AFRCNA 0031 Exam 1 Study Guide
AFRCNA 0031 Exam 1 Study Guide 0031
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Date Created: 01/27/15
AFRCNA 0031 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE Africana Studies born out of struggle and resistance 0 The 19605 served as both a context and encouragement for the emergence of a student movement which linked itself to these larger struggles for social change both on campus and off 0 What are the Four Basic Thrusts of Student Movement and what do they do 1 2 3 4 The Civil Rights Movement Break down barriers of legal segregation in public accommodations Achieve equality and justice for black Americans Organize black Americans into a selfconscious force capable of defining defending and advancing their interested The Free Speech Movement White student led protest against the rigid arbitrary restrictive and unresponsive character of the university The AntiVietnam Way Movement The general students protest against the Vietnam War The Black Power Movement Ushered in a new dialog about power in society and the university Stressed the importance of selfdetermination in three areas culture politics and economic and also emphasized the need for power in achieving and maintaining it Relevant Education an education that was meaningful to the students useful to the community and re ective of the realities of society and the world 1968 student union launched a strike 0 What were the Conditions of Emergence O O O Disappointment with civil rights and an unwillingness for outside assistance which was linked two calls for military and Black controlled education The rise of groups such as the Black Panthers in which individuals could learn the intricacies of movement tactics and form strong identification s with nationalist values Creation of foot soldiers the newly admitted Black students who were willing to be active protagonist s on college campuses Philosophical Considerations of Black Studies 0 O The critical and persistent truth and meaning in human history and social reality form an African vantage point A depthful intellectual grasp and appreciation of the ancient rich varied and instructive character of the African initiative and experience in the world and of the essential relevance of African culture as a unique and valuable way of being human in the world A rigorous intellectual challenge and alternative to established ways of viewing social and human reality o A moral critique and social policy correctives for social constraints in human freedoms and development 0 The cultivation of commitment and contribution to the historical project of creating a just society 0 What were the 6 Operationalizations 0 Discipline a specific branch of knowledge 0 Concept unit of knowledge 0 Paradigm model of an idea or ideas 0 Theory a set of interrelated suppositions that seek to explain a phenomenon Methodology system of methods and principles 0 Interdisciplinary the combining of two or more academic fields for synthesis of information 0 What is Black Studies 0 Black Studies is the critical and systematic study of the thoughts and practice of people of African descent in an emphasis on their current and historical unfolding 0 Calls attention to the diverse dynamic of African people 0 AfricanAfrican people in Africa and North America 0 What is Diaspora o The dispersion or scattering of people with a common origin 0 Focuses on the African American initiative in N America 0 Africana studies is a diasporan intellectual reality 0 People of color faced oppression that they had to resist What is Pan African 0 All Africans and people of African descent o Africana studies is the response to the idea of a colonial education which did not include people of African descent throughout the globe What is SESH o Thinkers who understood themselves in both moral and social terms and constantly expressed a commitment to using their knowledge and sills in the service of the people 0 Use their intellectual ideas to in uence public policy I Ex Dr Martin Luther King Malcolm X and others When did Precolonial Africa take place 0 Time period before the arrival of colonialism I This society was committed to learning 0 What was the African Conception of Knowledge 0 Value knowledge not just for knowledge sake but rather knowledge for human sake What was the Relevance of the Discipline o The need to solve the pressing problems of the Black community society and the world 0 The Afrocentric Paradigm by Ama Mazama Pg 5 It also means viewing the European voice as one among many and not necessarily the wisest voicequot O 0 this pushes back against the idea that Europeans had a universal definition of life She challenges the idea of all things European being best for humanity and all things human in terms of intellectual production Argued that most things European were good for Europeans but not for all of humanity What does EurocentricEurocentrism mean 0 O Privileging European ideas and culture at the expense of the culture and ideas of people of color Africana studies resists the intellectual hegemony resistance of the colonial project that didn t include the ideas of the African people Black people saw the Eurocentric western cannon saw western studies as resistance to social change What are the 5 Basic Objectives 1 2 To teach the black experience in its historical and current unfolding To assemble and create a body of knowledge which was contributive to intellectual and political emancipation To create intellectuals who were dedicated t community service and development The cultivation maintenance and continuous expansion of a mutually beneficial relationship between the campus and the community To establish and reaffirm its position in the academy as a discipline essential to the educational project of a quality education What is Service Learning 0 0 Service projects which are engaged in social responsibility that pursue a just society and the expanded possibilities of an equitable world Africana studies is an intellectually egalitarian concept democratic intellectual production should be able to transform those who don t have a v01ce What are the Grounds of Relevance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 It is a definitive contribution to humanity s understanding of itself Contribution to US society s understanding of itself Contribution to the university s realization of its claim and challenge to teach the whole truth or something as close to it as humanly possible A contributor to the rescue and reconstruction of Black history A critical contribution to a new social science Contributes to the development of a socially conscious Black intelligentsia and professional stratum Vital contribution to the critique resistance and reversal of the progressive Europeanization of human consciousness and culture The Mission and Goals of the Discipline 0 Three Central Areas 1 Cultural Grounding a Culture is the foundation and framework for Black Studies 2 Academic Excellence a Not only the amassing of data but the development of an interpretive capacity to understand and translate the African initiative and experience in the world 3 Social Responsibility a Using knowledge to improve the human condition and enhance the human prospect What are the 4 Developmental Initiatives 1 Protest 2 Institutionalization 3 Consolidation 4 Expansion 0 What was the focus 1 Professionalorganizations 2 The Afrocentric intuitive 3 Black Women s studies 4 Multicultural studies 5 Classical African studies 0 Professional Organizations of the Discipline 0 What was the African Heritage Studies Association AHSA o The AHSA emerged from a year of discussions within the lack Caucus of the African Studies Association ASA 0 They decided to form a new organization to address the needs of Black scholars and to correct the teaching of EuroAfrica rather than Africa in US colleges and universities o The AHSA sought to correct the Eurocentric version of Historiography done for political purposes and to address the misinterpretation manufacturing and manipulation of African reality in intellectual work I Pg 5 the voice of Europe is not necessarily the wisest onequot The Beginning 0 The first convention was held in June 1969 at Federal City College in Washington DC The founding president of AHSA was Dr John Henrik Clarke quoted below in the bullets I History is a clock that people use to tell their political and cultural time of day I It is also a sort of compass that people used to find themselves on the map of human geography I History tells the people where they have been what they have been where they are and what they are I History tells the people where they still must go and what they still must be because relationship between history and the people is the same between a mother and a childquot 0 AHSA African Heritage Studies Association o Committed to the preservation interpretation and creative presentation of the historical and cultural heritage of African people both on the ancestral soil of Africa and the Diaspora What were the 3 Functions of the AHSA 1 Ground and context for scholarly encounter and exchange I Brought distinction between the two 2 An organization role for other professional organizations I An umbrella organization 3 An advocacy organization for Black interests in education in general as well as on larger social issues 0 What were the 6 AHSA Fundamental Goals 1 To examine every aspect and approach to the history and culture of African people in this country and throughout the world I Pushing the idea of authentic historiography I Critiquing the idea of politicized historiography 2 To project in uence into every organization that relates to Africans and people of African descent I Development of the AHSA was a response to something idea of critiquing politicized and promote authentic historiography 3 To challenge and question all who claim authority on African life and history I Idea that Euro Africa was an extension of the colonial idea To use African history to effect a world union of African people To establish a new frame of reference in all matters relating to Africa meaning a critical panAfricanist perspective which stresses the inter relatedness 0 African people and the linkage of the intellectual with the practical 6 To define African heritage and to put the components of this heritage together to weld an instrument of liberation 0 What are the 2 types of knowledge 1 Knowledge for hegemony 2 Knowledge for liberation 0 What was the National Council of Black Studies NCBS o Founded in 1976 its first chairperson was Dr Bertha Maxwell Roddy I Engage in dialogue 0 What was Article II of the NCBS Constitution 0 The purpose of the NCBS is to be an accrediting body and to promote and strengthen academic and community programs in the are of Black Studies 0 What were the 4 Future Direction and Goals of NCBS 1 Continued Production of discipline literature and organizational documents 2 Ongoing and expanded grant and research proposals for development of projects for the discipline faculty students and community 3 Continuing organizational professionalization and reorganization for improved performance and service 4 Increasing and enriching contexts for discourse and exchange 0 ie conferences symposia and workshops S What was the Eurocentric Idea 0 Europe as teacher Africa as student Asia and India as student everyone else as student 0 Privileging the ideas and culture of Europe as best for all of mankind What was Colonialism o The time when continental African traditions values language culture motifs mores spirituality world views and cosmology were in tact and undisturbed by colonial interest What was Fort o Oppression 0 Time of invasion and disturbance characterized by 6 primary epochs and all points in between that parallel both on the continent of Africa and across the Atlantic Ocean in North America 1 991990 Colonialism Enslavement Jim Crow Apartheid DeFacto DeIurin Recovery and transformation 0 Continued advancement towards a global African response to the 6 epochs represented by all activity connected to collective agents 0 Have a working knowledge of this What are the Structural Frameworks and Developments in Africana Studies 0 Afrocentricity Dr Molefi Asante PhD Wrote Afrocen trity The Theory of Social Change Dr Molefi Asante was the developer of the first PHD program in African American Studies in the worldat Temple University in 1988 Popular misunderstanding of afrocentric idea was corrected with this 0 Afrocentricty Theory Emphasized location and centeredness African agency and African frame of reference in research methodology and intellectual production What is Ideology o A set of beliefs values and assumptions held on faith alone and generally unrelated to empirical facts that act as guidelines to or prescriptions for individual or group behavior The use of Afrocentricity vs Afrocentrism 1 To stress its intellectual value as distinct from its detractors ideological usage 2 To distinguish from Eurocentrism o Afrocentricity is not built on or conceived as a denial of worth and value to others 3 To establish it as a systematic quality of thought and practice What is the Afrocentric Theory 1 Placing African ideals at the center of any analysis that involved African culture and behavior 2 Centeredness the groundedness of observation in behavior in ones own historical experiences 3 A theoretical framework or methodology which stresses African agency it treats Africans as active subjects of history rather than objects or passive victims What are the Intellectual Conceptions of Afrocentricity 1 African culture is critical to understanding society and the human condition 2 As methodological orientation Afrocentricity contends that the most effective way of studying and understanding African people is from their own perspective 3 A way of approaching and interpreting data What is the Afrocentric Vision Glass 0 Demands that Africana studies root itself in African culture and in the world view which evolves from and informed that culture What 4 books make up the Afrocentric Theory 1 The Afrocentric Idea 2 Kemet Afrocentricty and Knowledge 3 Afrocentricity The Theory of Social Change book that started it all 4 The Afrocen tric Manifesto What is Black Women s Studies 1 The intellectual and practical struggles waged by Black women in the discipline itself because Black women scholars produced and insisted upon alternative visions of themselves 2 The key role of Black women played in developing the two major professional organizations of the discipline African Heritage Studies Association AHSA and National Council of Black Studies NCBS 3 The creative tension and discourse between Black womanists and feminists and white feminists and Black Studies and white women studies in the academy 4 The inquiry and ongoing criticism of relations into the Black Freedom Movement 2 Ideas 1 Response to Multiculturalism a Another attempt to dilute and divert legitimate claims and demands of African people and maintain the dominant worldview i Multicultural movement turned colored people into food fashion and festival b A superficial cultural diversion from more serious issues of wealth and power c A continuation of the struggle for a quality education 2 Development of classical African studies What was the Afrocentric Conception of Multiculturalism 0 Mutual respect for each people and culture 0 Mutual respect for each people s right and responsibility to speak out on special truth and make their own unique contribution to society and the world 0 What are Classical African Studies 0 The emergence in the 1980s of increased intellectual and academic stress on the study of Classical African Civilization especially Egypt What is the Association for the Study of Classical African Civilizations ASCAC o Founded at Southwest College in LA in Feb 1984 Who was Cheikh Anta Diop o Pioneered the African focus on Egypt as a classical African civilization What was the Research Method of Cheikh Anta Diop 0 Physical Anthropologyiconography melanin dosage tests osteological Bone measurement and blood group tests 0 Selfdefinition of the Egyptians who called themselves kmtyw or Kemetiu black people stemming from KMthe ancient 0 Reports of Greek and Latin 0 What is DeFacto o The tradition customs and practices sanctioned by a law What is Dejuring o The legal rulings that g sanctioned by law Who was WEB Dubois o Represents the idea of organic thinking 0 Born February 23 1868 in Great Barrington MA 0 Transition August 27 1963 I Ghana W Africa 0 Education I Fisk University BA 1888 Tennessee I Harvard University first Black American to graduate from here What is an Organic Thinker o A scholar who is deeply concerned with social conditioned NOT ABSTRACTIONS and how their scholarly work can change the nature of society and transform the day to day reality of people who do not have a heard voice 0 African idea of conception of knowledge 9 SESH 9 organic thinker 0 Not only concerned with ideas that remain in the halls of the American academies o Concerned w how his her ideas can be used to change the nature of society believes that ideas have consequences 0 Intellectually heroic imagination What was the importance of DuBois work 0 The profound importance of his scientific achievements were that they laid the materialist foundation for the study of race and racial oppression o Took abstract ideas and made them tangible Established that oppression and colonialism were centrally organized mechanisms of the modern world capitalist exploitation 0 World cant be understood or changed without understanding this The Souls ofBIack Folk by WEB Dubois o The problem of the 20th century is the problem of the colorlinequot Democracy in America by Alexis de Toucoueville The Philadelphia Negro by WEB Dubois groundbreaking text 0 Initiated the field of urban sociology and advanced empirical sociology itself 0 Empirically verifies the social and class origins of poverty and inequality Why is Dubois still talked about today 0 Quantitatively demonstrated that Black inequality at that time end of 19th century was a creation of poverty and lack of accesses to resources rather than the so called innate inferiority of Black Americans 0 Where does this idea fit in the operational paradigm of Black studies 9 Recovery and transformation as a response to oppression what type of oppression 9 Dejure 0 What are the 2 Groups 1 Group 1 Accommodation Conservatist Followers of Booker T Washington 2 Group 2 Supporters of Aggressive Protest What is Pragmatism by John Dewy 0 Human knowledge was severely limited to immediate experience life in the momentquot 0 Maintained that the possibilities for changing the world were restricted to the limitations of human knowledge 0 There were as a consequence no revolutionary alternative to poverty exploitation and oppression o Is this an organic inorganic idea 9 Inorganic idea because it does not see the possibility of social transformation it says all human ideas are quotstuckquot I Human reality changes on its own 0 What are the Organic Thinking Results by Dubois o Niagara Movement A black American civil rights organization founded in 1905 I Opposed to racial segregation and disenfranchisement I Opposed accommodation and conciliation o The Crisis Magazine the voice for civil rights Today the Crisis still remains the official publication of the National Association for the Advancement of colored people 0 What are Pragmatism s Roots 0 British empiricism knowledge derived from experience 0 Subjective idealism metaphysical doctrine that only minds and mental exist no emphasis on the material world 0 Logical positivism idea that observational evidence is indispensible What was Dubois Response to Pragmatism o For the young Dubois pragmatist s limitations on knowledge and transforming the world were intellectually unacceptable o DuBois argued that the ethical and moral imperative was determined on the basis of what actions they led to What is the Duboisian Ethic o The view that he would apply the principles of the social sciences to the social and economic rise of the Negro people 0 He sought to do for the issue of racialized oppression what Marx attempted to do for class exploitation What are The Atlanta Studies 0 One of the most significant bodies of scientific research on Black people at the beginning of the 20th century What is Colonialism o A specific form of exploitation that developed with the expansion of Europe 0 No raw materials or infrastructure began to take shape expansion of Europe into other places like Africa What is The Berlin Conference 0 Nov 1884 Feb 1885 o Called for by Portugal 0 Organized by German Chancellor Otto Von Bismarck o Instituted geometrical boundaries that divided Africa in fifty irregular countries What is The Berlin Doctrine and Acts 0 The doctrine of effective occupation by which Europe established the idea that it could occupy an entire country by controlling the conference along the coast 0 The doctrine of the spheres of in uence by which Europe established its right to control the African coastline 0 Thomas Pakenham The Response to Exclusion Marginalization and Invisibility What was The Negritude Movement 0 A literary political and ideological movement founded in Paris in the 19305 by a group of students from France the Caribbean and Africa 0 Africans from N Africa faced the same kind of xenophobia in France that Mexicans face in the US illegal aliens 0 African people were challenging this idea through the Negritude Movement 0 Ex Leanna DuMoss o Took place in France 19301940 What is Francophone o A French speaking person especially in a place where more than one language is spoken o Africans were francophoned because France colonized What is Hegemony o The political economic ideological or cultural power exerted by a dominant group over other groups 0 Attracted to the idea of knowledge for liberation o Included intellectual What was Negritude s Basic Ideas O O The Negritude writers found solidarity in a common Black identity as a rejection of French Colonial domination They believed that the shared Black heritage of members of the African Diaspora was the best tool in fighting against French political and intellectual hegemony What did Cezare and Sanghord do 0 O O O Developed concept of negritude Cezare important to him to discover his African roots I French colonialism taught him nothing about himself in terms of the African reality I Wanted to relocate himself as subject and not object French colonial education was imposed on him because he lived in France at the time 1920s trying to escape racial oppression in US because ofIim Crow de jure I Langston Hughes I Richard Wright Native Sun American jazz political challenge to reality similar to literature as it was a protest literature Through protest literature they were able to find their political voice What are The Three Tenets of Negritude 1 2 3 Denounced Colonialism Rejects Western Domination Promotes the acceptance of the Black self Who was Dr Carter Woodson PhD 0 O O O 2rld black American to graduate from Harvard University PhD in History unable to land a teaching post at Harvard because they were not hiring black professors so he went to teach at Howard University Born 1875 in Buckingham County VA Death April 3 1950 Buried in Maryland Son of the former enslaved African worked in mines until the age of 20 received high school diploma in 1922 Masters from U of Chicago considered as the father of black history I first began Negro history week in 1926 I expanded to Black History Month 1976 February Argued against the exclusion of African Americans In 1922 The Negro in our History his first book the direct challenge to a colonial education negro students are taught to admire the Hebrews Greeks Latins etc and taught to despise themselves and all other races who are subject to The MisEducation of the Negro written in 1933 What were Woodson s Beliefs o The study of black history using the tools of scholarly research and writing could serve a dual purpose It could be used to counter racial chauvinism which was used to rationalize the oppression of Black people in America What was The Afrocentric Idea in book The Afrocentric Paradigm pg 5 o The Afrocentric idea rests on the assertion of the primacy of the African experience for African people Its aim is to give us out African victorious conscious back In the process it also means viewing the European voice as just one among many and not necessarily the wisest onequot Afrocentricity pluralistic not hierarchical 0 Dr Asante critiques the idea critiquing the idea of intellectual hegemony o 1991 Newsweek Dr Asante talks about putting Africans in the center seldom operate as subjectsquot What are the Developmental Initiatives from reading in Ch2 o The Afrocentric initiative re ects the ideas of Woodson 0 Further challenging the limitations of a colonial education Most cherished books 0 The White Architects of Black Education by Watkins I 18651964 0 The Painful Demise of E urocentrism by Dr Asante The Afrocentric idea has NEVER argued against the idea of European intellectual production
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