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Date Created: 11/12/15
Environmental Issues on Global Health 1 SCI100 Version 3 University of Phoenix Material Environmental Issues on Global Health Seven Environmental Issues Complete the following chart by identifying seven environmental issues that affect global health In the second column describe in complete sentences how the issue affects global health Environmental issue How does the issue affect global health Overpopulation Overpopulation affects global health because all of our natural resources are disappearing at a fast rate because of how fast the population is growing It cannot keep up to support human life and world health Population experts believe that the most critical environmental challenge today is to slow the world s population growth Donatella Waste is being found and killing the fish that we use as food and if the population continues to grow at the rate it is then we will see a numerous amount of fish that will no longer exist Not only because of the waste but also the amount of fish we eat We take advantage of our energy and many individuals are just wasting power and do not know what it is like not to come home and be able to flip the light switch Proponents of zero population growth ZPG believe that each couple should produce only two offspring When the parents die these two children are their replacements allowing the population to stabilize This is to help control population Air Pollution According to Environmental Protection Agency estimates mobile sources produce over half of two major sources of smog hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides NO almost 90 percent of carbon monoxide and more than half of hazardous air pollution Donatella Some air pollutants are Sulfur dioxide particulates carbon monoxide and ground level ozone In humans sulfur dioxide aggravates symptoms of heart and lung disease obstructs breathing passages and increases the incidence of respiratory diseases such as colds asthma bronchitis and emphysema Particulates irritate the lungs and can carry heavy metals and carcinogenic agents deep into them Carbon monoxide affects health by interfering with the blood s ability to absorb and carry oxygen Groundlevel ozone irritates the respiratory system s mucous membranes causing coughing and choking Global Warming Scientists theorized that carbon dioxide emissions from fossilfuel burning would create a buildup of greenhouse gases in Earth s atmosphere that could have a warming effect on Earth s surface Donatella The earth temperature has risen 1214 degrees which they estimate that it will continue to rise 510 degrees in the next 100 years If we do not take an active role in working with other nations to ensure we all do our part to reduce the risk of Global warming and its effects we will continue to see problems with our ozone layer which I might add protect us Environmental Issues on Global Health 2 SCI100 Version 3 water pollution One percent of our entire water supply is available for human use the rest is too salty too polluted or locked away in polar ice caps Donatella We take of supply of fresh water for grated More than 26 billion people about 40 percent of the planet s population have no access to basic sanitation or adequate toilet facilities Donatella Industrial pollutants acid deposition and pesticides eventually work their way into the soil then into groundwater It has been said that the US has the safest tap water in order to protect water from contamination we have strict policies and procedures governing water treatment filtration and disinfection to screen out pathogens and microorganisms and they enhance public health safety through chlorine additions and fluoridation to protect against tooth decaydental caries The average American throws away 600 times his or her adult body weight in garbage in a lifetime That means a 150pound person will leave a legacy of 90000 pounds of trash Donatella Pesticides are extremely hazardous potential hazards associated with exposure to pesticides include birth defects liver and kidney damage and nervous system disorders Ozone depletion The ozone layer protects our planet and its inhabitants from ultraviolet B UVB radiation a primary cause of skin cancer Such radiation damages DNA and weakens immune systems in both humans and animals Donatella Many house hold items we have in our home are not good for the ozone layer and will cause the ozone molecules to break down A few are miracle chemicals chlorofluorocarbons were used for years as refrigerants aerosol propellants and cleaning solvents and were also used in medical sterilizers rigid foam insulation and Styrofoam all contribute to the depletion of the ozone Although the ban on CFCs is believed to be responsible for slowing the ozone layer s depletion some CFC replacements appear to be equally damaging because they contribute to the enhanced greenhouse effect Solid and hazardous waste In the US we produce at least 45 pound of solid waste a day Although the number of landfills has declined the ones we do have are overfull Landfills pose potential problems pollution of groundwater toxic seepage into surrounding soils and odor pollution With the landfill becoming contained with so much trash we resort to dumping in the sea which is harmful to our water and food supply as well as to the species that live there In 1976 homeowners began noticing strange seepage in their basements and strong chemical odors Babies were born with birth defects and the rate of cancer and miscarriages was far above normal Donatella The EPA has developed protective requirements for land disposal facilities such as double liners detection systems for substances that may leach into groundwater and groundwater monitoring systems Radiation Exposure to radiation is an inescapable part of life on this planet and only some of it poses a threat to human health Donatella Many claims have been projected that electromagnetic fields EMFs generated by electric power delivery systems place you at risk for cancer reproductive dysfunction birth defects neurological disorders Alzheimer s disease and other ailments Environmental Issues on Global Health 3 SCI100 Version 3 Three major types of radiation are alpha particles beta particles and gamma rays Alpha particles are usually massive and cannot penetrate the skin Beta particles can slightly penetrate the skin and are harmful if inhaled but Gamma rays and X rays are very dangerous because they can pass straight through the skin wreaking havoc on human cells and leading to mutations cancer miscarriages and other problems Radon nuclear weapons nuclear energy plants and medical Xray machines are all sources of this type of radiation Which of the seven environmental issues is the most damaging to the environment and why All of these issue are important and should be addressed accordingly I believe that the most damaging to the environment would be Global Warming From the melting polar ice caps to catastrophic weather and threatened ecosystems not only is climate change real scientists agree that humans are influencing climate change with our production of greenhouse gases mainly stemming from carbon dioxide and methane What can you do How bad is it Why do so many people still think climate change isn t real Is it real These are just some of the issues worth exploring The good news is that despite the urgency of the crisis there are exciting technological developments as well as meaningful lifestyle changes you can make to help Repair a Broken Health Care System Environmental Issues on Global Health 4 SCI100 Version 3 Complete the following chart Provide seven proposals for changing the health care system For each proposal complete the Pros Cons and Future Outlook columns Proposal Pros Cons Future Outlook Offer incentives to make the system more efficient Financially reward doctors and hospitals for providing higher quality care at lower cost Require that all providers use a common computerized medicalrecord system This would boost quality make the system more efficient and trim costs Electronic record keeping would eliminate needless duplication and also improve patient safety Electronic records could jeopardize patient privacy hospitals and providers who make the capital investment won t benefit financially Electronic records alone would yield only a modest reward They are not a comprehensive solution but would likely be included in broader reforms Broaden Medicare to include the entire population This proposal has support among those who believe it would take wasteful administrative costs and profits out of the system An interim step might be to allow people 50 to 64 to buy into Medicare Insurance companies pocketed billions in profits last year money that could instead be used to offset basic health care costs Medicare spends much less on administrative costs This system puts providers doctors hospitals and others at the mercy of the government and leaves them little choice but to accept whatever prices Medicare chooses to Pal Some countries already use this singlepayer system American analysts are and watching carefully But here in the States there is widespread resistance to the idea so it may be difficult to pass Create a system that requires all Americans to have health insurance just as all drivers are required to have auto insurance Premiums would be adjusted to keep coverage affordable Businesses would be required to provide health coverage or pay into a fund Everyone would have health insurance Eliminating the costs of uncompensated care for the uninsured would lower prices for everyone The health of those now uninsured would improve Some people might to buy insurance they think they can t afford or This would be politically difficult to be forced dont need proposal enact Massachusetts is moving in this direction and a similar attempt in California failed There may be reluctance to mandate coverage until states prove that workable more it is Environmental Issues on Global Health 5 SCI100 Version 3 Treat employee health benefits as ordinary income with the result that Americans would become more aware of the total cost of health insurance and shop more carefully for coverage and care This would then push down pdces If patients were able to shop for coverage they might be able to negotiate lower rates as they ve done on electronics and airline tickets Or they might demand government intervention The sick and the injured especially in an emergency will most likely have neither the time nor the ability to hunt for a bargain There is growing awareness that employerprovided coverage is shrinking necessitating an alternative But this is a radical proposal for a system that tends to adopt incremental changes Financially reward or penalize the habits of individual policyholders to encourage people to quit smoking or to lose weight for instance Government would play a role through education or even taxincen ves If Americans adopted a healthier lifestyle that could greatly reduce the numbers of those diagnosed with chronic illnesses and the costs to treat them It could also lead to longer life spans Some believe that these are strictly personal matters and should not involve government mandates or tax incentives Longer life spans could cost the system more in the long run In the past it has been difficult to launch and coordinate largescale sustained preventivehealth campaigns Make Health Insurance Work for People and Businesses Not Just Insurance and Drug Companies Require insurance companies to cover preexisting conditions so all Americans regardless of their health status or history can get comprehensive benefits at fair and stable premiums Example is Obama Care Over half of uninsured Americans can get free or low cost health insurance using their State s Health Insurance Marketplace Medicaid is expanded up to 159 million men women and children below 138 of the poverty level You can t be dropped from coverage when you get sick or make an honest mistake on your application You also can t be denied coverage or treatment for being sick or charged more for being sick You can t be charged more for being a woman either In order to get the money to help insure tens of millions there are new taxes mostly on highearners The taxes that may affect you directly are the individual mandate and employer mandate The individual mandate says you have to obtain health coverage by January 2014getan exemption or pay a fee if you can afford it ObamaCare focuses more on making sure people are covered than it does on addressing the cost of care in the first place Barack Obama will pay for his 50 65 billion health care reform effort by rolling back the Bush tax cuts for Americans earning more than 250000 per year and retaining the estate tax at its 2009 level One thing is certain health reform will be an ongoing process in the United States and around the world Although the ACA will not fundamentally alter the way health care is provided in the United States and does little to address a looming health care worker shortage and the high cost of care Obamacare has already improved access to coverage for millions of Americans and should be celebrated by proponents of universal health coverage domestically and abroad Environmental Issues on Global Health 6 SCI100 Version 3 Allow insurance companies to sell policies beyond state lines This would increase competition and force other insurance companies to lower their rates The nonpartisan Congressional Budget Office predicted saving of about 12 billion from 20072015 Opponents caution that insurance companies will flock to states with the loosest regulations and sell policies from there Most experts believe it would impact the cost of insurance or get more people to sign up for insurance The CBO predicts it would mean cheaper premiums for healthier individuals and more costly insurance for those who have health issues and are already paying a lot That s the opposite goal of health care reform J Jaffe What Can Be Done to Fix Health Care Five Proposals to Repair a Broken System AARP Magazine July August 2008 httpwwwpolitifactcomtruthometerstatements201 3nov26ronjohnsonjohnsonsaid republicanshaveproposeddozenssolu Environmental Issues on Global Health 7 SCI100 Version 3 Seven Issues Affecting Health Care The text lists seven issues affecting health care For each issue explain how the issue affects health care Health care issue How does the issue affect health care Cost We spend over 2 trillion annually on health care more than 7400 for every man woman and child Donatella Some factors involved with high cost of health care are excess administrative costs duplication of services an aging population growing rates of obesity inactivity and related health problems demand for new diagnostic and treatment technologies an emphasis on crisisoriented care instead of prevention and inappropriate use of services by consumers There is a growing number of people who only seek emergency care because they cannot afford to see a doctor regularly which due to the high cost of emergency care they are not able to pay their bill so the tax payers and insured individuals get stuck with the bill Donatella call this cost shifting Access There are about 700000 physicians in the US but there are many individuals who do not have access to healthcare because of insurance barriers and misdistribution of providers There are higher paid physicians then lower which makes it harder for people to pay for their care especially if they are uninsured Individuals that have insurance are sometimes restricted to certain doctors and specialist and do not have the freedom to choose their own doctor which makes it difficult Malpractice An Institute of Medicine report indicates that as many as 44000 to 98000 people die in US hospitals each year as the result of medical errors Donatella If growth in malpractice payments results in higher malpractice insurance premiums for physicians these premiums may affect the size and composition of the physician workforce Increases in malpractice payments made on behalf of physicians do not seem to be the driving force behind increases in premiums Increases in malpractice costs both premiums overall and the subcomponent factors do not seem to affect the overall size of the physician workforce although they may deter marginal entry increase marginal exit and reduce the rural physician workforce Third there is little evidence of increased use of many treatments in response to malpractice liability at the state level although there may be some increase in screening procedures such as mammography httpwwwnberorgpapersw10709 Restricted providers and treatments 48 percent of US workers report that their employers offer only one health care plan Those plans increasingly are health maintenance organizations or other types of managed care with limited options Today39s HMOs and feeforservice health insurance plans restrict consumers39 freedom to choose their physicians and treatments Those restrictions are the result of federal tax law Current tax law virtually forces Americans to purchase their health insurance through their employers rather than individually or through private associations Consequently many Americans are being shepherded into HMOs Also consumers are turning to government mandates as a way of getting their health care needs met which raises prices even for those who would prefer cheaper less comprehensive plans Environmental Issues on Global Health 8 SCI100 Version 3 Unnecessary procedures Three out of every four MDs surveyed admitted that the most important reason why they over treated their patients is that they were afraid of being sued for malpractice In other words they did the test because they were afraid they d miss a serious diagnosis something bad would happen to the patient and then the doctor would be sued for not ordering the test All this unneeded care can have harmful effects on one s health as well as their wallet For example xrays and CT scans expose you to potentially cancer causing radiation which can lead to follow up test with additional risk With testing comes cost A 2011 study found that the price tag for 12 commonly overused test for instance and ekg for heart disease and imaging test for lower back pain was about 68 billion httpwwwconsumerreportsorgcromagazine201206many commonmedicaltestsandtreatmentsareunnecessaryindexhtm Insurance rules There are numerous rules and regulations that insurance companies have which can pose a problem with health care before Obamas affordable care act insurance would not take you if you had pre existing conditions Under the Affordable care act all insurance companies must offer coverage in each of these ten fields Dramatic ranges in quality Quality of care is a multidimensional concept reflecting a judgment that the services rendered to a patient were those most likely to produce the best outcomes that could reasonably be expected for the individual patient and that those services were given with due attention to the patientphysician relationship Implicit in the concept of quality of care is the idea that services should be provided in a costefficient and cost effective manner because unnecessary excessive or inappropriate services do not contribute to a patient s wellbeing may in fact be harmful and waste the patient s resources
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