CBIO2210 Test 4 study guide
CBIO2210 Test 4 study guide CBIO2210
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elise Weidner on Wednesday March 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CBIO2210 at University of Georgia taught by Rob Nichols in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology II in Anatomy at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 03/30/16
CBIO 2210 Test 4 Study Guide Top Hat Questions 1. The exchange between blood and interstitial fluid of the blood tissues is known as: a. Internal respiration b. External respiration 2. If the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the tissues is __mmHg, and it is____mmHg in the blood, then carbon dioxide will move from tissues into the blood. a. 55;45 b. 40;100 c. 55;55 d. 25;50 3. During vigorous exercise, RBCs spend 0.3s in an alveolar capillary (compared to 0.75s at rest). In alveolar capillaries, RBCs would be able to load ___% of the O2 in the 0.3s of exercising compared to normal (0.75s). a. 25 b. 75 c. 40 d. 100 e. 80 External/Internal Respiration 1. What are the three membranes involved in external respiration? a. Squamous alveolar cell b. Shared basement membrane c. Capillary endothelial cell 2. One component of Dalton’s Law is that each gas in the mixture follow its own pressure gradient. (T/F) a. true 3. The partial pressure gradient for O2 in the lungs is _____than the partial pressure of CO2 in the lungs a. More steep 4. Which way does O2 move? a. down pressure gradient, from high to low b. O2 moves from air into the blood 5. Which way will the CO2 move? a. From blood to air because it is going down its pressure gradient 6. CO2 has a greater solubility in liquids than oxygen does so it dissolves faster into the blood and at a lower ΔP than O2. (T/F) a. True 7. Blood returning to the heart from the lungs during external respiration is oxygenated so it has a lot of O2 and no CO2. (T/F) a. False, Blood returning to heart still has a little CO2 in it because once it reaches equilibrium with the O2 and CO2 in the alveoli (air) there is no more pressure gradient 8. During internal respiration the O2 goes into the tissue cells and turns into CO2 which is expelled back into the blood (T/F) a. False, The O2 going into the tissues is used in cellular respiration to make water, the CO2 comes from the glucose in the tissues 9. What is transit time? a. how long it takes for volume of blood to go from top of capillary bed to bottom (where gas exchange takes place) 10. How does the transit time change during exercise and what is the numeric value usually around? a. It is faster during exercise. While exercising the transit time is around 0.3 seconds because the heart beats faster and the blood flows faster. At rest it is around 0.75 seconds 11. Rate of gas diffusion is: a. directly proportional to the partial pressure gradient of the gas (higher the delta P, the faster the O2 and CO2 will move) b. directly proportional to the respiratory membrane surface area (progressively lost in diseases like emphysema) c. inversely proportional to the thickness of the respiratory membrane (increased in inflammatory diseases (bronchitis) and with additional fluid or mucus) 12. As partial pressure of O2 in air in mm HG increases, % O2 saturation of hemoglobin increases. (T/F) a. true 13. What is the difference between equilibrium and saturation? a. Equilibrium (how much O2 can transfer based on pressure gradient) b. Saturation(how much O2 can transfer based on molecular bonding cites available to bind to) 14. What does the Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve show? a. Illustrates the relationship btw P O2 and O2 binding to hemoglobin b. At higher levels of P O2 hemoglobin tends to hold onto O2 very tightly c. At lower oxygen levels the hemoglobin does not hold the oxygen as tightly 15. Loading and unloading of O2 by hemoglobin is regulated by: a. PO2 (partial pressure) b. temperature i. in warmer tissues hemoglobin has looser relationship with O2, will let go more often (happens when exercising) ii. in cooler tissues the reverse is true c. blood pH (the Bohr effect: the normal curve is shifted to the right in exercising or oxygen-depleted tissues) i. in a slightly acidic environment (lower pH) the hemoglobin has a looser hold on O2 (Bohr effect) (this happens when exercising) ii. H+ weaken the bond between hemoglobin and O2 d. PCO2 (partial pressure CO2) 16. How is the CO2 distributed (amounts)? a. 7 - 10% CO2 dissolved in plasma (more able to do this than O2) b. 20% CO2 bound to hemoglobin (carbaminohemoglobin) c. 70% as bicarbonate ions in plasma i. carbonic anhydrase is an enzyme abundant in RBCs, reversibly catalyzes: 17. CO2 binds to the heme group in hemoglobin (T/F) a. False, it binds to the protein aspect of hemoglobin not the heme group like O2 18. What is the Haldane effect? a. When deoxygenated blood has an increased ability to bind to CO2 19. What does the yellow part of this equation represent CO2 + H2O ⇌ H2CO3 ⇌ H+ + HCO3 –? a. Bicarbonate buffer system 20. If P CO2 goes up higher than normal what will happen to pH? a. Down (b/c producing excessive amounts of CO2) 21. Know this chart O2 Loading O2 Unloading a. 22. Internal respiration 23. External respiration CO2 and Blood pH 24. What are pontine respiratory centers? a. Clusters of cell bodies in the pons 25. Slow breathing, shallow breathing (or exercise) allows _____ accumulation leading to a _____ drop (CO2 is converted to carbonic acid by CA) a. CO2 b. pH 26. How does the brainstem monitor pH changes? a. can manipulate ventilation to compensate for pH changes caused by disturbances in metabolism 27. What would be the effects of the following on blood pH? a. increased ventilation (breathing faster) i. getting rid of more CO2 (P CO2 goes down) ii. so pH increases b. decreased ventilation (breathing slower) i. pH decreases ii. the blood accumulates CO2 (retains CO2) c. if a patient is breathing fast they probably have a decreased pH (too much CO2) so they are trying to get rid of CO2 28. What would be the effects of the following on blood pH? a. increased ventilation (breathing faster) i. getting rid of more CO2 (P CO2 goes down) ii. so pH increases b. decreased ventilation (breathing slower) i. pH decreases ii. the blood accumulates CO2 (retains CO2) c. if a patient is breathing fast they probably have a decreased pH (too much CO2) so they are trying to get rid of CO2 29. What are the roles of the central chemoreceptors and the peripheral chemoreceptors n controlling respiration? a. Central chemoreceptors in medulla i. respond primarily to changes in pH in brain tissue and CSF ii. i.e. control of breathing is primarily about regulating [H+] in the brain b. Peripheral chemoreceptors in aortic arch and carotid bifurcation i. respond to changes in PO2 ii. require significant drop in PO2 to stimulate changes in breathing iii. as such, are considered to only “enhance the sensitivity” of the central chemoreceptors 30. Our need for oxygen is the main stimulus for us to breathe (T/F) a. False b. The main stimulus for breathing is not for need of levels of O2. It takes a huge drop in arterial oxygen (below 65 mmHg) to get response to breath faster. It is usually a need to get rid of CO2 or drop in pH 31. What are two different pathologies of COPD? a. “blue bloaters” –chronic bronchitis i. Causes dyspnea-difficulty breathing ii. fluid accumulation in alveoli impairs oxygenation iii. cyanotic-mucus blocks ability to get O2 in to blood and CO2 out of blood (makes blood darker and skin turns a different shade, usually in nailbeds) iv. lung volume increases, barrel chested appearance as expands v. bronchial collapse impairs expiration leading to air trapping and chest expansion b. “pink puffers” -emphysema i. reduction of alveolar surface area and elasticity leads to easy inflation but impaired expiration ii. use forced expiration to exhale iii. musculature is well toned so patient is less bloated iv. don’t have mucus trapping air like bronchitis v. thoracic pressure results in transient forced oxygenation of blood and lack of cyanosis c. frequent infections caused by both 32. What typically causes COPD? a. Both pathologies usually start from smoking tobacco, small number can be carried genetically Urinary System 33. Kidneys make ______ from _____ a. Urine, blood 34. Kidneys remove _____,________, and ______ from blood. a. Toxins, metabolic wastes and excess ions 35. Renal functions include the regulation of … a. Blood volume b. pH c. chemical composition 36. What is Gluconeogenesis and when does it happen? a. The making of glucose out of non-carbohydrates b. Happens during prolonged fasting and keeps blood sugar from falling 37. What is renin and what role does it have? a. An enzyme released by the kidneys that regulates blood pressure and kidney function 38. What is erythropoietin? a. hormone that kidneys produce during low O2 levels and regulates RBC production 39. name and describe each of the 4 nitrogenous wastes a. Ammonia (removed ammonia from amino acids is called deamination) i. Very dangerous and toxic to red blood cells in moderate amounts ii. Liver adds CO2 to ammonia to make it Urea b. Urea i. Ammonia removed from protein with CO2 added c. Uric acid i. Made from excessive adenine and guanine from DNA or RNA d. Creatinine i. Creatine in muscles can be used to convert ADP to ATP and becomes creatinine ii. Mostly comes from cardiac and skeletal muscle iii. More accurate indicator if kidney malfunction than other wastes (if high in blood and low in urine) 40. What are the structural and functional units that form urine called? a. Nephrons 41. Name and describe the two main parts of a nephron a. Renal corpuscle: i. Glomerulus (tuft/cluster of capillaries) + Bowman’s capsule (surrounds glomerulus) b. Renal tubule: i. begins as a cup-shaped glomerular (Bowman’s) capsule surrounding the glomerulus 42. What kind of tissue makes up a nephron? a. Fenestrated glomerular endothelium i. allows filtrate to pass from plasma into the glomerular capsule 43. 44. What are the two types of nephrons? a. Cortical and juxtamedullary 45. What is the difference between the two types of nephrons? a. The cortical is more common (85% of nephrons) and is placed more in the cortex of the kidney. b. They juxtamedullary accounts for about 15% of the nephrons and have loop that dips deep in the medulla. c. The juxtamedullary do 80% of the water absorption. 46. What does the juxtaglomerular apparatus do? a. Regulates filtrate formation and systemic blood pressure 47. Name and describe the two important populations of cells that are in the juxtaglomerular apparatus. a. granular cells (or JG cells) i. enlarged smooth muscle cells around afferent arteriole 1. Can constrict ii. secretory granules containing renin iii. mechanoreceptors that detect changes in BP b. macula densa i. DCT cells that are chemoreceptors responding to changes in NaCl concentrations of filtrate 48. What is the filtration membrane? a. A Porous membrane between the blood and the capsular space b. Consists of: i. fenestrated endothelium of the glomerular capillaries ii. visceral membrane of the glomerular capsule: podocytes with foot processes and filtration slits 1. podocytes control how much blood flows through tube by covering or uncovering holes (like recorder) iii. Gel-like basement membrane: fused basal lamellae of the two other layers c. Allows passage of water and solutes smaller than most plasma proteins i. fenestrations prevent filtration of blood cells ii. negatively charged basement membrane repels large anions such as plasma proteins iii. Slit diaphragms also repel macromolecules 49. What % of the filtrate gets reabsorbed back into the body and where does the remaining filtrate go? a. 99% gets reabsorbed, the other 1% is expelled from the body as urine 50. What are the 3 events of Urine formation? a. Glomerular filtration b. Tubular reabsorption i. Returns all glucose and amino acids to the plasma (keeps from losing nutrients) ii. returns 99% of water, salt, and other components (keeps from dehydrating) c. Tubular secretion i. reverse of reabsorption: selective addition of plasma components to urine 51. Glomerular filtration is an active process (T/F) a. False, it is a passive, mechanical process driven by hydrostatic pressure. 52. What is hydrostatic pressure? a. the pressure of the blood trapped inside the tube (like hose with holes in it with water spraying out) 53. What two factors make the glomerulus filter so effective? a. Large surface area and high pressure i. glomerular blood pressure is higher (60 mm Hg) than other capillaries (~ 35 mm Hg) 54. Why is it important that molecules >3 nm are not filtered? a. Protein needs to be kept in the body and these larger molecules function to maintain a colloid osmotic pressure in the plasma 55. What does GFR stand for and what is it? a. Glomerular filtration rate b. The volume of filtrate formed by the kidneys in one minute 56. What are the normal ranges of GFR? a. 120-125 ml/min for males b. 105-110 ml/min for females c. These numbers mean filtration process is good/ healthy 57. What factors affect and control this amount of filtrate? a. total surface area available for filtration (decreases with diseases such as glomerulonephritis) b. permeability of the filtration membrane (size or charge of filtration slit diaphragms, size of podocyte foot processes) c. most significant = net filtration pressure i. Blood hydrostatic pressure-colloid osmotic pressure-capsular pressure=net filtration pressure ii. COP (caused by albumin in plasma) and CP(pressure that fluid in capsule has-why kidneys have to keep the BP up) both try to draw the fluid back in 1. Albumin made in liver and people with liver issues are very susceptible to low albumin levels so they will lose excess fluid (can look like kidney disease, but not) 58. Name and describe the two different types of controls that regulate the GFR? a. Intrinsic controls (aka, “renal autoregulation”) i. kidney itself regulates (increase or decrease) GFR despite changes in systemic BP ii. even with fluctuations of MAP between 80-180 mm Hg, the GFR can be kept constant b. Extrinsic controls i. nervous and endocrine mechanisms that maintain systemic BP, indirectly affecting GFR ii. remember relationship: BP ➙ NFP ➙ GFR 59. More details on the intrinsic and extrinsic controls: a. Intrinsic Controls i. Myogenic mechanism 1. vascular smooth muscle has a tendency to contract when stretched (JG = smooth wrapped around afferent arteriole-keeps too much high pressure blood from entering) 2. ⇧ BP ➙ stretch of afferent arterioles ➙ constriction of arterioles ➙ restricting blood flow into glomerulus (⇩ GFR) a. protects glomerular vessels from damaging effects of high BP 3. ⇩ BP ➙ less stretch ➙ dilation of afferent arterioles ➙ increased blood flow into glomerulus (⇧ GFR) a. maintains GFR (even when exercising) by keeping NFP in normal range even with a reduction of systemic BP 4. (don’t need to know other two bullets) b. Extrinsic Controls i. When blood losses are so significant and intrinsic mechanisms are not adequate to maintain GFR, sympathetic hormones (Epi/NE) are released 1. cause constriction of afferent arterioles a. recall that this is actually as systemic response to stress (i.e., stress increases BP) b. its function is to save your life in the event of significant blood loss (shock) 2. inhibit filtration (reduce plasma fluid loss) 3. macula densa cells (of JGA) detect changes in filtrate that they interpret as a decreased GFR 4. MD cells of JGA stimulate granular cells to release renin (not a hormone, it is an enzyme/ catalyst that raises blood pressure) 60. a. Renin is the first reaction in a chain reaction. It only catalyzes one thing i. Turns Angiotensin (come from liver, constricts arteries) into Angiotensin I (doesn’t do much) ii. The enzyme Angiotensin Converting Enzyme from lungs converts Angiotensin I to Angiotensin II which is the active form which causes 5 things that raise BP 61. How often do the kidneys filter the body’s entire plasma volume? a. About 60 times/ day (around every 22 min) 62. Is reabsorption active or passive? a. It can be either 63. 65% of reabsorption takes place in the ______ a. PCT 64. 65. Reabsorption uses a ________ for energy instead of glucose a. Sodium gradient 66. What is the role of the aquaporins in reabsorption? a. They are water channels that allow water to be drawn back in 67. #2 and #3 on the image above show _______ and _____ being pulled back into the blood. a. Glucose and nutrients (this is why there should not be any glucose in urine) 68. Solutes that are actively absorbed require ___________ in the membrane of the tubule cells? a. Transport proteins 69. The number of transporters for a particular solute indicates….. a. the importance of that solute to the body (i.e., high number of glucose and amino acid transporters vs. no urea transporters) 70. The transport mas is determined by________ a. The number of transport proteins for a substance 71. What is the difference between hyperglycemia and glycosuria? a. Hyperglycemia is when there is too much glucose in the blood and glycosuria is when there is any amount of glucose in the blood
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