Exam 2 Study Guide H160
Exam 2 Study Guide H160 SPH-H160
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Zoe Goldhirsh on Tuesday January 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SPH-H160 at Indiana University taught by Applegate in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 211 views. For similar materials see First aid and emergency care in Public Health at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 01/27/15
H160 Exam 2 Review guide Diabetes the body does not produce the correct amount of insulin lnsulin hormone that controls sugar levels 2 types of diabetic emergencies 1 Diabetic Coma hyperglycemia High blood sugar caused by an increase in food intake too much sugar with insufficient amount of insulin needs insulin to control sugar level SYMPTOMS weak and rapid pulse Air hunger breathing is heavy labored and rapid Breath smells sweet acetone dry mouth Skin is dry warm and ushed fever High blood pressure Complaints of thirst absence hunger vomiting GRADUAL onset GRADUAL recovery TREATMENTCARE monitor circulation airway and breathing and call EMS as soon as possible 2 Insulin Shock MOST COMMON hypoglycemia low blood sugar caused by a decrease or no food so there is too much insulin and not enough sugar NEEDS SUGAR SYMPTOMS rapid pulse breathing is normal and slow Breath odor is normal drooling possible Skin is cool moist and pale Body temperature is normal or slightly low Blood pressure is normal Complains of hunger tremors RAPID onset RAPID recovery TREATMENTCARE monitor CAB give sugar if victim is conscious call EMS is victim is unconscious When in doubt about which diabetic emergency it is ALWAYS give sugar Only insulin shock will show improvement but no harm to diabetic coma SIGN objective what you can see SYMPTOM subjective what the victim feels Stroke cerebrovascular Accident CVA Apoplexy disruption of blood ow to part of the brain that is enough to damage brain tissue Causes Thrombus a clot in blood vessel or cavity of the heart formed by clotting of the blood Embolus a clot brought on by the blood from another vessel and force into a smaller one so as to obstruct circulation Occlusion the act of closure obstruction to the ow of blood to the artery of the heart as a result of spasm of the muscle or presence of a thrombus Hemorrhage often occurs as a result of an aneurysm a weakness in arterial wall that balloons out rupturing This causes massive internal bleeding in the head Signs and Symptoms of Stroke altered levels of consciousness lll feeling appearance Sudden weakness or numbness on ONE SIDE side of the body Difficulty speaking or slurred speech Drooping of one corner of the mouth Blurred or dimmed vision UnequalpupHs Suddensevere headache Don39t have to have all symptoms to have a stroke FAST Face Ask person to smile and see if expression is uneven Arm ask person to life his arm note if one is dropping Speech slurred speech person cannot verbally form sentences have them say a simple sentence Time time which symptoms started and when you called for help Stay calm and reassure the victim that everything is okay Position on affected side down to help with circulation gravity pulling some blood down If stroke is ever suspected get help IMMEDIATELY don39t wait or let them go to sleep quickerbetter Care monitor circulation breathing and airway CALL EMS Seizures epilepsy a functional disability of the central nervous system of which convulsions seizures are the most common feature Levels Petit mal seconds long Grand mal 25 minutes long Status Epilepticus single seizure 15 minutes or more DR series of seizures Care and First aid DO NOT HOLD OR RESTRAIN PERSON Protect the person from injury by moving nearby objects out of the way such as furniture that might cause injury Maintain open airway Protect person s head with cushion Don t place anything in the person s mouth Position the person on their side after the seizure is done CALL EMS IF The seizure lasts longer than 5 minutes The victim has repeated seizures The victim is injured The victim is not known to have a predisposing condition that may have caused the seizure The victim is pregnant The victim is a child or infant who is experiencing an initial febrile seizure The victim has diabetes The seizure takes place in water Vascular causes of shock Cardiogenic inadequate function of heart muscle Neurogenic damage to spinal cord or central nervous system hypothermia may develop Hypovolemic due to uid or blood loss such as internal bleeding severe external bleeding or severe burns 30 loss of blood volume 3 pints will cause shock Heart Attack SYMPTOMS persistent chest discomfort longer than 35 minutes Pain in arm back stomach shoulder neckjaw Shortness of breathes or trouble breathing Nausea vomiting Dizzy light headed Sweating Pale grey or blue ish skin Faintingloss of conscious Denial Females are more likely to deny having a heart attack because their pain is not normally in the chest and although it is not true it is considered a quotmale39s diseasequot After menopause women are more likely to have a heart attack than men Don39t let any victim try and convince you out of helping if you think it is a heart attack USE SAMPLE AND OPQRST CARE call 911 Make the victim stop and rest Loosen any tight clothing Monitor vitals until ems arrives Take note of any changes Comfort the victim Give aspirin if no allergy See if they have prescription medicine Be prepared for CPR and AED earlier the better on rm at surface Cardiac arrest condition when the heart is not pumping blood Heart attack death of heart muscle tissues when there is not enough oxygenrich blood owing to the heart CPR compressions push HARD on the chest better harder than not hard enough Push down at least 2 inches 1 12 for infants RATE at least 100 compressions a minute After each compression let the chest RECOIL Breathes give two breaths in between 30 compressions watch the chest rise Keep doing CPR for at least 2 minutes or until EMS arrives AED de brillation will not be effective for a at line STILL DO CPR De brillation delivering a therapeutic dose of electrical energy to the heart 4 types of heart rhythm 1 Normal rhythm don t use AED 2 Flat ine don t use AED 3 Vfib when heart is quivering use AED 4 Vtach when heart is going too fast use AED PAD LOCATION Upper right of chest Lower left of chest Early CPR can help the blood ow and oxygen but does NOT restart the heart that is what you need the AED for The AED is intended to disrupt abnormal heart activity The sooner the shock is given the greater chance of survival When the AED rst arrives TURN IT ON wipe down victims chest place pads then plug it in STAND CLEAR As soon as you shock return to CPR immediately don t wait Chest should d be free of any patches or materials Get rid of any patches before performing the de brillation The nitroglycerine patches may cause explosion when in contact with the AED pads Electrical system of heart The SA node called the pacemaker of the heart sends out an electrical impulse 1 The upper heart chambers atria contract 2 The AV node sends an impulse into the ventricles 3 The lower heart chambers ventricles contract or pump 4 The SA node sends another signal to the atria to contract which starts the cycle over again HEAT EMERGENCIES 3 types Heat Cramps least serious Symptoms painful muscle spasms sweaty skin normal body temp Care Sit or lie in the shade Drink coolcold water to rehydrate Stretching muscles may help but DO NOT MASSAGE massaging brings blood heat to the area so stretch instead Heat Exhaustion Symptoms profuse sweating clammy skin body temp normal Dizziness vomiting headache Muscle aches rapid pulse thirst Care when mild sit or lie in the shade drink cold water Apply ice to body and call EMS if needed Heat Stroke VERY serious Symptoms unconsciousness if conscious confused HOT dry skin sweating stops Red face rapid pulse body temp can reach 105 Best to use cold water exits the stomach faster and will then hydrate and cool down the body quicker MOST SUSCEPTIBLE elderly and children along with women More common in women than men ANY heat emergency COLD EMERGENCIES 2 types Frostbite local or speci c freezing of tissues or cells Begins with frost nip Symptoms lack of feeling in the area Skin appears waxy hard skin black skin blisters Skin is cold to the touch Skin discoloration body part numb or absence of pain Caretreatment monitor vitals cover affected area GENTLY NEVER rub affected areas further damage Warm affected area by soaking in WARM water if victim self treats might burn cuz they don t have feeling of how hot the water is Bandage area with dry sterile dressings if ngers or toes place cottondressing between them so they don t freeze together Seek medical attention Remove wet clothing Susceptibility children and elderly most lmproper insulation Restricted circulation Fatigue Poor nutrition alcohol or drug use If frostbite is not taken care of it may result in Gangrene which can lead to amputation of affected areas Frost nip super cial frostbite deep frostbite Hypothermia Lack of heat low core body temp body temp below 95 degrees Exbosuresuscebtibilitv temperature wind velocity humidity fatigue and duration of exposure stress and injuries 5 STAGES OF PROGRESSION Shivering Loss of coordination Lethargy Coma Apparent death Never determineassume or decide the person is dead CareTreatment Stabilize body temperature Use blankets to cover every part of the body BUT the face Don t rewarm outside take person inside or warm environment because there is a chance of getting cold again U39lbUUNH Remove all and any wet clothing Other symptoms cold skin blue skin heart failure shock failure of vision confusion and sleepiness Bites and Sting Proper care initial assessment clean the wound stop the bleeding and ICE lce constricts blood vessels makes swelling smaller Snake bites wash with soap and water Remove any tight clothing or jewelry Calm and reassure the victim If you don t know if the snake is poisonous or not always assume that it is Don t come in contact with or move a deadinjured snake Never cut the skin or try taking the poison out with your mouth lLsect bitesgtingg Remove stinger by scraping it off not by picking at it no tweezers squeezing could break the poison sac into skin ICE Watch for anaphylaxis 30 minutes TICS found in wooded areas Use tweezers and pull STRAIGHT up from the skin do not squeeze or pinch the tic could release poison POISONS Who is the most susceptible Children and elderly Example elderly took the wrong medications Children eatingchewing on houseplants VERY COMMON one of the top leading cause of death for children 4 WAYS 1 Inhalation breathing in gases carbon monoxide dioxide fumes glues paints 2 Ingestion swallowing food poisoning medications 3 Absorption contact with skin plantspoison ivy fertilizers pesticides dry chemicaswith BSI BRUSH it off don t wash until after 4 Injection bites stings drugs and misused medications Sidns and svmbtoms Unusual odors ames smoke open containers overturneddamaged houseplants Mild headache Nausea vomiting tiredness Moderate seriousness throbbing headache confusion heart irregularities and drowsiness Severe poisoning convulsions unconsciousness heart failure brain damage and death 93 OF ALL POISONS TAKE PLACE AT HOME CareTreatment as soon as you suspect poison call POISON CONTROL BEFORE 911 Neutralizer helps absorb poison ie activated charcoal Induce vomiting if necessary DO NOT INDUCE VOMI39ITING BY STICKING FINGERS DOWN THROAT OR ANYTHING DOWN THE THROAT When rinsing poison out of the eye make sure the infected eye is on the bottom so you are not washing the poison into the uninfected eye
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