Deviance Exam 3 Study Guide
Deviance Exam 3 Study Guide Sociology 3910
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Abby Geiger on Wednesday March 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Sociology 3910 at Clemson University taught by William White in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Deviance in Sociology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 03/30/16
SOC 391 Test #3 WORKSHEETChapters 11, 13, 14 & 12Spring 2016 1. In Conklin's view, the robbers of today are likely to commit robbery out of a sense of __________. 2. According to psychologist David McClelland, the need for _____ is the driving force behind alcoholism. 3. Based on Sutherland's classical definition, two things characterize whitecollar crime, that it is __________ and it is a(n) act of a relatively __________, ____________ person. 4. Deviance committed by the relatively rich and powerful is called _________________. 5. According to economic deprivation theory, the reason why poor people turn to drugs is the need for ___________. 6. According to Howard Becker, the first step in the process of learning to become a marijuana user is learning ______________________. 7. According to Howard Becker, before one can fully experience a drug one must first go through a _____________. 8. According to David Ermann and Richard Lundman, the most obvious and important reason for corporations' tendency to be criminally negligent about their employees' health and safety is _____________. 9. According to Alfred Lindesmith, the critical experience in someone becoming fixated as a heroin addict is not ____________ produced by the drug but the _____________________. 10._____________ is the most widely used drug in the United States. 11.Drug abuse is not a scientific but a _________, __________ term. 12.Those who use drugs are ________ likely to commit a crime, compared to those who do not use drugs. 13._________ is a psychedelic drug, which creates a stronger desire for __________ and can cause the body to _________. 14.___________ is a new kind of drug originally used for severe ________ and often combined with alcohol to produce a __________. 15.The reason cocaine is _________________ is due to the high quality of pleasure the user gains from it. 16.According to the socialpsychological theory, the unique factor that turns individuals into alcoholics is the fit between ____________________ and certain _______________________________. 17.Binge drinking is the consuming of _______________ at one sitting and is a problem on college campuses. 18.Edwin Sutherland first defined the concept of ____________ as crime committed by “the upper, white collar class, which is composed of respectable, or at least respected, business and professional men.” 19.One important consequence of _________ is crime, such as ____________, ______________, and ____________. 20.It is estimated that as many as ______ of American employees may steal from their employers if the opportunity is _________ and occasionally succumb to the temptation. 21.The ________________ and __________ women enjoy has lead to more drinking today. 1 22.According to the socialpsychological approach to alcoholism, ______________ individuals and their ________________ come together to __________________ that causes them to become alcoholics. 23._________________ is the abuse of power for personal gain. 24.The largest and most successful organization for helping alcoholics is _________________________. 25.Causes of official corruption include ______, ___________, and ______________. 26.As a property crime, _________ is a relatively _________, calculated act. 27.______________ kills at least __________ Americans annually as do all the illegal drugs combined. 28.When robbers consider the selection of a target, they consider how ______________ and the ____________. 29.Factors that influence the effect of drugs are level of _________, ________, _________, __________, and ______________. 30.The use of actual violence is _______ likely in a(n) ________ robbery. 31.______ is an injectable stimulant also known as speed, crank of crystal; leads to ___________, ________ and a ___________; negative sideeffects include _______ and __________. 32.The author of the text feels that the most important aspect of robbery as a violent crime is the ____________________. 33.Drug users typically go through four stages in becoming involved with the drug: 1) ____________, 2) ________________, 3) _______________, 4) _______________. 34.In his study of robbery, Conklin discovered that a _____ serves as simply a means for most robbers to ___________________. 35.Despite government efforts to restrict smoking, about _________ of Americans continue to smoke regularly, and teenage smoking has __________ recently. 36.Today, most robbery is likely to be _______. 37.Reasons for smoking include ________ and the __________________ and feeling _____________. 38.According to Conklin's study, the opportunist robber usually mugs or shoplifts. 39.Popular forms of Occupational Deviance are (a) d_____________________________________; (b) _____________, _____________, and _____________; and (c) __________________, which is buying and selling stocks on confidential information. 40.The type of robber who is most likely to get caught is the ____________ robber. 41._____________ is a prevalent, significant problem in an imperfect, wellfunctioning _________ system. 42.A tendency to see their crime as an honest enterprise is a characteristic of a _______________. 43.Deviance committed by the relatively rich and powerful is called ____________________. 44.In Conklin's view, the robbers of today are likely to commit robbery out of a sense of _____________. 45.Privileged deviance can be divided into ___________ deviance, or _________ and ____________ deviance, and _______________ deviance. 46.According to studies by Leroy Gould, robbery rates tend to ________ during times of ______________. 2 47.The most distinguishable characteristics of whitecollar deviance are the _________, _________, or ___________ to __________ detection; the ____________ of the deviance to _____________ profits. 48.The most significant property crime is __________. 49.Whitecollar deviance is both _________ and _____________ forms of economic deviance carried out by __________ people as part of their ________________. 50.The _________________ has become a major concern with auto thefts in the 1990s. 51.Whitecollar crime committed by employees for individual gain is usually ______ costly than that committed by __________, but still far _______ costly than ___________. 52.The primary motivation for burglary is ______________. 53.The two types of whitecollar deviance are ______________, and _________________. 54.The opportunity for committing burglary largely stems from the ________________________. 55.________________ and _________________ are two examples of whitecollar deviance committed as part of one's occupation. 56.To avoid frightening away their patrons, storeowners euphemistically refer to shoplifting as ________. 57.One characteristic of whitecollar criminals is that they see themselves as _________ persons, maintaining a ____________ selfimage. 58.One of the major reasons why many young people shoplift is a ___________________. 59.The ____________ of laws regulating political corruption often leads to ___________________. 60.According to the textbook author, participants in organized crime in American society are simply trying to _____________________. 61.The proportion of the nation's entire work force that either plans or is tempted to commit employee theft is ____________. 62.The two basic characteristics of organized crime are a ___________________ and a ______________. 63.The phrase "lighting a fire in the brain" has been used to describe the effect of a _________________. 64.The history of ethnic succession in _____________ suggests that an ethnic gang has to go through several stages before it can _____________. 65.According to the ___________________, the ________________ forces addicts into a life of crime. 66.According to the author of the text, _____________, __________, and ___________ gangs seem to be stuck in the _____________ stage of ethnic succession in organized crime. 67.According to Lindesmith's theory, addiction develops from the addict's cognitive association of an_________________ with _____________________. 68.The main reason why it is impossible to stamp out organized crime is because the public will always ______________________. 69.A social profile of typical corporate illegal practices includes: 1) _____________________, 2) _____________, 3) _________________________, 4) _______________________. 70.According to the _________________ approach to _______________, psychologically vulnerable individuals and their drinking peers come together to generate a force that causes them to become ________________. 3 Corporate deviance takes place in corporations and is carried out for ______________ or __________. It can be divided into major types according to who the victim is: 1) Deviance against _____________ 2) Deviance against _____________ 3) Deviance against the ______________ 4) Deviance against the______________ There are several theories to explain drug use: 1) ______________ say an inborn predisposition and high tolerance for drug effects/addiction exist. 2) _______________ trace causes to specific personality traits such as low selfesteem 3) ______________ interpret drug use as stemming from social forces, such as drug subcultures or peer influence 4) _____________________ sees a strong link between drug abuse and deprivation. 5) ____________________: addict's continuing interest in the drug has to do with its elimination of withdrawal distress, rather than its production of euphoria. 6) _____________ combines sociological and psychological factors. Employee theft is extremely __________ and ___________. It leads companies to ______ prices. Most employee thieves are ____________ class and steal for at least four reasons: 1) Large and impersonal corporations promote little or no loyalty, leading to the feeling of ___________. 2) A tradition of conflict (unionmanagement) that promotes a high incidence of employee theft because workers feel ______________ and __________________ the company. 3) Some employees steal in order to make their jobs ____________ and ______________. 4) Employee thieves do not see themselves as ___________ because of the popular stereotype of ________________ as those who commit ___________________ only. The war on drugs consists of two basic strategies: 1) ______________ – has led to widespread arrest and imprisonment of poor and minority drug users who now make up a large portion of many states’ prison population. This effort is discriminatory and siphons off government funds that could be used for drug education and treatment programs. 2) ______________ using drug prevention and treatment to solve the drug problem (school programs, TV commercials, and other kinds of education and drug treatment programs). Most drugs belong to one of three categories according to their effects on the user’s central nervous system: 1) ____________: enhance the central nervous system 2) ____________: reduce the activity of the nervous system 3) ____________: disturb the nervous system and distort the user's perception of reality. 4
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