balance, & agility

How did Pavlov explain mental illness?

One of the characteristics of mental illness, according to Pavlov, was the  individual’s difficulty or inability to form new reflexes.

What was his view of the use of animals in research?


How did wwi affect freud’s views of human beings?



Pavlov believed that the use of animals in research was necessary for the  sake of science, medicine, and, above all, people. Don't forget about the age old question of What are emergent properties?

Bekhterev believed that 2 principal actions underwent significant change  during evolution from plants to animals

attack & defense

The study of the emergence, development, & behavior of groups that  display their collective activity in unity is called in Bekhterev’s terminology

collective reflexology

How did Bekhterev understand immortality?

When a person dies, the decay of the body leads to decomposition of the  organism into simple elements. Yet life is not over, it continues. It  transforms into new forms of energy, including the thoughts and actions of  other people.  

Watson became APA president in  

1915

There are 3 founding principles of behaviorism: stimulus &response, habit  formation &

habit integration

How did Watson explain mental illness?

A habit disturbance (or a maladaptive reflex).  

Who was Little Albert?

A 9-month-old baby who was a subject of psychological experiments on  fear formation.  

Among the founding principles of behaviorism, in Watson’s theory, are stimulus  and response, habit formation, and_____________.

habit integration

_______________is the term in Pavlov’s theory to describe physiological activities  of the brain’s cortex; Pavlov commonly called it behavior

highest nervous activity

___________is the process of coinfluence between excitement and inhibition  according to Pavlov. If you want to learn more check out What is general motors installment plan?

induction

Morgan and Romanes were supporters of the ______ approach to comparative  psychology.

anthropomorphic

Thorndike believed that a true psychologist must know:

math

Thorndike introduced a new experimental method labeled:

the puzzle box We also discuss several other topics like What is consumer behavior?

What was Watson’s view of introspection?

he ruled it out

Second signaling system, according to Pavlov is consciousness false

Jacques Loeb believed that consciousness was little more than the ability of an  organism to gain behavioral options as a result of experience If you want to learn more check out Measurements of stars.

true

Bekhterev was a founder of the first German experimental psychological  laboratory in 1879.

false

Chapter 8: The Birth and Development of Psychoanalysis Historians refer to young people living though WWI as the

lost generation

Explain scientific perplexity & creative perplexity

Scientific perplexity refers to the scientific theories and new discoveries  that interpreted the physical world and life—in all its forms— as extremely  complex and multidimensional. Creative perplexity refers to the new  forms of reflection and expression in the arts and other human activities.  

Explain psychological resistance

Psychological resistance refers to situations in which patients were  reluctant or unable to discuss their psychological problems with a  therapist.

In Paris, Freud studied brain pathology in the clinic of

Charcot

The accurate translation of ‘free associations’ is

‘free occurrences’

Name the 3 key steps of psychoanalysis as a new method

Three steps: (1) collects the patient’s reflections, (2) analyzes them, and  (3) interprets them to the patient  

Dreams according to Freud were largely

wish fulfillment

Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality introduced Freud’s theory of libido We also discuss several other topics like What is okun's law?

When did Freud travel to the US

1909

How did WWI affect Freud’s views of human beings?

Freud’s worldview became increasingly pessimistic. He saw human  behavior as self-destructive and rooted in the repressed instinctual  tendencies that lead toward destruction.  

Explain Thanatos

This is a repressed desire to destroy and kill: the death drive. Who is an analysand?

a therapist If you want to learn more check out Who is joseph mccarthy?

Which US president did Freud analyze?

Wilson

How did Freud view & explain religion?

The roots of religion are psychological. Religion is rooted on the  individual’s infantile fears, which are reinforced by cultural prohibitions.  Religion also is a restraining force on human choices.

Physical or psychological difficulties that become impediments are called organ inferiority  

There are 3 outcomes of an individual’s compensatory efforts: genius,  degeneration &

neurosis

What were the main disagreements between Adler & Freud?

Adler questioned sexuality as the most dominant force in human life— one  of the central points of Freud’s psychoanalysis. Adler emphasized the  importance of the relationships among siblings, not mostly that between  the parents and the child.

Explain social interest in Adler’s theory

Social interest is the desire to be connected with other people. Individuals  have to take into consideration other people and their interests. Social  interest is the desire to adapt positively to the perceived social  environment. Adler focused on organ inferiority, the individual’s  compensatory tendencies, and on the individual’s social interest.  

The process of fulfilling an individual’s potential by integrating opposites into  a harmonious whole, by getting away from the aimlessness of life is called

individuation

Jung believed he was

an introvert

Explain 3 main goals of Jung’s therapy?

The first goal of therapy was to teach patients how to learn their neurosis.  The second goal of Jungian therapy was balance restoration (the mental  energy in us is limited, and if we pursue one activity, other activities  receive less energy). The third goal was individuation—the process of  fulfilling an individual’s potential by integrating opposites into a  harmonious whole  

What is collective unconscious?

This is an impersonal layer in human psyche, which is inherited and shared  with other members of the species. The content of the collective  unconscious consists of archetypes, or images of the primordial  (elemental, ancient) character. People, according to Jung, share similar  ancestral experiences. These archetypes manifest in three universal ways:  dreams, fantasies, and delusions.

In Adler’s vocabulary, attempts to overcome the discomfort and negative  experiences caused by their inferiority are called

compensation

Freud labeled the repressed instinctual tendencies that lead toward destruction  as:

death wish

What is the component of the psyche that makes compromises between the id  and the environment and is guided by the reality principle?

ego

According to Freud: this is the term standing for all the tendencies that strive  toward the integration of living substance

eros

Adler wrote about three major and interconnected social ties appearing in  social interest

occupation, society, & love

Freud promoted him for the leadership position in the newly formed international  psychoanalytic movement. Who was that person?

Jung

Jung modified and developed the method of free association, calling his own  method simply:

the ‘association method’

Wish fulfillment—a symbolic attempt to realize an unfulfilled desire. The  discharge of a tension by imagining a satisfying situation

true

Superego is the component of the psyche acting as the source of irrational  impulses.

false

Eros—or life instinct, a collective name for all the instinctual tendencies that lead  away from pain and suffering.

true

Chapter 9: The Paths of Gestalt Psychology

The 1933 German Law of the Prevention of Congenitally III Progeny was aimed  at

the mentally ill

How did Nazism affect psychology as an academic discipline?

Nazism required scientists and educators surrender their personal interests  and pledge their unconditional support to the state and its leadership.  Nazism placed ideology rooted in racism and prejudice above science.

Why did communist ideologues consider psychology a ‘useless’ science?

Psychology was seen as a “useless” discipline because it could add  nothing new to biology or physiology. It was believed that a scientist  educated in neurophysiology, for example, should explain human  experience better than anyone else. History and biology were considered  the only disciplines necessary to explain human behavior.

What was another name for Gestalt psychology that didn’t last? Holistic psychology

Gestalt laws refer to

perceptual functioning

Explain some principles of Gestalt psychology by looking at something or  somebody right in front

Take, for example, the Law of Figure and Ground. We perceive a person  as somewhat separate from the background: we do not describe a chair,

or a desk, or a wall first; we see a person and then the details surrounding  him or her.  

Köhler maintained, contrary to Thorndike’s ideas, that the learning process is not gradual

What are the 3 important features of insight-based learning?

The first important characteristic of insight is the animal’s reflection of the  whole layout of elements in the field. The second important feature of  insight-based solutions is that they are a perceptual reconstruction of the  task. The learning process is not necessarily gradual. It is very quick,  almost instantaneous. The third feature is that insight-based learning can  be transferred from one problem or situation to other situations and tasks.

Where did Köhler collect the data for his book The Mentality of Apes? Tenerife, the largest of the Canary Islands.

Topology in Lewin’s view helps describe

an individual’s intentions, actions, & conflicts

Lewin introduced 3 leadership styles: laissez-faire, democratic & authoritarian  

Explain the Zeigarnik effect

Unfinished tasks are remembered much better than the finished ones. Who coined the term organismic psychology?

Goldstein

What were T-groups?

Short-term educational programs, a kind of collective training exercise. As  members of a T-group, individuals learn the basic habits of group com munication, learn more about other participants and themselves, discuss  group goals, and find different ways to improve the group’s effectiveness.

What were the individual features of some Gestalt psychologists for which they  have been informally criticized in the US?

They were perceived (stereotypically) as caring more about impressive  demonstrations rather than psychological research; they also appeared  formal, dry, and incomprehensible.

In Gestalt psychology, this term stands for the ability of seeing into a situation,  understanding its “inner” nature. This is also a sudden, intuitive perception or  grasping of useful relations in a given situation. What is it?

insight

What is the term for the correlated phenomena that people experience and the  underlying processes in the brain?

isomorphism

He is regarded as the originator of the Gestalt theory. He suggested main  theoretical principles and conducted early empirical studies.

Max Wertheimer

If Wertheimer was a “pioneer” of Gestalt psychology, then Koffka was a: spokesperson

The Mentality of Apes was written by:

Köhler

Köhler maintained, contrary to Thorndike’s assumptions, that the learning  process

is very quick, almost instantaneous

Before the war, Köhler was sent to conduct research on animal cognition. What  kind of animals did he study?

monkeys

In Nazi Germany, authors of non-Aryan origin were banned and their books  burned.

True

Gestalt has several meanings including “value” “role,” “norm,” or “custom.” False

In 1913, right before the war, Köhler was sent to conduct research in the United  States and Canada

false

Chapter 10: Theoretical and Applied Psychology After the Great War Francis Cecil Sumner was the 1st African American to

get a PhD in psychology

Early Chinese psychology in the 2oth century was heavily influenced by Japanese scholars  

Name at least 3 obstacles that American women choosing a career in  psychology faced in the 1920s

Social tradition; gender prejudice; and the common practice of allocating  women to assisting positions.

On the basis of measurements of the Army Testing Project, psychologists wanted  to create categories of the recruits according to their ______

mental abilities

A particular issue w/which the physicians at Ellis Island had to contend during  testing procedure was the identification of cases of

mental deficiency

Name the difference between the Alpha & Beta tests

The Army Alpha Test was designed for literate groups and the Army Beta  for those who were illiterate, had very poor English written skills, or were  non-English speakers. The Alpha test contained eight subtests on  analogies, questions on everyday judgments, understanding of directions  given, simple arithmetic problems, and so on. The Beta test included  picture completion, drawing, and symbol recognition.

What was the popular belief about the sources of human intelligence? it was believed to be inherited

Mental surveys were designed to study

mental capacity

Psychologists at the Iowa Child Welfare Station studied mainly ordinary children

What was the contribution of the Iowa Child Welfare Station to the nature nurture debate?

IQ could be changed by deliberate effort in a particular social and  education environment.  

Where was the Hawthorne manufacturing plant?

Chicago

Who is a founder of sports psychology in the US?

Coleman Griffith

What is the Hawthorne effect?

A positive effect of properly organized work relationships on workers’  productivity and satisfaction.  

What were Vygotsky’s university degrees?

Law & history/philosophy

What is cultural medication in Vygotsky’s theory of human consciousness?

Every psychological function, thinking as an example, appears twice. First,  It is an “outside” social activity or learning. Second, this learning is  internalized as thinking. Human consciousness therefore should be  understood in the context of interaction of an individual with the outside  world. The essence of human consciousness is in its unity with the cultural  environment.

What are the practical applications of Vygotsky’s idea of the zone of proximal  development?  

Not only do teachers and parents follow and accommodate children but  also challenge, accelerate, improve, and enhance their potential.

The formal operations stage according to Piaget develops after age

11

Piaget spent most of his professional life at the

University of Geneva

What was the essence of Piaget’s interview method?

Piaget asked children to solve certain problems or perform educational  tasks. First, he would ask a child a standard question and record an  answer. Then, he would ask the child additional, nonstandard questions  based on the responses. Piaget emphasized the importance of giving full  attention to the child, stressing listening, refraining from arguing, paying  attention to what the child does, and helping the child say what she or he  wants to say. Piaget’s main task was not only to record and interpret the  child’s words but also to see how the words and sentences relate to the  task that the child performs.

What is genetic epistemology?

Attempts to explain knowledge (scientific knowledge in particular) from  the standpoint of knowledge’s history.

A method requiring participants to explore their own internal conflicts through  acting out their emotions in front of one another was called

psychodrama

What is the difference between personality & character?

Character is rather a moral category. Personality refers to the objective  self, the fundamental adjustment patterns that an individual forms over the  course of his or her experience.

What is the authoritarian personality?

Such individuals are prone to mystical thinking and prejudice against  particular social groups. They are obedient to authority figures, resistant to  innovation, and prone to anger and violence. These individuals—because  of their psychological features—eagerly accept limits on their freedom  and accept social injustice.

This term was coined by German psychologist William Stern and stood for the  branch of applied psychology directed toward treatment of human problems:

psychotechnics

This was an approach initiated by Allport who argued that personality consists of  a potent collection of qualities or traits

trait theory

In the Vygotsky’s system, the difference between a child’s learning progress with  help or guidance and learning achievement without guidance of an adult is  called

zone of proximal development

Vygotsky considered speech a special ________, which our ancestors acquired in  the process of evolution

tool

Vygotsky is remembered as a founder of the field called

special education

Approximately in the 1920s, American psychologists generally accepted the  term character to describe the moral aspect of behavior. Temperament  referred largely to

biological factors

Muzafer Sherif showed in his experiments how people form _______________ or  patterns of actions or judgments that influence the behavior of individuals later  on.

group norms

Overall, the results of the Army Testing Project did not bring significant changes  to the way the military selected and placed its recruits.

true

Researchers and practitioners as well as the general public in the United States  in the early 20th century believed that human intelligence was socially  determined

false

In collaboration with the National Research Council, the Western Electric  Company conducted research at its Hawthorne-Bloomberg manufacturing  plant in New York

False

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