H160 Study guide Exam 3
H160 Study guide Exam 3 SPH-H160
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Zoe Goldhirsh on Tuesday January 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SPH-H160 at Indiana University taught by Applegate in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 221 views. For similar materials see First aid and emergency care in Public Health at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 01/27/15
H160 Exam 3 Review Guide Childhood Emergencies Leading cause of death for children over 1 unintentional injuries When checking a child 1 Do not remove child from parents or loved ones 2 Try to stay at the child s eye level 3 Remain calm 4 Calm down parents or caregiver Get consent if parents are there if parents are not there consent is IMPLIED General Safeguards Child passenger safety car seats airbags Choking prevention and breathing problems many breathing problems are associated with childhood infections Temperature is an important vital sign with children Up to 2 years old a high temperature can cause a seizure Anaphylaxis 1 in 13 US children have food allergies Children39s normal vital signs Pulse heart rate child 70150 Infant 100160 Respiration child 1530 Infant 2550 Children and infants do not show the symptoms of SHOCK as soon as an adult would Child vs Adult More susceptible head and cervical spine injuries because their head is bigger than the rest of their body Major organs more susceptible because they are weaker and do not have as strong muscles Growth plate injuries with affect and damage growth in bones Infants proportionately large tongues so it makes them more susceptible to choke Seizures due to fever Febrile Child infant CPR 5 cycles 2 mins before you leave to call advanced medical care Injury Prevention Unintentional injuries Change at risk or not smart behaviors Examples car seat seatbelt rst aid kits hard hat helmets Products which help with safety such as child safety caps on medicine or doors gun locks door locks etc quotIf prevention knowledge were applied accidents could be reduced by 50 quot American Trauma Society Personal Prevention Vehice safety Home safety smoke alarms insurance falls poisoning and electricity Be a good bystander bullying sexual assault Avoid unlit areas Walking with someone Hazards Wet and uneven surfaces Slips trips and falls rank 3rcl causes of lost work days Poor lighting wrong tools bad weather big loads Fire Safety Have a re escape plan Have re extinguishers Check smoke detectors every 6 months Keep electrical appliances unplugged when not in use Never reenter a burning building Falls problem with age Elderly are unable to absorb physical trauma Women are vulnerable osteoporosis Medication side effects Work place safety 10 workers died every week in 2012 National Safety Counc Know how to activate emergency response Know location of rst aid kit and AED Wear recommended safety equipment Report emergencies or safety problems Very tasks and activities Take breaks mental and physical quotFalls down stairs are 2ncl leading cause of workplace fatalitiesquot National Safety Council Common injuries and Ergonomics Factors affecting risk of injury Age Gender Environment Use and abuse of alcohol Ergonomics improving the t between your body and your activity to protect yourself from injury Musculoskeletal Disorders MSD lnjuries often associated with repetitive strain or damage to muscles tendons nerves and joints Poor ergonomics will lead to MSD MSD Risk Factors Repetitive movements Not taking breaks Overstretching Posture Duration Twisting when lifting or bending at waist Repetitive lifting pushing and pulling Using wrong tools forjob Reducing Risk of Injury Organize your work area use good posture pick the right tools and prepare for the environment and weather STRESS Stress leads to injuries because of less concentration and focus 1 Eustress positive stress 2 Distress negative stress Stress busters Relaxation breathing Muscle relaxation Happy place imagery Shoulder shrugs and squeezes Exercise Time management and organization BACK PAIN low back pain is the leading cause of ergonomicrelated worker disability NSC 2014 D deformities C contusions A abrasions P punctures B burns Titenderness L lacerations Ssmm ng Burns BASICS 1 Stop the burning 2 Cool the burn cool water NOT cold water or ice 3 Cover with dry clean dressing to prevent infection LOOSELY Burns are highly susceptible to infection Theory of 9 s anything over 18 burned is life threatening Arm 9 skin Leg 9 skin on each side 18 together Front 18 Back 18 Head 9 2rml degree burn blistering starts 3ml degree burns not as painful as 2rml because the nerve endings are burnt and destroyed Seriousness depends on Location hands feet head or genitals make it more senous Age young and old are more susceptible and makes it more serious General Health of victim if prior sickness it will make it more serious l Cause of burn will determine seriousness Thermal Burns caused by contact with open ames hot liquids hot surfaces and other sources of heat CARE check scene then victim if conscious get consent Stop the burning cool the burn Cover with dressing Chemical urns caused by a chemical reaction dry chemical l brush off rst before you wash it CARE ush skin with water for at least 20 minutes Remove contaminated clothing but avoid spreading the chemical to unaffected areas If eyes are involved flush with affected eye down from the nose outwards to avoid getting in unaffected eye REMOVE CONTACTS Electrical quotan5 caused by electricity entering and exiting the body can cause cardiac conditions ALWAYS SEEN BY PHYSICIAN OR ADVANCED MEDICAL CARE CARE pull the plug at the wall or shut off the current DO NOT touch the victim if they are in contact with electricity Follow steps for treating shock Receive medical attention When to call 911 lf burn is to the head neck hands feet orgentab If its an infant or elder Any life threatening conditions arise ANY electrical burns WOUNDS Closed skin s surface is not broken the damage is to the soft tissue and blood vessels bleeding you can t see Open Skin s surface is broken and there may be bleeding or contaminants may enter tear site bleeding you CAN see Nose Bleeds Apply direct pressure pinch nose 0 Don t lean head back avoid choking on blood 0 Lean forward Tooth Injuries Make sure tooth does not lead to choking Handle by the crown top ONLY 0 Do not rubscrape it because that can damage the nerve want it to be reattached Eye Injuries Keep eyes closed if irritant in eye or if you can t wash it out Puncture wound Always leave the object IN PLACE because you can cause more damage and cause more bleeding wrap around object 0 Also try and keep the person still Amputationsevered body part Stop bleeding with pressure rm o If you have the amputated part keep protected by 1 Rinsing it 2 Wrap in gauze 3 Place in vacuum sealed bag 4 Place bag into waterice bag 5 Take to hospital Always suspect and treat for SHOCK Simple fracture bone broken but does not break through skin Contusions bruising bleeding under skin skin not broken by damage to soft tissue and blood vessels Abrasion skin has been scraped away keep clean and avoid infection lncision Smooth cut with close edges Laceration jagged wide cute takes more time to heal Puncture pointed object piercing the skin clean to avoid infection Bleeding cleans wounds so with out bleeding punctures are at risk for infection Avulsion Skin or soft tissue partially torn away may hang like a flap Amputation Completely severed boy part 5 55 of Infections Swollen read throbbing warm fever red streaks bacteria in bloodstream BONES AND SKELETON Bones Provide structure and form protect internal organs and brain Muscles provide movement and protection of internal structures oints two or more bones form a joint ligaments and tendons hold joints together and provide joint strength Ligaments connects bone to bone Tendons connects muscle to bone Fascia connective tissue which surrounds muscles and joints SagittalMedian Plane Separates right and left halves of body FrontalCoronal Plane separates front and back halves of body Transverse Plane separates top and bottom half of body Superior Top Half above lnferior Bottom Half below Anatomical Position palms facing forward feet at on the ground standing straight up Ulna PINKY SIDE Radius THUMB SIDE lateral side Medial closest to midline of body Lateral furthest from midline of body outside Proximal Closest to midline point of body Distal Furthest from mid point of body Supine belly up face up Prone belly down face down Ventral bellyfront side of body Dorsal backside of body Fractures disruption or break in bone TYPES greenstick fracture incomplete break Transverse fracture break horizontally across the bone Spiral Fracture break twist through bone diagonally Oblique Fracture break at an angle Comminuted fractureimpacted fracture multiple pieces broken due to direct trauma and pressure Compound Fracture bone breaks through and sticks out of skin may have bleeding risk of shock and infection MORE PAIN Dislocations Fullsubluxations Partial separation of bone from normal joint position DReducing a dislocation popping the bone back into its place never do this as a rst aider Strain stretchingtearing of a muscle or tendon Sprain stretchingtearing of the ligament lateral sprains most common of ankle SPINE Cervical vertebrae 7 Thoracic vertebrae 12 Lumbar vertebrae 5 Sacrum 5 fused together TBI Traumatic Brain Injury Affects the nervous system and can lead to disabilities Indication of skull fracture nasal and ear milky white or bloody discharge DWHAT EFFECT DOES COLD HAVE ON THE BLOOD VESSELS Cold constricts vessels and makes them smaller in order to reduce swelling Cryotherapy use of cold for treatment lce massage circular motion direct cold only 5 minutes Heat has advantages but WAIT at least 48 hours after injury occurred to assist with circulation if applied too early more swelling will occur Rest Iceimmobilize Cold compression was taken out bc if done wrong it can cause more damage Elevation Compression takes up space to reduce swelling if done improperly can cause more damage than good Always wrap distal to proximal Elevation Gravity anatomical slingsplint does not have as much elevation Propped up not dangling
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