Science 100-Science Final Exam Study Guide
Science 100-Science Final Exam Study Guide
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Date Created: 11/12/15
Science 100 Final Exam Study Guide Listed below are various terms and concepts you are expected to know for the final exam As always feel free to email me with your questions at sschreierumbcedu or come by the SC100 lab if there is something you need clarified General Comments Any material presented in lecture or lab may be included Remember that the final is cumulative so information from the first half of the class is also fair game For example you should absolutelv be able to Apply the process of sciencescientific method and experimental design Given an experiment recognize the controlled independent and dependent variables Describe the need to have controls in any experiment Restaterecognize either in a diagram or a description the chemical structure of water especially which bonds connect the atoms in one water molecule and which hold adjacent water molecules together Recognizeidentify the specific chemical properties of water water is a very versatile solvent ice is less dense than water cohesion adhesion and surface tension high specific heat Create andor interpret a graph or table when data are provided think osmosis lab or pollution as discussed in lecture herel Given observations and appropriate information design an experiment to test a particular hypothesis Bioloqical Importance of water Osmosis Describerecognize one way prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are similar and one way in which they differ Both have cell membranes Prokaryotic have no membranebound organelles while eukaryotic do Listrecognize the groups of organisms that are made up of prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells Pro Bacteria Eu Fungi plants and animals Diagramdescribe the structure of a phospholipid PL molecule and explain howwhy these molecules are arranged the way they are in a cell membrane Phosphate is head part lipid is tail part They are the semipermeable barrier of a cell membrane Name the other major type of molecule found in a cell membrane water Describe the Fluid Mosaic Model of a cell membrane Head is hydrophilic and tail is hydrophobic Staterecognize the function of a cell membrane Define the terms Semipermeable diffusion osmosis Explain and be able to apply the terms Hypertonic Hypotonic lsotonic Hypertonic high solute low water outside the cell water flows out hypotonic low solute high water outside the cell water flows in isotonic same watersolute concentration inside and outside Given an example predict which way water will move across a cell membrane Compare osmosis in animal and plant cells Describe the importance of water balance to living cells by discussing the effects of osmosis on an example of your choosing such as the ones we mentioned in class 0 Red blood cells and IV fluids 0 Plants 0 Cholera 0 An appropriate example of your own choosing From our osmosis lab experiment 0 Given a set of data such as that generated in the osmosis lab experiment be able to create a graph 0 Given a graph or table of experimental data be able to interpret these results 0 Describeexplain the effects of temperature and solute concentration on the rate of osmosis Ecology and Community Relationships Recognizediagramdefine different levels of ecological hierarchy species population community and ecosystem Species can interbreed and produce viable offspring popuation all members of one species in the same timespace community all populations in the same time and space ecosystem includes biotic and abiotic factors Be able to explain trophic levels the food web in an ecosystem what are primary producers primary consumers secondary consumers decomposers How does this relate to energy Why is a food web a more realistic picture than a food chain How might the addition of nutrients in an estuary affect the food web Be able to describe and give some simple examples of the following typical community interactions in an ecosystem o symbiosis mutualism parasitism commensalism0 0 competition 0 predation note win and lose Describe a keystone species and how it can impact the community structure See Keystone Predator Workbook 0 How did removal of the sea star impact the rocky intertidal community 0 How may a keystone predator differ from a dominant species 0 Describe an invasive species and the impacts that it can have on the community structure 0 Why is the sea otter considered a keystone species Biodiversity Recognizedescribe the three levels of biodiversity genetic biodiversity species biodiversity ecological biodiversity and explain the importance of each type species biodiversity the variety off species in an area genetic biodiversity helps survival all members of a species aren t identical ecosystem biodiversity How is biodiversity related to ecosystem stability 0 Some ideas stability refers to the ability to withstand a disturbance without changing recover species diversity following a disturbance andor maintain productivity or function as conditions may change over time Why is species richness highest near the tropics What is a biodiversity hotspot and where do we tend to find them why are they often on islands Do you agree with using this information in conservation efforts Why or why not Small areas with very high biodiversity rainforests o What is the importance of Lake Baikal 15 of the world s fresh water 0 No species lasts forever species extinctions have been occurring naturally for millions of years Why then are biologists so alarmed about this today Who is the cause of the mass extinction that seems to be taking place today 0 List the major threats to biodiversity Be able to identifydiscuss how each of these is a threat to biodiversity habitat loss due to destructionfragmentation invasive species introduction overexploitation overfishing destruction of interaction of networks 0 What important theory explains all of the biodiversity we see on earth evoution 0 Why does Biodiversity matter why is it important You should be able to answer this by discussing the major benefits of biodiversity In other words why is biodiversity important for humans what benefits do we derive from biodiversity o For example ecosystem diversity encompasses what we call ecosystem services How do ecosystems and species that live there help sustain human life on earth You could talk about pollinators and plants or plants preventing soil erosion and how that is useful to humans Imagine what would happen when the biodiversity is lost such as the conditions that precipitated the Great Dust Bowl Aguatic Pollution I 0 Explain whyhow benthic macroinvertebrate organisms are used as bioindicators of water quality 0 You should be able to list at least three reasons these animals are useful indicators of streamwatershed health 0 Be able to use a dichotomous key to identify an unknown organism 0 Be able to calculate a pollution tolerance index and determine water quality given the appropriate information as we did in lab Aguatic Pollution II o Distinguish between point source and nonpoint sources of pollution 0 Describe the concept of biological magnificationbioaccumulation with specific reference to the pesticide DDT or PCB s Recognize the significance of the book Silent Spring by Rachel Carson Identify two important events that prompted the public to demand clean water and ultimately resulted in the 1972 passage of the Clean Water Act Cuyahoga falls 1969 river caught on fire and burned for a year Santa barbara How is our need for fuelenergy tied to the health of our waters Describe why the processes used in creating nuclear energy or extracting coal oil gas are causing such a great deal of concerncontroversy among environmental and health safety advocates What scientific evidence discussed in lecture supports this Evolution and Darwinian Snails Define evolution Recognize that evolution works on populations NOT individuals Explain why evolution requires genetic variation and the inheritability of traits in order for it to occur Given an example recognize a trait that may be acted on by natural selection Explain why genetic diversity is important for a population Describerecognize how the population of periwinkle snails evolved when the green crab predator was introduced DanNinian Snail Workbook Waterborne Diseases List the four types not scientific names of organisms discussed in class that can cause waterborne diseases bacteria virus protozoa animal parasites Identify the primary reasons waterborne diseases are seen in many underdeveloped countries List several ways that waterborne diseases are transmitted to humans Drinking shitwater 0 Identify the cellular process that is disrupted by the bacterium that causes cholera osmosis o How was the cholera epidemic in London 1854 able to be stopped they closed dowm the pump known to be carrying cholerainfected water 0 What disease was the first to be identified as a waterborne disease polio 0 Both Vibrio cholera can be acquired by drinking contaminated water What other two ways discussed in class can you get infected with Vibrio vulnificus Swimming in infected water 0 What disease with epidemics common during the 1900 s results in paralysis Polio 0 Why were polio epidemics in this country uncommon prior to the 1900 s urbanization o What waterborne disease is currently afflicting Haiti Cholera o What major achievement was responsible for ending the polio epidemics in this country Vaccine developed and publically distributed Floods Waves Tides Tsunamis 0 Identify geological disturbances that may cause a tsunami o How do tsunamis differ from wind waves with respect to Speedwavelengthperiod o How does an individual water molecule move about in a wave 0 How do waves behave as they approach the shore o Recognize the definition of the following terms 0 Wave crest wave trough wavelength wave period c Listrecognize factors that may cause a flood o How does a flash flood differ from a regular flood and which is more dangerous 0 Water is a very powerful force How can water alter the environment or landscape
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