Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide GEO 101
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emma Foster on Tuesday January 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GEO 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Keene in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 342 views.
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Date Created: 01/27/15
Geo 101 The Dynamic Earth Exam 1 Study Guide THIS IS NOT ALL INCLUSIVE especially if you don t ll it out fully 1 What is science A method for learning about the natural world Often referring to the body of knowledge acquired through the method What are the main parts of the scienti c method and what happens during those hases A proposed explanation for a speci c problem what we would expect to happen or what we would expect to observe if this idea was accurate information gleaned from observations usually observations that are made in a standardized way test results andor observations that may either help support or help refute a scienti c idea scienti c ideas supported by an abundance of evidence EXPLORATION AND DISCOVERY 9 TESTING IDEAS Gathering data amp Interpreting data 9 COMMUNITY ANALYSIS AND FEEDBACK 9 BENEFITS AND OUTCOMES Study your de nition sheet In addition to knowing the de nitions be able to answer questions like What is the difference between this word and that word De nitions A method for learning about the natural world Often referring to the bod of knowledge acquired through the method A proposed explanation for a speci c problem What we would expect to happen or what we would expect to observe if this idea was accurate Information gleaned from observations usually observations that are made in a standardized way Test results andor observations that may either help support or help refute a scienti c idea A widely accepted explanation for why things work the way the do h The physical processes that function today functioned in basicall the same manner in the past The scienti c of the composition behavior and history of the earth or other planetary body 4 How do scientists tell others about their work Publishing Journals Conferences Books scientists don t write many books An open continuous debate scientists are discussing nding every single day to ask more questions 5 How does peer review work as part of the scientific method Peer review helps disprove or support someone s topic It brings in other ideas and information from other sources to make research more accurate Peer review also helps with things such as revising 6 Who are scientists where do they work and where do they get the money for research are anyone who uses the scienti c method anyone can be a scientist Scientists work in do all types of research and must publish and do applied research and don t publish as much Scientists get their money from consumers and N onpro t organizations 7 Know the common reasons for misunderstanding scientific results that we covered in class A hypothesis has explanatory power and a prediction does not Prediction black car will be hotter than white car Hypothesis dark colored objects absorb more solar heat than light colored objects ARE NOT proven Scientists don t seek to prove Everyday we nd something new and that changes the way we look at things Changing what we think we know beauty of scienti c method Data is systematic collection NOT anecdotal information Evidence needs a speci c question before you search for it Data isn t useful unless there is a question Ask questions rst and then determine the data that will answer that question 8 What is geology and what do geologists study is the scienti c study of the composition behavior and history of the earth Geologists study every aspect of earth and other planets 0 Land Air Oceans 9 Why is geology important Geology is important because everything you use is either grown or mined To do this geologists must 0 Find Grade 0 Extract Usually clean up The material that is to be used 10 What are some of the major geologic resources of Alabama Birmingham Steel Many different coal and limestone deposits Oil amp gas Industrial Mineral Coal 11 How old are the universe earth and moon and how did they form The universe is billion years ago old The earth is years old The moon is years old They formed because of the 12 What does the Big Bang theory explain and what is the evidence for it The Big Bang theory states that all matter and energy everything that now constitutes the Universe was initially packed into an infinitesimally small point The point exploded and the Universe evolved 13 What are the different layers of the earth what are their physical properties and how do we know this Layers of the Earth Crust o 39 1525 miles less dense mostly made out of granite o 46 miles more dense made out of basalt Transition Zone largest layer of mantle becomes softer as you go down Mantle plasticsolid but can change shape 0 Upper Mantle 0 Lower Mantle Core ironrich creates magnetic field 0 liquid 0 solid We know about the layers because of uses natural or added wave energy measure how the waves behave 14 What is a tectonic plate What are their properties a piece of lithosphere 9 Some oceanic 9 Some oceaniccontinental 9 Move 1 to 15 cmyear 15 Understand the evidence that tells us the continents moved in the past Shape of continents Glacier deposits Climate belts Distribution of fossils Distribution of rocks Paleomagnetism different rock layers show different magnetic north 16 What is the evidence for sea oor spreading Midocean ridges Sediment changes thickness Seamount chain Earthquake distribution Fracture zones Magnetic reversals 17 What ha ens at each type of plate boundary both motion and geologic features 9 Two plates move apart Midocean ridge Continental rift 9 two plates moving toward each other Subduction zone reason for earthquakes at plate boundaries oceancontinent oceanocean Collision Continental crust cannot sink continentcontinent 9 two plates sliding past one another mostly oceanocean sometimes continentcontinent fracture zones 18 What is a hot spot volcano A random volcano that does not have anything to do with plate boundaries Single volcano 19 What are the mechanisms behind the movement of tectonic plates Ridge push Slab pull In uence of convection distributed 20 Why is understanding plate tectonics important 21 Be able to explain the purpose and structure of atoms and isotopes Smallest unit of an element Composed of Protons Neutrons Electrons Other subatomic particles Number of protons element atomic number C6 O8 Number of electrons char e ion atomic weight 12c 13c 14c Two kinds of isotopes 0 Stable o Radioactive 22 Know the kinds of chemical bonds we went over and how they work Chemical bonds an attractive force that holds two or more atoms together 1 atoms share electrons 2 transfers of electron one atom positive other atom negative 3 sharing a sea of electrons easily shaped ood conductor 0 weak charge in a neutral atom or molecule Holds clay together and determines how sediment is going to move 23 Know how minerals form 5 wa s 1 I freezing man minerals created out of one melt 2 h Atoms or molecules in liquid come out of solution 3 atoms moving in a nonmelted solid new mineral from old ressure and heat atoms inside migrate and recon gure 4 h organism creates precipitation from a solution Bones are made u of several minerals 5 crystallization from a vapor geysers and volcanoes I announced in class when we deviated from the textbook Please remember as stated in the syllabus that when the lecture and textbook deviate from each other the lecture is where you should get your information Extra of ce hours for exam prep Wednesday January 29 from 1100am until 200pm Try to come 1112 as another class will be discussing papers 122 and you may have to wait longer
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