HD FS 229 Final Exam Study Guide
HD FS 229 Final Exam Study Guide HD FS 311
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HD FS 311
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Devon Stobbe on Tuesday January 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HD FS 311 at a university taught by Dr. Crissman Ishler in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 226 views.
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Date Created: 01/27/15
FINAL EXAM REVIEW HDFS 229 Temperament Temperament the style of reactivity to the environment 0 the origin of what will eventually become adult personality 0 involves reactions that are consistent over time and across situations behaviors and emotions Quality vs Expression 9 components the way we express it Stays moderately Changes a lot stable over time Example Activity level stays the same high vs low But the way we express it changes over time Before we can crawl fussy fidgety After we can crawl happy engaged Temperament is moderately consistent but seems to stabilize around age 3 Types of temperament high rhythmicity 1 Easy 40 high adaptability Positive not easily distressed 39 high 0 approaCh high intensity of reaction for pos emotions high distractibility from neg 0 Flexible to new situations 0 Have regular schedules Easily soothed emotions 2 Dif CUIt 10 gt low rhythmicity 0 Not easily soothed low adaptability Cries a lot more negative emotion high 0 Withdraw Change is not welcome high intensity of reaction for neg 0 No regularity in schedules emOtionS low distractibility from neg emotions 3 Slow To Warm 15 Physically energetic not emotionally Cautious of new circumstances Become agreeable after adjusting 9 components of Temperament 1 Activity Level Ratio of physically activeness to inactiveness 2 Rhythmicity Biological rhythms eating sleeping 3 Distractibility Ability to be distracted from tasks 4 ApproachWithdraw Approach likes new experiences Withdraw novelty evokes distress 5 Adaptability Ability to accept change 6 Attention Span How long you can attend to a task 7 Intensity of Reaction How extreme are our emotions pos and neg 8 Threshold of Responsiveness How much does it take to evoke emotions 9 Quality of Mood Explains how we perceive world Temperament is 50 due to genes and 50 due to environment Beneficial parenting sensitive face to face play while reading infant s emotional cues We can teach parents to do this to decrease difficulty of child Negative parenting inconsistent discipline and parental rejection love withdraw Crucial because children need regularity Sulloway s Theory Siblings are born competing for parental attention and affection First Borns difficult get quotfirst dibs on niches not competing with anyone Later Borns easy needs flexibility to pick different niches Goodness of Fit how well the environment fits the child s temperament achieved with difficult children through synchrony and sensitive face to face play Effortful control the capacity to voluntarily suppress a dominant response in order to plan and execute a more adaptive response Attachment Harlow s study demonstrated that the basis for child s relationship with mother is LOVE not food Attachment is universal and adaptive 9 there are specific responsive instincts that ensure attachment adults instinct to take care of baby cute baby phenomenon Components of Attachment 1 Social We attach to other humans 2 Emotional Strong positive emotions are basis of attachment 3 Cognitive Internal working model 4 Behavioral Attachment is demonstrated through actions love communication Stages of Attachment 1 Preattachment birth 6 wks no preference or separation anxiety 2 Attachment in the making 6 wks 8 mos no separation anxiety 3 Clear cut attachment 8 mos to 2 yrs attachment is fully formed separation anxiety and preference are present 4 Formation of reciprocal relationship 2 yrs we shift from feeling physical closeness to psychological Attachment Styles Secure Attachment 60 Child orbits parent checks in frequently Distressed by separation Easily soothed in reunion Parenting behavior respond to babies need for attention and breaks Insecure Avoidant 15 Don t use caregiver as base doesn t check in Doesn t care that parent leaves Does not seek contact during reunion isn t happy Parenting behavior parent gives opposite of what baby wants ResistantAmbivalent 10 Clings to caregiver does not explore Hysterical during separation Child is not soothed in reunion latches on and arches back Parenting behavior parent is inconsistent engages sometimes Disorganized 15 No pattern to actions Child is dazed wont make eye contact Contradictory emotions Parenting behavior can signify maltreatmentabuse lnteractional Synchrony parent and child are in synchrony quotemotional dance Adult Attachment Styles 1 SecureAutonomous seek out partners in times of stress emotionally intimate trusting positive 2 AvoidantDismissing afraid of commitment physically intimate not emotionally 3 DependentPreoccupied over controlling stalkers result of ambivalent attachment Internal working model schema we have for relationships that s carried throughout life based upon our 1st relationship in life Earned Securists individuals who had insecure attachment with caregivers but were taught in later relationship by someone what love is Unconditional Love Podcast Conducted in 1960 Parents shouldn t pick up babies because they are spreading bacteria They were scared of them but would try to reestablish the connection even if it meant abandoning other monkeys Rutter et al Research questions how resilient are children from orphanages amp How powerful is a healthyhappy home Groups studied Adopted Romanian children and nondeprived UK children all under 3 12 years Main findings those who were adopted before 6 months had no symptoms majority of kids in orphanage had no problems Conclusions adopting older children is not negative a healthy home can correct problems Resiliency The Children s Village of Grasi GOAL to allow the children to surmount their difficulties and restore their psychological health Program Components Divided into small family homes 78 kids Few caregivers rotate 24 hr shifts Bed and Breakfast for funding Children attend school outside the village Extra curriculars are encouraged Promoting Resiliency 39 Directorscaregivers are dedicated Create a family Language lessons FosteringTravel Long term support Common Developmental Issues 0 Attachment issues 0 Learning delays 0 Fetal alcohol syndrome International Adoption Must be 18 years older than child Healthy children are not allowed unless they39re older Process is long and involved paperwork home study medical exams Child Life Role to help children and their families understand and manage challenging events and stressful healthcare experiences Training Required Bachelors in development Volunteer workPracticum 480 internship with trained CLS CLC certification exam Preparation hospital tours prep books real medical equipment dolls blank dolls legacy dolls Claudia s kids Stress Point Coping teaching coping skills to utilize at a stressful point in medical experiences that can be reused Distraction ISpy books bubbles pinwheels movies guided imagery Comfort positioning Reasons for preparation help reduce stress gives a level of control to child emotional support trust eliminates misconceptions to familiarizenormalize Common Fears they wont leave they think the needle is in their arm If a child is bedridden they will bring bedside activities or bring pet friends to encourage them to leave bed Autism Prevalence rate 1 in 65 children 2010 4x more common in boys Rates are increasing because 1 we are more accurate in diagnoses 2 we recognize there is a spectrum From DSM V Asperger s high functioning small stimming highly verbal highly intelligent but have social limitations Autistic Disorder lowest functioning severe behavioral and social issues more likely to see SIB non verbal have another diagnosis PDDNOS pervasive developmental disordernot otherwise specified Captures middle group of autism spectrum Clinically not useful only for insurance reasons From DSM V Autism Spectrum Disorder assigned to the whole spectrum but needs further specificity Socialcommunicative issues Repetitive behavior Social Communication Disorder Not in autism spectrum Used for kids with PDDNOS Based on socialcomm Deficits 1 SocialCommunicative Deficits lack of eye contact avoid physical contact hypersensitivity do not seek out attachmentrelationships child isn t talking no joint attention compulsively stacking toys FIRST CLUES 2 Behavioral Deficits self stimulatory behavior self injurious behavior aggression inappropriate attachment to objects Treatments with no evidence holding therapy glutencasein diet can reduce stimming Applied Behavior Analysis ABA positive reinforcement for every positive behavior some neg punishment track and record behaviorsgoals very specifiedparticular to client Discrete Trial Components 1 worktable 2 working quickly with 5 different skills 3 powerful immediate reinforcement 4 prompting mistakes with correct choices 5 trackingcollecting data Causes 15 to 20 genes are connected to autism there is a link between high levels of dopamine and autism also serotonin balance Early Intervention Lovaas study proved symptom decrease in children under 4 40 hours a week of discrete trail plus parental practice Peer Relations Forms of Play 1 Nonsocial activity looking smiling imitation language 2 Parallel play children playing side by side but no interaction 3 Associative play children are sharing materials but not playing together 4 Cooperative play children coordinate imaginative play Friendship Friendship as a playmate 47 yrs Friends are a way to have fun Not much emotional investment Easily started easily ended Friendship as mutual trusthelp 810 yrs Friendship is a way to fit in An unspoken rule of sticking up for one another Unemotional Gossip emerges establishes peer norms only time where self disclosure is evident Friendship as intimacy loyalty and mutual understanding ll15 yrs Offers protected support to figure out identity Takes a long time to beginend Gossip leads to self exploration Self disclosure becomes honest and intimate Sociometry Sociometrically Popular high level of good votes Prosocial good sport sticks up shares Nonaggressive Cooperative Well off academically A lot of good quality friendships Rejected Aggressive high level of bad votes Antisocial aggressive tantrums neg emotions Deficit in ER lash out right away Rejected Withdrawn high level of bad votes Different they stand out Anxietydepression Actively targeted and victimized Cant shake their reputation Controversial equal number of bad and good votes Unique combo of prosocial and antisocial Have just as many good quality friends as sociometrically popular Neglected no votes not well known Ignored because they prefer it Quiet and shy Only have 1 or 2 friends but that s how they like it Not lonely Perceived Popular NEW Can be highly aggressive PA and RA Strategic they hurt others to benefit themselves Requires a lot of planning and social awareness Best option for intervention combine the two options 9 Teach the skills THEN create peer involvement Reputational bias even if a child has been coached their peers are bias to their previous reputation and do not believe they have changed Social preference vs Social prominence Asking kids to Asking kids identify who they judgments of the like and dislike peers most oftheir classmates admire
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