Exam #1 Study Guide
Exam #1 Study Guide Com 212
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kathleen Welling on Wednesday January 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Com 212 at Purdue University taught by Douglas Edward Pruim in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 209 views. For similar materials see Approaches to the Study of Interpersonal Communication in Journalism and Mass Communications at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 01/28/15
Com 212 Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1 Communication and Competence In order to communicate well we need to Avoid Communicative chauvinism the belief that everyone thinks and acts as we do Speak the same language and cooperatecoordinate with others Definitions of Human Communication Human communication is difficult to define because of all the different perspectives someone can have about it which typically focus on one aspect and ignore others However each definition may be useful for a different purpose Communication how this class defines it is the process whereby humans collectively create and regulate social reality Characteristics of communication Communication is a process 0 a process is moving has no beginning and end and is constantly changing 0 Communication is active continuous and flowing never the same from one minute to the next like a river 0 You can t understand a river from drawing a bucket of water from it just as you can t understand the connectiveness and stream of communication by listening to one sentence Communication is uniquely human 0 Humans are the only beings that communicate in a creative and free although not always positive way Communication is a collective activity 0 Human society and communication are dependent upon one another Communication is social and happens when we enter relationships and share meaning 0 communication comes from munia meaning service and connoting mutual help exchange and interaction of those belonging in the some community Communication is a creative endeavor 0 Ideas like truths and justice only exist in the symbolic world that we have created For another example demons cause illness and bad luck for the Balinese people Communication is regulatory o It allows us to create AND take possession of the world around us We act on the world through communication 80 when you have a sore throat and can t talk you feel helpless this illustrates the connection between communication and power Implications of Communication Implications conclusions that can be drawn from something but are not explicitly stated Through communication we create our own reality 0 Different people view the world in different ways Too often we allow what we have created through communication to control us 0 Perfectionism should not control our life but often it does Communication always takes place within a cultural context 0 Erving Goffman s idea of face the aspect of ourselves that we present to others for their approval If communication is incongruent with face then it will be judged as socially unacceptable 0 Battle between being independent being your own person and standing out while also conforming to rules and norms of society Communication requires cooperation and what is important is what people do when they are together not when they are separate Communicative competence is the ability to communicate in a personally effective and socially appropriate manner 2 levels of competence o Performative competence Surface level part that can be seen day to day behaviors 0 Process competence Deeper level everything we know in order to perform 0 Example when someone gives a compliment performative you can t see the mental activity that lead up to it process People that wish to be competent communicators must do 5 things well 0 Assign meanings to the world around them 0 Take on social roles appropriately 0 Present valued images of themselves to the world 0 Set goals strategically 0 Generate intelligible messages Implicit knowledge we don t stop to think about this type of knowledge the things above are implicit know how s 0 Grammar rules are attempts to express explicitly the implicit rules that we follow when speaking Types of process competence Message competence the ability to make message choices that others can comprehend as well as attend to and understand message choices of others 0 Verbal competence the ability to process and use linguistic devices to convey content in an effective way language forming and understanding words 0 Nonverbal competence the ability to process and use nonverbal codes to convey content in effective ways body language facial expressions vocal characteristics etc 0 Listening competence the ability to process and understand the messages that are sent to us Interpretive competence the ability to label organize and interpret the conditions surrounding an interaction picking out what is important from what is irrelevant a people with no filter lacllt interpretive competence o Interpretive competence allows us to decide upon an attitude towards someone and informs us how to act around them Role competence the ability to take on social roles and know what is appropriate behavior within these roles 0 Going into a different culture would force you to learn a new set of rules and you would have to gain your new and improved role competence Selt competence the ability to choose and present a desired self image Goal competence the ability to set goals anticipate probable consequences and choose effective lines of action a Communication seeks to desire a goal and when people aren t able to form an effective argument to accomplish this goal they have poor goal competence The same behavior can be seen as competent in one context but completely incompetent in another Four contexts of communication Cultural the sets of values beliefs customs and codes that bind people together a Show us how to perceive the world and shows us our normsvalues Historical cultures are dynamic and change with time How we communicate now our views on sex even Technological changes the way we communicate smartphones slltype internet etc not always positive outcomes some people are suspicious of new technologies ex big Data Relational dyadic culture is formed consisting of shared beliefs norms and values This happens when people form relationships with each other Performative Competence surface level acting on knowledge Knowing how to communicate in the ways previously highlighted does not guarantee you will say or do the right thing Why Stress poor motivation over rehearsal stubbornness etc Process perspective an important step in improving your communication It means becoming aware of what is going on when you communicate and recognizing how underlying processes involved in communication manifest themselves in everyday performance Actually concentrating on the form and content of what you are sayinglistening to Involves a type of double consciousness Chapter 2 Building Interpersonal Relationships Communication takes many forms but all are a part of the same process of creating and sharing meaning Between 2 people or thousands a smile or a novel phone call text etc All communication is in a sense interpersonal Interpersonal communication definition varies depending on which approach you take Situational approach define interpersonal communication in terms of its external characteristics factors like the number of people involved or their physical proximity o This is the most common way to distinguish interpersonal communication from other forms Developmental approach define it in terms of its content look at the kind of info people exchange and how well they know each other Situational Approach Communication always creates meaning but it can take on different forms depending on the situation Example a president could give a speech about abortion which could be the same topic as a heated dispute between friends but they way it is communicated would be much different Types of Communication Intrapersonal you are both the sender and receiver of information and it is in your head Solving a difficult problem daydreaming It is more disconnected repetitive and less logical than other forms Interpersonalcommunication between 2 people generally facetoface interaction Also known as dyadic communication Spontaneous and informal participants receive maximum feedback roles are exible and partners alternatively act as senders receivers Smallgroup group is small enough so that everyone can interact freely Members can communicate with each other in a variety of ways Sports teams team projects cabinet members of government usually a leader is needed because these are more difficult to handle than dyads Organizationallarge businesses and industries government institutions Communication takes place within a strongly defined hierarchy Specialized roles and more rules Facetoface public speaker addresses large group of individuals Must compose message for a hypothetical receiver Speaker is the sender and audience is a passive receiver Mediated public or mass communicationspeaker and audience become separated in both time and space and indirect ways of sending and receiving messages are used Large audience with indirect transmission Definition whenever a medium replicates duplicates or disseminates identical content to a geographically widespread population mass comm Is taking place As we move from intrapersonal to mass communication the following elements change The number of interactants Their physical proximity Their ability to deliver and receive feedback immediately The level of formality in communication roles The ability of interactants to adapt messages to others specific needs The degree to which communicative goals and purposes are planned and structured 99 9WN size is the most important because change in size causes all other changes all forms of communication can often blend together and more than one can be going on at once So we think of all communication having an interpersonal element Developmental Approach Gerald miller and mark Steinberg According to situational approach a cab driver directing someone where to go is just as interpersonal as two friends having a heart to heart Developmental approach disagrees and says you should look at the content of the conversation So what does it mean to communicate interpersonally 3 levels of info available to communicators 1 Cultural level data general information that applies to all members of a given culture identifying as middle class American 2 Sociological level data when people identify based on groups they are a part of and can possibly predict another s interests when 2 people find out they are both college students 3 Psychological level data based on unique personal attributes Sharing hopes and fears Cultural and sociological levels are noninterpersonal Only quotwhen predictions are based primarily on a psychological level of analysisquot are communicators communicating interpersonally So for the rest of the class our definition of interpersonal communication will come from the situational approach dyadic communication in which two individuals sharing the roles of senderreceiver become connected through mutual activity of creating meaning Relationships can be views as Constellations of behaviors interdependent actions of two people What one person does affects the other and vice versa Any interactions that happen between 2 people The way two people behave toward one another Cognitive constructsis behavior enough Some theorists don t think so They believe that relationships are the way we think about our behaviors We form mental images and have an idealized way of thinking how things should be Thoughts and expectations are just as important as behaviors Minicultures people develop shared perceptions and creating roles to help them coexist For example when a couple has rules and obligations shared understandings of each other and their social worlds Collections of contradictory forces dialectical approach wanting to be both interdependent and independent at the same time being pulled in opposite directions The way they come to terms with these opposing forces is the relationship 6 characteristics of ALL relationships 1 Interpersonal relationships begin with awareness Relationships begin when people become aware that someone is aware of them 2 Interpersonal relationships develop through coordinated interaction Behaviors are no longer individual they become joint actions 3 As relationships unfold we begin to analyze and evaluate them We make mental representations of where we think our relationships will go Memory organization packets or MOP s changing mental models that consist of scenes from the relationship memories of dates anniversaries etc these help stabilize our relationships Although relationships are in constant motion MOP s help anchor them 0 Relational prototype3 things a natural language label criterial attributes and communicative indicators 0 Natural language label consists of the word or words we use to describe a relationship friend best friend boyfriend etc o Criterial attributes the characteristics that a relationship must have to be classed by a natural language label honest openness etc o Communicative indicators the behaviors that display an attribute 4 Our relationships are in uenced by outside forces These forces include cultural norms and media models the involvement of familyfriends and economic and environmental conditions Notions of love for example In America we expect to fall in love before we marry Crossover happens when stress at the workplace affects the spouse at home 5 Our relationships can control us as much as we control them Relationships are systems that are more than the sum of their parts The relationship itself acts as a controlling third party if we let it 6 Relationships are constructed and maintained through communication Communication is key in EVERY relationship Private relationships close personal unique partner not easily replaced very strong ties to each other Allow us to exhibit uniqueness and independence Public relationships members are related in impersonal ways and very little change occurs over time Members are substitutable waiter at a restaurant someone helping you at the store etc stress conformity and social solidarity 4 points about the publicprivate model The two types of relationships described are extremes and many variations are possible Over time relationships will uctuate and change Different skills and sensitivities are needed for different kinds of relationships Relational profiles are negotiated over time 0 Content messages are about the topic at hand 0 Relational messages are about the relationship itself 0 Ex mike is asked a personal question and he changes the subject to what a nice day outsidequot content nice day relational too uncomfortable to answer that at this level of relationship Relationshipping the process of building new relationships Communicative Competence in Relationships We need interpretive competence to understand monitor our relationships We need to assess the relationship to know when it is going off track and how we can fix it We need goal competence too Role competence is important for establishing social norms boundaries rules for your relationship Message competence and self competence
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