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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Taylor MacGowan on Wednesday January 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HD101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Mahone in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 263 views.
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Date Created: 01/28/15
Human Development The steps of the scienti c method 1 Pose a question curiosity 2 Develop hypothesis 3 Test hypothesis 4 Draw conclusions 5 Report results Life Span Infancy 02 years Early childhood 26 Middle childhood 611 Adolescence 1118 Emerging adulthood 1825 Adulthood 2565 Late adulthood 65 NP P PP N Sensitive vs critical periods The critical period is a time when certain things must occur for normal development The sensitive period is a time when particular development occurs most easily Development is 1 multidirectionalcharacteritics change in every direction 2 multicontextualbioecological theoryeach person is affected by many social contexts and interpersonal interactions 3 multiculturalethnic and racial groups 4 multidisciplinaryenviromental forces affect expression of genetic inheritance 5 plasticdevelopmental sensitivity The developmental theory is the systematic statement of principles and generalizations It is the framework for understanding how and why people change as they grow older Ecological theoryBronfenbrenner Each person is affected by many social contexts and interpersonal interactions 1 Microsystemimmediate direct surroundingsfamily 2 Exosystemlocal institutionslocal church school 3 Macrosystemlarge social settings 4 Chronosystemtime period 5 Meosystemconnections amoung other systems Classical conditioning demonstrates that behaviors can be learned by making an association between an environmental Operant conditioningreinforcement or punishment may be used to increase or decrease the probability that a behavior will occur again Cognitive theory Proposes thoughts and expectations profoundly affect actions attitudes beliefs and assumptions Focuses on changes in how people think over time experiences are interpreted to t into or assimilate with old ideas old ideas are restricted to include or accommodate new experiences organized pattern of thought that organizes information inbaance causes a state of confusion Correlation exists between two variables if one variable is more or less likely to occur when the other does Positiveincreases or decreases together Negativeone variable increases while the other decreases zero there is no connection Nature vs Nurturein uence of genes we inherit vs in uence of environment that affect development Of the same age comprehensive and organized explaination of a phenomena variable that is introduced to see what effect it has on the dependent variable variable that may change as a result of whatever new condition or situation the experimenter adds Chromosomes are molecules of DNA There are 46 chromosomes in 23 pairs Gametes Reprodutive cells sperm and ova Each consists of 23 chromosomes Phenotypethe observable characteristics of an organism Genotypethe genetic inheritance or genetic potential Genome involves the full set of genes that are the instructions to make an individual member of a certain species 23rCI set of chromosome determines sex of the childdad determines sex XX vs XY Twins Monozygotic vs Dizygotic lndentical fraternal Originate from one zygote that splits Results from fertilization of two apart in very early development separate ova by two separate sperm Incomplete split results in conjoined Half their genes in common and occur twins twice as often as monozygotic Same genotype by slight variations due Incidence is genetic and varies by to environment ethnicity and age Dominant gene is far more in uential than the recessive gene Completely controls the phenotype with no noticeable effect of recessive gene Age of viabilityage at which a preterm newborn could survive outside of the mother 22 weeks Apagar Scalewant a score of 7 Heart rate Color Re ex irritability Muscle tone Respiratory effort P PWF Post Partum Depression Feelings of sadness and inadequacy Symptopms from baby blues to postpartum psychosis Inadequate baby care Kangaroo care close contact mom holds baby in center of chest Bene cial Prenatal teratogens Any agent or condition including viruses drugs and resulting in birth defects or complications Behavioral teratogens Agents and conditions that can harm the prenatal brain impairing the future child39s intellectual and emotional FASresult of embryo exposed to heavy drinking more apparent in poorly nourished women and cigarette smokers Head sparingthe brain is the last part to be effected by malnourishment
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