Lecture Study Guide
Lecture Study Guide APR 330
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One Day of Notes
HY 104-320 Cindy Jones
verified elite notetaker
HY 104-320 Cindy Jones
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
One Day of Notes
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Aerospace Engineering
This 30 page Study Guide was uploaded by Laura Gregory on Tuesday January 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to APR 330 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Tracy Sims in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 142 views. For similar materials see PR Writing in Aerospace Engineering at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 01/27/15
What is PR A strategic communication process that builds mutually bene cial relationships between organizations and their publics o 2way communication conversation with public The art and science of analyzing trends predicting their consequences counseling organization leaders and implanting programs of action which will serve both the organization s and the public interest 4Step Process 1 Research 2 Plan 3 Implement 4 Evaluate Effective PR Practices Communication skills Expertise in dealing with news media Knowledge of mass communication they dynamics of public opinion and the principles of persuasion knowing when and what to communicate Skills Necessary to the PR Writer Versatility in writing abilities technical to creative advertising to website Understanding of requirements of different media Competence in using visuals and sounds to convey message Reading thinking and writing critically and strategically Public Any group whose members have a common interest or common values in a particular situation 0 Internal publics are within organization such as employees and board of directors 0 External publics are outside organization such as news media clients business leaders Each communication projectplan requires careful selection of target or priority publics most important using 0 Demographics quantitative o Psychographics qualitative Common Types of Relationships Media Relations Consumerclient relations Employee relations Corporate relations Government relations Health care relations Alumni relations Donor relations Channels of Communication TACTICS The means by which or how one receives messages Individuals speeches meetings onetoone Mass media newspapers magazines books radio internet TV Specialized media designed for particular audience usually controlled by the institution using them email employee publications closedcircuit TV MUST be appropriate for the target and for the message Role of PR Writer Broad knowledge about 0 Companyclientorganization 0 Its publics 0 Speci c subjects depending on nature of project 0 Current news Quotations Citations Paraphrasing Summarizing Purdue OWL APAstyleorg Quotations 0 Use brackets to change a word 0 Use ellipses when omitting a few words 0 Add an extra period when omitting sentences Paraphrase o No quoting 0 Completely in your own words Summarizing 0 Identify main point of passage Citations 0 Not necessary when its common knowledge ex Preamble 0 Still use quotation marks when wordforword 0 Must correctly and accurately use quotes APA Style Basics Avoiding Plagiarism o Cite exact wording and ideas except common knowledge from sources 0 Use quotation marks for exact wording o Paraphrases and summaries Signal phrases o A phrase that integrates paraphrases quotes and summaries into your paragraph lntext citationsreferences o lntext citation author s last name and date usually year is enough include page number when provided Smith 2013 p ZB or Smith nd p ZB 0 References alphabetical listing of the works cited within Book 0 Reference 0 lnText Newspaper article 0 Smith J 2013 May 16 Online Newspaper Article 0 Smith J 2013 May 16 Ribboncutting marks opening Article with no author 0 Tuscaloosa Rotary foundation grant recipients 2013 June 30 The Tuscaloosa News Organization as authorNo date of publication Use citations when paraphrasing or quoting etc referring to speci c words comments etc on the Facebook Twitter etc Blog Post TV News Story Mission Statement Written de nition of organization s purpose that distinguishes it from other organizations Explains the organization s goals and ethics and attempts to delineate a speci c rationale or principle for organizations exercise 0 Sometimes you will nd speci c values in the mission statement or outside of the mission statement Should be tied to the long term goals of the organizations UA Mission Emphasis on quality programs of teaching research and service General Mills Mission Making lives healthier easier richer Publix Mission To be the premier quality food retailer in the world 0 Values Customer service call their employees their associates Value Statement Brief set of core values that ideally guide the actions of an organization The founding members generally make the value statement Visual ldentity The graphic standard that control and unite an organization s logos work marks brand names and trademarks Logo always has a graphical element to it maybe some words Work mark Words only Brand name s can be trademarked which means you own the visual identity and how its represented Outline the guidelines so people who use them know how to use them 0 UA marketing guidelines Organizational Culture The personality of an organization also known as corporate identity The assumptions values norms and tangible expressions of the organization s members and their behaviors Corporate Social Responsibility remember not everything is a corporation Sustainable business practices that illustrate organization as a responsible conscientious citizen Target commercials show the employees out and volunteering Publix First organization to push the use of reusable shopping bags Should be ALWAYS align with the mission of the organization Slug Line 13 word summary with page numbers top left corner Autism 1 in 68 children have it Many different autism organizations 0 quotAutism Speaksquot national Always refer to autism spectrum disorder with lower case 0 ASD can be used once the initial title has been used It is a disorder NOT a disease 0 Always second guess yourself on the terminology that is used Know the values in order to write for them Organizational culture Friendly family focused In PR world you EARN media coverage News Release A document that conveys newsworthy information about your company or organization An organization s most often used tool for gaining news coverage and exposure Sent to quotspecific news media outletsquot based on contentpurposetarget publics of the news release Written for journalistreporteror editor NOT the target public 0 But you want them to get it to your target audience 0 quotStaff Reportquot when a journalist puts your words verbatim in their article Newsworthy means it contains at least one of the following elements 0 Timeliness Relevance to current events or issues or relatedness to an important event that has just taken place ImpactMagnitude Degree to which it impacts the journalists readersviewers o UniquenessNovelty An interesting angle that makes it signi cantly different to similar stories 0 Con icthuman interest lnvolves a clash of people andor forces which quotappeals to readers emotionsquot 0 Proximity local coverage greater impact Describes events geographically close to the local coverage area and has a relevant for people in a speci c community or industry 0 Celebrity 0 See page 140 in PR Style Guide for news hooks 0 Types of News Releases Announcement new release highlights changes that have occurred within the organization 0 Upcoming or past events Fundraising information Introduction of new productsservices lnternal promotions News wires and appointments 0 Honors and awards Email News release 0 The subject line is the MOST important Spot announcements written when an external in uence or action has an effect on the organization 0 Ex Legislation 0 Natural disasters 0 Stock market uctuation Reaction release 0000 o Often used to counter or respond to something said or done in the public domain that has an effect on the organization and should be answered or redirected so that the organization can be on record on the issue Rumors Primate tool of political candidates and elected officials Bad news release provides the truth about a bad situation in a timely manner PR vs legal con ict 0 Layoffs nancial losses 0 Hostile takeover 0 Product recalls o Corruptions 0 Death of an employee Hometown release focuses on a local angle to a bigger news story 0 UniversityCollege Graduation 0 State of the economy 0 AfricanAmerican history month Feature release 0 Offers an alternative human interest news perspective to a larger news story Hybrid news release 0 Begins like a feature news release with an attention grabbing human interest lead but next paragraphs follow with inverted pyramid structure Short teaser news release 0 Provides just enough information to entice journalists to pursue the story by contacting the organization for more facts Diversity amp Persuasion Diversity 0 The condition of being diverse variety Variety of people in a group or organization 0 Underrepresented groups Women but not in the PR eld Members of racialethnic People with disabilities Gay and lesbian individuals Senior citizens Members of nonChristian religions 0 Should be a moral goal but it also could be a regulatory requirement 0 Good for organization s image and attractive to future workforce 3 Key Areas of Diversity 1 In communication PR staffs a Bringing together different values hopes concerns and communication traditions b Which should lead to fewer crosscultural blunders 2 ln sources a Drawing on diverse individuals when conducting research for the documents you write b Which should lead to a more informed writing perspective less bias and thus a more informed target public 3 ln target publics a Understanding that your target publics may come from very different backgrounds and thus have different values and expectations even though they may belong to the same social group b Avoid stereotyping while writingspeaking to large target audiences Diversity in writing Balance personal pronouns Avoid words that describe particular relationships 0 Ex quotYou and your GUEST are invited toquot instead of spouse wife etc Know the dates of all major religious holidays and events You don t have to identify individuals by demographics unless appropriate 0 Don t describe individuals by race ethnicity religion age sexual orientation or physical or mental characteristics unless that information is relevant to your document s purpose Follow AP style when using terms for ethnic or racial groups Apply your quest for inclusiveness to photographs and other visual representations of individuals Persuasion ALWAYS wear your persuasion hat and be ready to defend To move by argument entreaty or earnest reasoning to a belief position or course of action Most persuasive when seeking winwin situations bene tting all sides for organization and its publics ALWAYS have a bene tdriven purpose Process beings with listening to hopes fears concerns and desires of target publics Respond to key question WllFM 0 quotWhat s in it for mequot Turning oneway communication into twoway communication or dialogue Aristotle s 3 approaches to persuasion Advertising PAYING to show your message not necessarily promotions 1 Logos appeal to target s intellect produce a rational and logical argument with meaningful supporting factsstatistics a Also rational or quotlogicalquot appeal 2 Pathos Appeal to target s emotions a Should always know what exact emotion you are trying to evoke such as fear anger sympathy empathy hope and selfinterests 3 Ethos appeal based on one s character the credibility of the writer speaker representative spokespersons or organization a Ex Lindsey Lohan s got milk advertisement gives hope that you could be famous one day too Tip for Writing Persuasively Attribute message to experts in the eld to add credibility Include call to action what you want the reader to knowthinkdo as a result of receiving your message Time delivery of message for when it can be conveniently considered by the priority public and choose appropriate channels of communication Retain the reader s interest dramatize play the story or humanize make it relatable the issue through 0 Speci c examples and case studies 0 Descriptive languages action verbs speci c nouns analogies metaphors Rewrite to avoid iswaswereand will be Be ethical no spin hype or misleading information 0 Spin diverting the issue at hand 0 Frame your message instead address the elephant in the room and how you will deal with it o Hype promising something and don t deliver it Always conduct extensive research check your sources carefully edit your work Be aware of the role that opinion leaders play in the communication process 0 Usually rst to analyze and interpret the message before passing it along to their friends and associates 0 Include respected journalists industry experts government of cials and business executives Remember the 4 principles that guide persuasive negotiation established by Cheney amp Tompkins o Empathy start with being empathetic with one another 0 Guardedness 0 Accessibility 0 Nonviolence verbal violence can sometimes be more detrimental that physical violence 0 quotquotStrategic Writing p 32 Media Kits amp Media Lists Media Kit 0 Media relations tool used to get news media coverage for a New initiative program service etc Campaign a capital campaign raising a large amount of money Special Event News conference Product launch 0 Provides the media with the information research necessary to write the story Basic facts PerspectivesOpinions Context background history 3 Main Types of Media Kits 1 Special event media kit a Provide explicit details logistical information and background material historical events on the event b Focus remains on event not organization c Includes information on any sponsors and key participations 2 Promotional media kits a Provide journalists with up to date facts background data and relevant supplemental information about crisis situations in a timely manner b Usually include productservice brochures and quote from critics and thirdparty reviews 3 Crisis Media Kits a Provide journalists with uptodate facts background data and relevant supplemental information about crisis situations in a timely manner b Usually include the organization s background info biographical details of key gures involved visual materials and detailed description of organization s facilities Printed Media Kits Presented with 2 pocket folders and can include 0 Cover letter if mailed Explains purpose of kit Or a pitch letter that promotes a story idea 0 News release Provides newsworthy information about the organization Right pocket 0 Feature story Provides a human interest soft news story related to focus of the media kit but not the key story Fact Sheet Type 1 right pocket 0 Provides key information typical in a news release in 5ws1h 0 Not needed if there is already a news release in the right pocket Fact Sheet Type 2 right pocket BEHIND the news release 0 Provides key info in bulleted or numbered format 0 Basic fact sheet One page of fundamental information about the organization such as officerstaff names office locations organization s mission and key programsservices 0 Historical fact sheet Positive historical milestones in organizations historydevelopment 0 Special event fact sheet Explains the signi cance of the event and describes the event s activities and logistical details sponsorsparticipants and its history 0 Other types glossary of terms timeline for a current situation and FAQ fact sheets Backgrounder Type 1 0 Biography of the organization s officers founders celebritiesexperts and other key players Ex Founders officers celebrities etc Straight biography list the factual information in descending order of importance with company oriented points preceding personal details 0 No personal info strictly related to organization o Narrative biography more creative descriptive biography including more personal details telling a story Backgrounder 2 0 An expanded version of the history mission goals and organizational culture in narrative form typically several pages telling story Backgrounder 3 0 An in depth unbiased presentation of the facts concerning a particular situation issue or cause Position paper 0 A description of organization s stand on a particular issue including supporting facts for that positions and opposing points of view must be presented and addressed P ches o A strategic message that attempts to persuade an individual to write the soft news story described in the pitch 0 Replaces a feature or short teaser providing more details than a short teaser would and allowing the journalist to write hisher own feature story 0 Offers story only to that journalist an exclusive based on his previous workinterest 0 Must promote a newsworthy story idea not organization or its product 0 Can be in letter still most effective email most convenient or telephone most personal format o If email format subject line must be clear and concise a teaser that makes journalist want to open it o If written pitch letter then rst paragraph serves as the hook providing a nugget of the story you want journalist to write 0 More guidelines on pages 211212 in PR style guide Media Relations Audio and Video News Releases Different ways to structure audio and video news releases particularly ANRs Audio News Releases 0 Radio is still quotone of the most effective promotionalquot tools for gaining publicitycreating awareness 0 We are not placing ads we re sharing news 0 ANR provides organizational news in a ready to use format 0 Cover quotan organization s milestones special events and other newsworthy occurrences Essentially cover the same thing as print and email news releases lf prerecorded organization has control over the message 0 Most ANR s include at least one sound bite taped comment from a newspaper such as organization executives celebrities or experts Serves as a quote 0 As with the printed news release must choose newsworthy subject and avoid promotional language EXCEPT IN A SOUND BITE 0 Must also determine the appropriate radio stations in relation to the ANR s key message and purpose General audience news top 40 country classic rock Niche audience NASCAR show tunes classical sports entertainment With ASA we will most likely target the general audience 0 Typically distributed via satellite transmission telephone calls 800 numbers hard copies and the internet Hard copies snail mail or fax 0 Most radio journalists wantneed the information supplied by practitioners 0 Biggest concern is that info is biased thus never include promotional language a news release is not an advertisement 0 Placing ANR may require a pitch in order to convince the journalist or station manager to carry the story 0 journalists may alterchange the story before running it without seeking further clari cation from organization or newsmaker 0 Writing for radio requires writing for the ear quottheater of the mindquot Copy must be easy to read and understand Radio communication is linear and eeting only one change to deliver message 0 Two Types of AN Rs Radio reader provides a script for a radio announcer to read typically a total of 10 15 or 30 seconds 2565 words Sound bite includes taped comment with script 30 45 60 sec 65125 words for script including 525 second sound bite VNRs Format 0 No longer all aligned left but use paragraph style 0 Adhere to the 9 basic broadcast writing rules Serve same purpose as printed news release but with added qualities of sight and sound Cover organization s event news story issue product or idea Due to high production costs must choose VNR subjects carefully Should address issues important to TV stations audiences offer video not available from other sources andor present information unusual amusing stories TV journalists favor feature VNRs over hard news VNRs with the exception of science stories and health and medical news VNRs with poor production qualities are a waste of money no TV station will air such footage Should use a professional video production rm such as DS Simon productions Synaptic Digital Path re Average priced VNR runs between 10000 50000 Parts of a VNR package Opening slates information slides 0 Disclaimer permission to use provided footage 0 Table of contents with time codes 0 Precis provides essential info key messagesthemes about the VNR news story that identi es sponsoring organization BRoll raw video footage usually with just natural sounds Sound bites taped comments SOT from an quoton location interview speech opinion response or QampA sessionquot Packaged piece prerecorded VNR in its entirety 0 To ensure stations have exibility in reporting story No standup reporter No titlesgraphics Contact slate Hard copy request info slate Script 0 Consisting of 2 columns with a description of video images in the left column and audio in the right column Media Lists Convenient quotcompilations of data about news media that cover an organization s or persons industry or eld or topics that concern or affect the organization Members of list chosen based on a speci c organization campaign or industry or particular geographic area Must be kept up to date Usually media speci c print broadcast Internet and include the 0 Name ofjournalist editor producer 0 Beat or topics of interest 0 Name of news media outlet 0 Its address 0 Contact info phone number fax email Media DirectoriesDatabases Published sourcebooks or online databases that are available to the general public for a fee Include the complete contact info for a wide variety of news outlets and can be national or regional in scope Cision Includes how journalists want to be contractedtheir pet peevestheir recent stories BurrellesLUCE Conferences Bringing the journalists to your location QampA component to it Forum to which members of the media are invited to cover an important announcement and to engage in a QampA exchange with the organization s representatives Allows us to deal with a large number of reporters at one time News conferences must be a HUGE announcement Target and invite all relevant news outlets Choose a convenient locationdaytime if your announcement is not breaking news or a crisis The spokesperson should express no more than three major points during the news conference The spokesperson should be aware of time constraints but always answer each question completely truthfully and succinctly The spokesperson focus on nonverbal communication as well as verbal communication PR practitioners should prepare spokesperson before conference for all possible questions and provide talking points Media Tours Bring an organization s spokesperson or newsmaker to the reporters Provide organizations an opportunity to promote its causes directly to news outlets across the world Include talkshow interviews interviews with newspaper reporters visits to business and trade press and satellite media tours SMTs Costs for an outoftown media tour can be very high travel and staying But the payoff can be substantial because of the visibility to provide the organizationnewsmaker Traditional media tours are used for book promo movie openings new product unveilings industry breakthroughs and some crisis Satellite Media Tours An SMT is the newest form of media tours and provides a means by which almost any organization can get its message disseminated in person more conveniently than a traditional media tour SMTs are better suited than traditional media tours for crises because of their immediacy and ability to span geographical distances Also used to encourage fundraising elicit sponsorship address strives and labor activities and announce new products Media Tours Should choose media outlets carefully to t subject matter to target audience and then pitch tour to them Should provide datetime newsmaker is available for interview in a traditional media tour Should provide available time windows and allotted lengths for SMTs Prepare the spokesperson but the spokes person to answer dif cult or probing questions Law and Ethics Ethics 0 Beliefs about right and wrong that guide the way we act Based on our values 0 Something legal isn t always ethical Jim Crow Laws and vice versa Corruption is found by saying quotwell there isn t a law against itquot 0 PR professionals counsel upper management during ethics dilemmas helping to determine when and what to communicate 0 Main things to remember Unethical behavior hurts pro ts and organizational success Ethical Dilemma Anthony Weiner 0 Sent inappropriate pictures 0 Lied about it and then came clean o It was an ethical dilemma because whether he stays or goes someone is hurting 0 Step down and went to counseling 0 Then ran for mayor and found out he was still doing it Ethic Code 0 Written and ethical guidelines International codes Caux round table Professional Codes PRSA American Advertising Federation American Marketing Association Organization codes value statements John amp Johnson s Credo quotWe pledge to providequot Personal codes Perhaps most important to the PR professional providing solid foundation on which to counsel others during an ethics dilemma Ethical Challenges 0 O 0 Ethics dilemmas in which every course of action causes damage Over work tend to make mistakesoverlook the important of ethical decision making Legalethical confusion remember that not all laws are ethical and vice versa Crosscultural ethics the clash of ethical values between cultures Shortterm thinking temporary x that only prolongs paindamage Virtual organizations temporary alliances for particular purposes Super pacts Ethical Strategic Writing Honest documents provide accurate details in an honest context do not undermine competitive advantage or ignore legal restrictions be diplomatic Complete documents 0 0 Don t withhold bad news Provide enough detail for audience to make informed decisions Timely documents 0 Distributes important information quickly Fair distribution of documents 0 Choose channels of communication preferred by the messages recipients Free speechlegal restrictions First amendment freedom of religion speech and the press peaceful assembly and quotpetitioning the government for a redress of grievancesquot Free speechexpression ensures dialogue and debate being able to make informed decisions because all sides of issue can be express a free exchange of ideas Legal restrictions of free expression 0 Political Speech your organization can express its stance on a social issue fewer legal restrictionsfree exchange of ideas Be careful don t incite people to violenceother negative behaviors 0 Commercial Speech communication in pursuit of nancial goalgain such as advertising more legal restrictions PR amp Law Communication laws are dynamic so must keep up to date in several key areas 0 Libelslander P vacy Financial disclosure Contracts and copyrights Discriminationharassment Labor Product safety and quality OOOOOO Libelslander Libel written and slander spoken a falsehood that leads to an quotinjury to reputationquot exposing person to public scorn or hatred plaintiff must prove falsehood 0 To prove the falsehood Published print broadcast electronic communication Heshe was identi able Not necessarily name just enough details that its clear who was being discussed Message was inaccurate and its communicator was malicious or negligent actual malice Actual injury occurred ranging from nancial and emotional losses to loss of reputation Strategies to avoid libel Back up any expressed opinions with supporting facts Carefully proof quotesbe sure each quotation is accurately represented Avoid innuendoveied or equivocal re ection on someone s character or reputation Don t use news clippings that defame Don t hype a story by using an inaccurate headline Keep your interview notes Editproof your work Employee right to privacy For media inquiries you may con rm an employee s 0 Employment 0 Title job description 0 Dates of employment You should not con rm an employee s Salary Home address Marital status Children Organizational memberships Job performance OOOOOO Commercial Speech limitations For any institutional publication that may have commercial use be sure to get signed consent forms written approval for use of private informationphotos 0 From employees 0 From contracted individuals from photographers to actorsactresses in televised commercials Advertising paidforspace and time in a medium through which a company persuades a target audience to purchase its product or use its service 0 Puffery legal obvious exaggeration o Deceptive advertising illegal falsehoods that could lead to injury 0 Lifelock example They made promises that you could advertise your social security number and still be safe but it wasn t true 0 POM Wonderful Caught for making unsubstantiated claims Financial disclosure Applies to any organization that sells stock publicly owned Securities amp Exchange Commission requires that these corporations 0 Register stock sales and distributions 0 Publish regular nancial disclosures Copyrights Protections of intellectual property the ways ideas are expressed not the ideas themselves Literary works Music Drama Dance Imagessculptures Film 0 Sounds Fixed 0 Permanent or stable 0 Able to be communicated in some form through reproduction Actual copyright designation not needed for legal protection but recommended Registration with US Copyright Of ce not needed for legal production but recommended 000000 Copyright and the Internet Same requirementsrestrictions on uploads and downloads as those for print media 0 Creativecommonsorg Fair Use Limited copies for criticism comment research Government documents Need permission for 0 Advertising promotions 0 Multiple copies Trademarks Wordslogansymbol that identi es product origin Always capitalize ensure proper use of graphic standards in internal and external publications Be wary of trademark infringement o Similarity of organizations 0 Evidence of active protection of trademark 0 Unique 0 Misappropriation of personality voice image violation of right to publicity Ethics Institutional Corporate Websites Public communication medium that can help quotintroduce an organization and its key messagesquot to a diverse audience Can inform market goodsservices share opinions entertain and encourage dialogue Must be creative informative competitive and professional to grasp and hold an audience s attention Websites Onetoone communication with a speci c user within a potentially very diverse audience Must consider varying interest levels expectations technical skillsknowledge and types of individuals Web User Stats People read information on a computer screen 25 times slower than information in print 0 Copy MUST be concise or you will lose reader interest quickly They skip and scan and move through the page looking for things that interest them 0 Use links clear things for them to click on etc Stanford and Poynter Institute study 0 Participants rst scanned for headlines articles summaries and captions 0 Readers in this study kept multiple browsers or windows open switching among multiple websites The most important locations on the Web page in the upper left hand corner where the user typically looks rst 0 LOGO Dominant headlines are seen rst then photosvisuals Home Page Provides audience with an appropriate introduction and overview of the site piques interest and encourages further exploration of the site 0 Visual identitybanner 0 Multiple points of navigation 0 Appealing graphicsphoto captions 0 Links that separate users into different interest groups Home Page Copy Should be clear and concise communicating an organization s key messages in a comprehensive way 0 The 4 C s clear concise communicating comprehensive Web copy Split information into information bites Use one idea per sentence Compose short paragraphs that are fact based Use hypertext links to more information For articles use bite headline snack summary meal full article approach Headlines and subheadlines should summarize contentevery word counts Write short direct headlines placing keywords rst Use bullets for lists Highlight text for emphasis boldcolor Integrate graphics with text Other guidelines SVO sentence constructions Present tense when appropriate Conversational tone you we and I Numerals for numbers Search Engine Optimization SEO Key words identi ed by search engines such as Google Keyword list common productservice words and their alternate words competitors terminology consumerprospective customer terminology Use single words and phrases for key words Other PR Web Communication Tools Institutional Blogs Web logs in which writer usually an employee provides organizational news and commentary on a regular basis like a journal PR implications 0 Interactivity developsbuilds stronger relationships and brand loyalty 0 Feedback on the organization s productservices can provide ideas for improvement Institutional Blogs Language is informal Posts can be as short as one paragraphbrief is better Pictures eye candy Topics relate to organization s strategic goals and to the blogger s area of interest Microblog ex Twitter Case Study on Home Depot Concise messaging with strong verbsprecise nouns Informal conversational Answers WIIFM Solicit feedbackactivity Link to photosvideosonline resources Retweetuse hashtagsshorten URLs Address concernscomplaints quickly ask for emaildirect message Forums Usergenerated comments or questions creating conversational threads which are usually topicbased 0 Helpful for organizations that sell sourcesproducts that are helpful for home projects etc do it yourself 0 Always helpful for news organizations as well PR application encourages dialogue amongst key publics 0 Ex Home Depot has quotThe Home Depot Communityquot with quotTrending Discussionquot same thing as forum Social Networks A virtual community for people interested in a particular subject 0 Pro les with biographical data pictures likes dislikes etc 0 Voice chat instant message videoconference blogs Facebook Myspace 0 PR application can set up groups or fan pages for organization andor its events and programs keeps members informed of changes Allows for dialogue because people can comment on what you post You can link to other sources articles photos etc More space to do messaging so your messages don t have to adhere to 140 character limit 0 Concise messaging foursentence max with strong verbsprecise nouns Conversational informal Answers WIIFM Solicit feedbackactivity Link to photos videos online resources Address concernscomplaints quickly ask for online responses OOOOO VideosPhotosldeas Sharing Sites Via databases websites or cell phones 0 Videos youtube vimeo hulu 0 Pictures Flikr sort of lnstagram PR application can deliver Webiners webbased seminars interviews and organizationalclient news via video viral video possibilities can make organizational photos available can share ideas visually Pinterest Social Media News Release Aimed at but not exclusive to online journalists and bloggers 0 Provides multimedia content video photos podcasts and other linked les in an accessible format that can easily be repurposed and shared on blogs websites and social networks 0 Contains just the essential factsjournalist or blogger writes story with provided information External Communication Promotional Advertising Promotional Advertising Advertising time or space in a medium purchased to display a message that has been prepared or approved by the buyer Allows for control of the message design and placement Advertising professionals develop ad campaigns that sell or promote organization s productsservices PR practitioners develop promotional advertisingquotselingquot or promoting ideas or causes Print ad elements Visual HeadHne Subheadline optional Body copy swing line copy with details zinger Logo 0 Typically in bottom right corner of ad we have zpattern of reading and we want nal emphasis to be on brand identity of organization Call to action Taglineslogan Mandatories if needed 0 Can be required by law or by the client Announcement ads lnform public promptly about something that might interest them AdvocacyIssue ads Address public policy issues attempt to in uence voters andor government officials Institutionalidentity or image ads Present organizations as good citizens strengthen their reputations create a favorable climate for selling their goodsservices Advertising features or supplements Ms Sims says don t do this Provide indepth corporate perspectives and look like editorials not necessarily a respected choice Special event inserts Focus on a single topic or event and are usually purchased by a corporate sponsor Public service announcements PSAs Promote social causes and behaviors provide information raise awareness about social issues and give howto suggestions and are usually carried at no charge at the discretion of media gatekeepers More likely to get a radio station to pick up easiest to place on radio and hardest to place on newspaper television is somewhere in between External Communication Direct Mail Direct MailEblasts quotUnsolicited persuasive message sent to target public on a mailing listquot PR purposes 0 Raise money 0 Identify new donors volunteers or members 0 Educate recipients about a new program or service Advantages o Targets speci c audience 0 Delivered directly to recipients 0 Offers personal touch 0 Can be timely o Produces measurable results Disadvantages o Junk mail image 0 Can be costly to produce if printed Flier o Miniposter used for announcements 0 Printed on one side 0 Intended for bulletin boards or hand delivery hand delivery direct mail 0 Simple design concise copy Printed direct mail package 0000 0 Outer envelope storefront package itself Letter offerproposalrequest Reply cardenvelope Brochure highlights via visual representation optional Other teasers coupon gift product sample optional Brochuresbooklets o Brochures Purpose inform or persuade Highlights of a product issue cause need or event Typically one sheet of paper folded into panes 6panel brochure most common Panel 1 quotFront cover should invite reader into the piecequot contains ogo headlineimage mostread pane Panel 2 quotpresents standalong messagequot key selling points compelling story testimonial second most read pane Panels 35 present quotmain copy messagequot provides highlights of the story beginning middle end Panel 6 Back cover leastread pane so used for contact info andor selfmailer Fundraising etter Business Writing for PR Types of Business Writing 0 Email A few reminders 0 Email is not private 0 Email is interactive 0 Email is immediate Email is easy 0 Email is writing construct it in paragraph form use salutations etc Email format 0 To Cc Bcc 0 Reply Reply All think carefully before using Reply All 0 Subject line most important thing in the email o It should be a concise summary of what is in the email Salutations 0 Hi NOT Hey Dear 0 Closing Thanks Laura Gregory Emai Forwards Threads Attachments don t always send an attachment right away ask them how they would like to see your resume resume should be sent as a PDF Quotes Junk give them opportunity to opt out of emails Email Cautions Don t use emoticons in business correspondence Abbreviations o Acceptable FYI BTW Email Addresses should be appropriate Email Don ts Personal email on the company computer WRITING IN ALL CAPS makes people think you are yelling Spamming Not checking regularly Correcting someone s grammar Flaming or quotFlame Warquot 0 Memos memorandums Designed to communicate quickly and efficiently May be delivered via print fax or email Contain concise nonemotional message just the facts Memo Types 0 Letters Bulletin Urgent Essay Let s talk it over Informative FYI Action Response needed Summary Outline of discussion or action File Records info and stored for reference Business Letter Format organizational communication Organization s Letterhead Date Recipient s Name Title Organization Address Salutation WITH a colon Body Close Complimentary Signoff Your signature Your typed name Your typed title IF you have one Business Letter Format personal communication Your address Date Recipient s name title organization address Salutation Body Close Complimentary signoff Your signature Your typed name Business letter paragraphs First Short statement of purpose 0 Enquiry o Complaint 0 Request Body Relevant information in a clear and logical manner 0 Introduction with the purpose with a clear logical manner don t repeat what is on the resume Last State action desired tell them what you want and any info needed to do it 0 Example Ask for a interview Common Abbreviations ASAP cc enc o Specify what is enclosed as well PS RSVP Resume only one of many format possibilities ONE PAGE Show right current and permanent addresses Education ALWAYS comes rst Then professional experience Other employment Options hyphen Interviews 0 Do your research Know company s strengthsculture and how you ll t in 0 Come prepared with questions 0 Dress professionally Be prepared to answer the quotso tell me about yourselfquot question 0 Take notes during the interview 0 Thank You letters 0 Send immediately 0 Can be typed or emailed but not as personal 0 Most effective when handwritten Make it personal Mention specifics Let personality show through 0 Reports and Proposals nal projectsituation analysis Magazines Serial publications volumeissue numbered andor dated For internal andor external publics Make sure you always know clearly who your audiences are because your messaging must be appropriately chosen for those audiences and your themes must work for ALL of those audiences Allow greater depth of subject treatment than other organizational pubs Permits more vivid and attractive display of the messages Have a longer quotlifequot and more passalong readership Must capture readers with intriguing substantive subject matter 0 Employees and association members Their interests concerns and questions about the organization Their accomplishments Positive image builder if done well 0 You have to devote the funds to it to make it worth reading Web publication increases their availability and eliminates the printingdistribution costs Types of institutional magazines 0 Employee magazines employee accomplishments internal organizational news 0 Association magazines memberbased pubs providing in depth coverage of association news 0 Trade and industry magazines news for knowledgeable readers in the tradeindustry 0 Corporate publications for the public covering product lines offering advice highlighting services Newsletters Serial publication volumeissue numbered andor date Published more frequently than magazine 0 A lot of institutional magazines only published once a year or just a few times because of expenses Should regularly convey usefulimportant information For internal andor external publics Must meet an unmet need in a distinctive way Be distributed so that they get into the hands of its intended readers 0 Print mailed not everyone wants an electronic newsletter and prefer print newsletters 0 Email more ef cient and cost effective Be issued frequently enough to remain timely Have a person or staff devoted to its production Newsletter format 0 Newspaper lookfeel printed on newspaper Typically a letter in it from a key manager etc 85quot x 11 good for hole punching 11 x 17 folds for ling Horizontal or vertical in direction Two three or four column NEVER ONE COLUMN Big photosartwork for larger format Conversational informal writing style with short sentencesparagraphs Answer reader s key question WIFM Inverted pyramid style for most articles Active voice with positive language Use bullets for lists Use facts gures quotes from credible sources Some feature articles on rst page For printed newsletter fourpage layout most common Page 1 contains banner Organization s logo Volumeissue numbers andor date 0 Title of newsletter Full table of contents or teaser Two major stories at most lnside pages 00000 00 0000000 Recurring features letter from management announcements job info departmentdivision news QampA spotlight Page 4 back cover 0 Below fold selfmailer Above fold extra article a calendar of events etc Other items to include 0 Headlines Masthead publisher and editor namesaddress Pull quotes 0 Rules Sidebars Types of Institutional Newsletters 0 Employee newsletter Usually informalconversational tone Gives quotemployees a sense of belongingquot whie informing them of internal news 0 Members newsletter Covers upcoming events educational opportunities and other important membership informationquot Encourages member participation and introduces new members into the network 0 Community newsletters Highlights important news that might affect a community town neighborhood development or building Foster a sense of community and involvement among neighbors o Advocacy newsletter Promotes a speci c opinion to gainmaintain public support and activism o Specialinterest subscriber newsletter For a group with a common interest hobby trade political or religious affiliation Must warrant the subscription price
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