Exam 1 Review
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cierra Beyers on Tuesday January 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY-P 101 at Indiana University taught by Jeff Huber in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 610 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 01/27/15
Psychology Study Guide Exam 1 Chapters 1 and 2 Philosophy to Science Wilhelm Wundt added observations and experiments to make psych a science instead of a philosophy Wilhelm Wundt experiments amp measurements His experiment required people to press a button when they heard a ball drop and then press it when they processed what they heard There was a delay with the second Definition of psychology Science of behavior and mental processes Value amp limitation of psychological theories Our theory can bias our thinking We are overconfident sometimes Sometimes we only look to prove our theory Nature vs nurture How much is it genes and how much is it environment Study identical twins 0 Same genetic code but different environmental in uences Nurture works on what nature endowsquot Entity Theory vs Incremental Theory Entity theory traits are fixed Incremental theory traits are changeable Fixed mindset vs growth mindset Fixed abilities and talents are fixed Goal is to look smarter and never dumb These people don t attempt anything hard Growth abilities and talents can be developed These people think everyone can get smarter if they work for it These people also attempt hard things and seek challenges Biopsychosocial Biology psychology and social life work and interact in order to create the individual Theory Helps understand organize explain and predict behavior and events Hypothesis Testable prediction consistent with theory Random Sample Example of Chicago Tribune Use this is you want to acquire about a HUGE population Every individual in population has to have an equal chance of being in sample Selection is driven only by chance not by any characteristic Types of Correlations Negative correlation one goes up the other goes down Positive correlation one goes up the other goes up Correlation Coefficient number representing strength and directions r value Strength of relationship how close the dots are to a straight line Case Study Observing and gathering info about behavior by watching not intervening or changing anything Gives a source of ideas about human nature in general but we sometimes overgeneralize EX Phineas Gage lost left frontal lobe shows function of brain Experimental and Control Groups Experimental group receive manipulated variable Control group same in every way except the one variable that is being changed Independent Variable Experimental factor that is manipulated Dependent Variable Thing that might change in response to manipulation Confounding Variable Factors that might in uence results other than independent variable Often times these are unintentional Mean Median amp Mode Mean average Median the number in the middle Mode the number that occurs most often Standard Deviation How much individual score vary from average score Skewed vs Normal Curves The normal curve is also known as the bell curvequot Weight height and blood pressure all typically have a normal curve Regression to the Mean If variable is extreme on first measurement it will tend to be closer to average on a second measurement EX Golf 0 If a golfer does extremely well on the first day it is likely that he will be less successful and closer to his average on the second day Wording Effects Results from surveys change due to wording Anchoring wording of survey Placebo Effect Subjects change behavior because they expect the change due to intervention EX therapeutic touch People respond if they believe Single and Double Blind Experiment These are ways to reduce the placebo effect Single blind study control groups are blind to whether or not they are given real or fake treatment Double blind study researchers nor participants know which group is control nor which group is experimental Hindsight Bias I knew this would happenquot Making a postdiction Overconfidence Error Humans are overconfident which alters our memories decisions etc Illusion of Validity David Kahneman 0 Evaluating soldiers for advancement Elizabeth Loftus Experiment 0 Watch car crash and report speed Neurons Building block of nervous system Atom of the mindquot Nerve cell Dendrites Receive messages from other cells Myelin Sheath Covers axon to help speed neural impulses Terminal branches Forms junctions with other cells Synaptic gap Gap between sending and receiving neurons Neurotransmitters Chemicals used to send signal across synaptic gap Reuptake Extra neurotransmitters are absorbed back into sending neuron to reuse Neural Network Peripheral Nervous System Motor and sensory info in nervous system Connects and send info to central nervous system Central Nervous System Brain and spinal cord Makes decisions for body Hebbian theory Hebb s Rule Neurons that fire together wire togetherquot Complex webs of interconnected neurons form with experience repeated stimulation Who you are is embedded within these networks Autonomic Selfregulated action of internal organs or glands Automatic Fear anger depression worry Within Peripheral Nervous System Somatic Voluntary movements of skeletal muscles Within peripheral nervous system Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Part of autonomic nervous system Sympathetic arousing effects bladder and stomach Parasympathetic calms rests digests Endorphins Natural opiate like transmitters Linked to pain control and pleasure Morphine withinquot Explain painkilling effect and runner s high 0 Helen from England got runner s high Made within your body Endogenous Originated within the body Naturally produced Exogenous Originated outside body Artificially produced drugs The Amygdala Gets activated when we are overly emotional and then the cerebral cortex shuts down quotStupid thinkingquot Sensory Neurons Carry messages IN from sensory receptors to brain and spinal cord I m fallingquot Motor Neurons Carry messages OUT from brain and spinal cord to muscles and glands Put my arm outquot Interneurons Neurons in brain and spinal cord that process info between sensory input and motor output These make things happen instantaneously by bypassing brain Glial Cells Support nourish and protect neurons Holds neurons in place Provides nutrients and oxygen Insulate destroy pathogens and removes dead neurons 9 times more glial cells than neurons Neuroplasticity Brain forms new connection reassigns existing networks Brains ability to repair itself after damage Neurogenesis Formation of new neurons in brain Developed from stem cells Oxytocin Enables contractions with birthing milk ow during nursing bonding between humans orgasms Hypothalamus Regulates body temp Food and water intake Sex drive Linked to emotion and reward Electrode in hypothalamus stimulates rat Definition of learning Change in mental process and behavior that persists over time Endocrine System Slower Secretes hormones which are produced in various glands Effects last longer Interacts with nervous system 0 ANS orders adrenal glands to release hormones into blood Set of glands Sends messages through bloodstream Limbic Systems Emotions fear and aggression motivations drive hunger and sex Left Hemisphere Tends to include thoughts and logic details such as quottreesquot language words and definitions linear and literal thought calculations pieces and details Some individuals do appear more quotleftbrainedquot excelling in math and logic Must communicate with right hemisphere Right Hemisphere Tends to include feelings and intuition big picture quotforestquot language tone in ection context inferences and associations perception wholes including the self Other individuals appear more quotrightbrainedquot excelling in language feelings and intuition Must communicate with left hemisphere Factors that facilitate neuroplasticity amp neurogenesis Create enriched environment Learn new skills concepts hobbies etc Challenge yourselves mentally w new learning tasks Avoid excessive stress and depression Engage in physical exercise
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