J301F Exam 2 Study Guide
J301F Exam 2 Study Guide J 301F
Popular in Fundamentals Issues of Journalism
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Talia Hill on Wednesday March 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to J 301F at University of Texas at Austin taught by Tracy Dahlby in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals Issues of Journalism in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 03/30/16
Fundamental Issues in Journalism Exam #2 Study Guide Fog of War: Reporting 9/11 Day was normal, then it was not Jet fighters flying air cover over our island Soldiers barricade the United Nation Journalists without portfolio wandering streets Snapshots, many poignant, some not People posting missing posters all over streets Frogs at bottom of a well only see patch of a blue sky, no comprehensive sense of situation; everyone hungry for reliable info Did we get what we needed from news? News answered the first 4 W’s what, when, where, who … NOT WHY - What – planes attacked Twin Towers, US homeland - Where – Manhattan, New York and Washington DC - Who – 19 hijackers kill 2977 people - When – September 11, 2001 Why did they hate us? Why so angry? Who were “they”? Leading news organizations supplied ton of info about who, what, where, when, and how The missing info (why) was essential not only for people to understand the event but to take the next step “Answering why required news to provide public with understanding of a number of complete and multifaceted international issues and historical relationships, a swell of info about culture and religious differences that were related to those issues and relationships” Major media avoided questions of grievances and motivation Public gripped by understandable but broadbased fears that can lead to errors in judgment Public fear and compliant press = White House supplied answer to “why” “Complex issues were portrayed in black and white terms. America good. Terrorists bad” Who were terrorists and what motivated them? - Little mention of Al Qaeda’s criticism of US foreign policy - US military presence in Holy Lands - US support for Middle East governments (wasn’t there; we only supported Israel) “Media fail had big consequences” “Some of most widely respected names in American journalism were soon going out of their way to echo the same simplistic messages that president had been sending and that were resonating with American public” Bush had scripted press conference “Buying the War” goes into press fail White House sells case for war mushroom cloud 1. Says Iraq is member of “axis of evil” 2. Suggest Saddam is behind 9/11 attacks with no evidence 3. Says Saddam has links with Al Qaeda and has weapons of mass destruction 4. Press goes along with it to not appear unpatriotic and avoid criticism Strobel and Landay (Washington Post) 1. Knight Ridder (newspaper) is skeptical early on 2. Suspects much info on WMDs was coming from single source: Ahmed Chalabi 3. Reporters point up flaws in admins intelligence 4. Knight Ridder is big chain – but Heartland, not elite: few pay attention War started March 2003 Columbia journalism review – “success of Bush’s PR war was largely dependent on a compliant press” Publics mind was already set by time truth uncovered Learn: - Journalism of verification can save us from error - Journalists need to seek out relevant and varied sources - Verifying accuracy of info is not academic exercise - Facts are important but so is putting them in context – telling what they mean - Prestigious media gatekeepers can mess up and misinform - Power needs to be monitored - Skeptical way of knowing is good way of knowing Digital media comes into its own public own reporting because suspicious about mainstream (web journals/blogs) Habib Rizieq Shihab: importance of internal logic; job is not to judge but understand why people think and act the way they do Nuanced messages in his book (Tracy’s) Susan Sontag spoke out and was criticized Internet was a major factor Chapter 2: Intellectual Basics Always ask 4 questions about a claim 1. What are unstated assumptions? How do they affect our understanding? 2. How are terms being defined, and does a definition favor a position? 3. What is quality of the evidence? 4. Does the evidence lead in logical fashion to claim? Question on 3 levels - Ecological – part of nature (we) - Societal – sense of self - Personal – individual and unique Understand our world - Philosophically – search for knowledge and truth - Historically – human nature and societies over time - Sociologically – society patterns Bush’s admin success for making case for Iraq war rested largely on a compliant press Robert Jensen Thinking Critically 3 key elements to dominant ideology of contemporary US - National fundamentalism – faith in benevolence - Economic fundamentalism – beliefs in capitalism - Technological fundamentalism – use of high energy is good Fundamentalism any intellectual, political, or moral position that asserts a certainty in the truth and/or righteousness of a belief system Different types of inquiry: - Empirical: data produced thru inquiry - Analytical: organization of data in meaningful fashion - Normative: social norms to guide our lives 3 ideologies: 1. Ideology as insult abstract, rigid, and impractical 2. Ideology as worldview set of values, attitudes, and beliefs that shape a social group’s interpretation of the world 3. Ideology as power beliefs of a ruling group imposed on subordinates Classical arguments identify assumptions, define terms, provide evidence; examine the arguments Contribution to democratic society = core of journalism Info is essential for democratic selfgovernance so journalists are important, play a main role in democratic societies 3 things we need from journalists: 1. Independent source of factual info – important to know facts 2. Analysis – help us understand facts and making sense of them… we need context and historical context, social, and economic context 3. Exposure to widest range of relevant opinion that’s possible – form ideas and opinions from others judgments and opinions, bump off others to form own Journalists have important role in democracy and when performing this role they are ^^ (3 things) We need journalists to perform these roles in times of war and national crisis when we need it most At these times (national crisis and war) journalism tends to fail us the most dramatically at the moment we need them most Walter Cronkite – UT student Dan Rather – mainstream journalist - Decisive moment in war = turn off the lights; take out lights and water facilities - Says turning off the lights = not war crime (US bombed civilian infrastructure in Serbia electricity, water, gas gone because US bombed it… war crime?) - Bombing of Belgrave (in Serbia) War crime = intentionally killing civilians and targeting them or target means by which civilians live Foundational law of war from Nuremburg Trials Nazi, Germany Clear that turning off the lights was a war crime (was it intentional or not?) 90% of people who died in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia were civilians (3 million) – suggests they were war crimes Carpet bombing = indiscriminate bombing Mainstream journalism suggests that journalists achieve 3 things by asserting to be neutral and nonideological (no ideological perspective) Journalists are supposed to be independent Dan Rather was straightforward, used “we”, said he always wants us to win in war Dan Rather stood up in front of room full of journalists and said he is NOT neutral Journalists claim to be neutral except when they’re not neutrality exposed as fraud; they assert they’re neutral but they’re not Gap between way journalists present themselves to public and reality of way they work Their failures are not learned from to improve upon when we need journalists most they have failed us (especially 2003 invasion of Iraq) March 20, 2003 invasion of Iraq a war crime? No, crime against peace (crime of aggression) Crime against peace, war crime, crime against humanity US invasion of Iraq was illegal What had motivated attackers to attack Citizens need info to decide how to respond and what government is doing in their name Robert Jensen – provide factual info, context, widest range Sports Journalism John Lowe & Kevin Robins Reporter’s biorhythm: - Listen - Assess - Question - Assess - Invoke humanity Sherlock Holmes Silver Blaze race horse - Imagine something might have happened, act on it, imagine supposition (ask questions) - Value of imagination – know sport and people to think how to project Listening: - What you have to do to ask follow up questions - Figure out what was not said Sherlock – “to the curious incident of the dog in the night time” - Biggest clue = what was not said/barked Listen closely to what is said and not said Psychic income > income January 2006 Texas vs. USC National Championship: - 22 minutes left until deadline for story is do whos gonna win? 2 stories going at same time - Vince Young scores - No cheering in press box th - 4 and 5 9 yd TD by Vince Young to win it – more than just Texas wins - Thinking more broadly and critically - Brian R #39 DE gets Lyndale White so no 1 down on 4 and 2 - Michael Huff got credit for White tackle, Vince Young made TD, but Brian Robinson made it all happen Deflategate: - Shouldn’t let school get in way of education - Don and Seth full time job on this story - 3 different forms of offtherecord background, deep background, and off the record o Background: say their position but no name; quote word for word but characterize who they are (no name) o Off the record: no name no info; only useful to get other sources o Deep background: give info but cant indicate there was a source involved (Deep Throat) - Ultimate cheap shot = anonymous quoting snitching on a teammate - Every piece of information was verified by at least 1 additional source - Fulltime fact checker - Sent Patriots and NFL 40 questions each - Probably not over yet, more stories to come Bob Lee Podcast LISTEN; tell me about your day… you’re always on Major purpose of sports journalism is to be an eyewitness to history, not just a watchdog Lara Logan CBS On the record, on background, on deep background, off the record set ground rules Other considerations at play as to why they cant tell you everything when asked questions Journalism = negotiate a path when you cant get all that information negotiate access to be reliable and accurate Follow moral compass Build relationships over time to build trust and don’t violate ground rules EVER Off the record can give you right ammunition to lead you down right path to ask right questions If you cant get it fairly and honestly then don’t care if you get it Invoke humanity Read Federalist Papers why we are journalists and what’s our job; guardians of democracy Journalism keeps FBI, government, everyone/everything HONEST, not the law Farsee and Arabic are important for politics, foreign, etc journalism No greater tool than to understand and engage face to face without a translator – translation is critical because you want to get right answer and make sure person doesn’t flip for misinterpretation or understanding Intelligence gatherers Language keeps everyone honest Make decisions on limitations of medium Every decision you make is based on calculated risk – on battlefield When Pearl (Michael?) died journalists became propaganda and participants for Al Qaeda rather than just journalists journalists only value became propaganda after that murder and this inhibits us because entire purpose of being there is now a weapon Scrutinize and make important every little piece of info even ones you think are worthless If not passionate then why are you there? Lara Logan 60 minute stories – ebola, Holocaust, NOT Syria Good reporter needs to be a good listener Ground rules reporter and source understand how the info is going to be used Digital Thinking Pluses and Minuses Art of analytical thinking starts with paying attention, which starts by listening to what sources and story is trying to tell you Arthur Miller – “Death of a Salesman” China is going to be #1 economy “Basic problem in those days was that I thought I was pretty hot stuff and wasn’t listening close enough” – Tracy Dahlby Good reporter must be on guard against ego Enemies of Good Listening: - Too much reporterly ego - Too little homework - Ignorance of story’s historical context - Too little familiarity with issues involved in story Listen to hear whats not being said, ask follow up questions, get facts Why listen carefully? - Get info - Hear nuance - Engage sources - Pick up contradictions (where to dive in) - Hear what wasn’t said (John Lowe) Digital distractions invitation to unplug? NO Reporting via media needs to be quick and accurate listener If you got nuance wrong (fail to catch tone and meaning) risk sending wrong message Sherry Turkle Stop Googling Lets Talk Plus (of digital media): put attention wherever, never have to be bored Plus: lull in convo – you can shift attention from people to world found in phone Plus/minus: convo is kept light on topics where people can drop in and out – keeps us from going deeper Minus: students described a sense of loss from being digitally engaged Problems for society and reporting: - Lack of empathy - Low tolerance for solitude - Low tolerance for “boring” people/topics Invoke your humanity: empathy - “Conversation is the most humanizing thing we do” Invoke your humanity: solitude - “In solitude we find ourselves; prepare ourselves to come to conversation with something to say that is authentic, ours… if we don’t know how to be alone we’ll always be lonely” Realize your humanity: endurance - “If you want to find gold you got to go off in rugged terrain” - Never be too sure where you want to go because then it is too easy to get there” Voltaire – “Never trust the statements of others in absence of clear and unshakable evidence” Product of Enlightenment = importance of facts Oliver Wendell Holmes = poet - “Perpetual intercommunication joined with instantaneous action” - “Equalizing and steadying of public opinion” through diffusion of information Henry David Thoreau = skeptic about information revolution - Force us to communicate with each other but do we have anything to say? “Age of Fact” came into prominence after WWII C. Wright Mills = facts aren’t enough - “People need a quality of mind to help them use info and develop reason” Skeptical way of knowing content, complete?, sources, evidence, news interact with evidence, getting what we need? Big question is how cranky do we want to be with digital media David Brooks Uncranky Approach Fluid Intelligence – process information quickly; quick way to figure out whats what - Set of skills that exist in the moment and being able to perceive situations – make quick connections like in video games Mode of interaction nurtures mental agility Crystallizing Intelligence – ability to use experience, knowledge, and products of lifelong education - Make analogies and comparisons - Accumulates over the years - Crucial Cocktail party of networking is crucial too… so we need BALANCE David Brooks fluid intelligence (social media) vs. crystallized intelligence (books) Be involved in never ending cocktail party, but then go to a quiet place to make sense of it balance You need to: Reporters Approach 1. Command the facts 2. Put yourself in circulation to get facts 3. Stop to make sense of facts 4. Practice individualized thought that makes sensemaking possible 5. Know when to connect, when to disengage and when to practice solitude 6. Prioritize your time and make sacrifices accordingly How to Cover a Breaking News Story Aim for accuracy: - Keep standards high – only verified info Use social media to listen and report: - Get info to public - Build stories - Find sources Seek to understand developing narrative craft strategy to deliver it - Both new and old media Have a process and practice it often before breaking news happens Robert Quigley Watergate Today 5 people arrested for breaking in to Watergate Live tweeting value to immediacy, keeps fire on/pressure We can… search social media profiles for burglars and screenshot, run online criminal background checks, look up real estate deals, divorces marriages taxes and more, live tweet, and use hashtags Nixon’s CRP (Committee to Reelect President) is the focal point of investigation - Search FEC database, burglars names, big donor profiles, visualization on donors Change with internet = we can get pulse of people Watergate – lots of moving parts and people Having good context and background is key Nixon recorded himself on tape; was ordered by the Supreme Court to transfer over recordings and transcripts publish papers for public to dig out facts (basically ask for help from the public) Verify information is key - Lots of info coming in thru many channels - Open spigot more by creating anonymous online tip form - As you verify, even smaller pieces, post it and readers will help you piece it together - Digital media is NOT a sub for traditional verification of information Nixon’s “Hatchet Man” = Charles Colson Twitter quote card line “quotes” with background pic Put together podcast series where reporters discuss pieces of audio as they’re released Resignation speech live blog, snapchat, live tweet, notifications, truth test Nixon was bitter because he was forced to resign Advantage of todays digital media tools help us organize content and supply context more efficiently than Watergate in 1970s true Race Beat Chapter 1 News is suppressed in Germany Myrdal – An American Dilemma; “American creed” is a common set of values, fair play and equal choice; this book was a racial study “Vital role American press could play in challenging the status quo of race relations” “Essential leadership role southern moderate and liberal white editors were playing by speaking out against institutionalized race discrimination, yet aware of the anguish they felt as pressure to conform intensified” Northern press (basically national press) = best hope for telling racism stories and start of protests Northerners were ignorant Knowledge = the barrier between white northerners’ ignorance and Myrdal’s outrage that the creed was being poisoned To get publicity was the highest strategic importance to black people Blacks would get a better deal by whites if whites knew the facts Future of race relations was in the hands of the American press An American Dilemma = portrait of segregation and a mirror This study’s foresight connection between publicity of race discrimination and civil rights movement (most dynamic news story) Treatment of blacks in court was bad Black press was at the center of developing Negro protest, whites would see that protest and demand change Race Beat Chapter 7 1950s: Why? Origin point of comprehensive news media coverage of Civil Rights Movement and minorities Links with coverage of Ferguson etc Raise questions of social justice, underreported story and public Raise important questions of visibility – how well we see realities Can we really be free and selfgoverning if we don’t see ourselves clearly? The 50s – Question of Visibility Things happened that set the stage for big changes to come and shape our times in civil rights and rise of America as worlds most powerful Lack of visibility prominent in racial justice Gunnar Myrdal in 1944 “astonishing ignorance” Why didn’t citizens outside south know/see inhumanity toward black population Black press was central and 1 in reporting on growing civil rights movement Northern press ignored the issue = “astonishing ignorance” about Negroes Northern mainstream press had most power and hope for change TV had reached its mobile stage John Chancellor “TV could take you where you could not go and show you things you could not see” 1954 Brown v. Board of Education: racial segregation in public schools was unconstitutional – no separate but equal Press needed a shove when will the turning point come? Emmett Till Case 1955 turning point - 14 year old boy from Chicago visiting uncle in Money, Mississippi flirted with store clerk’s wife – he was then kidnapped - Bryant’s grocery store - Emmett’s body was found in Tallahatchie River 3 days later - Roy Bryant and J.W. Milam arrested for murder - Bryant and Milam found not guilty Significance of Till Trial: - Brought black press into heart of white mans kingdom (courtroom) - Brought white reporters to Deep South to cover racial story - First massive move by northern press and had effect Myrdal had foreseen - Northerners were shocked and shaken by what they read Mose Wright – pivotal moment at trial, pivotal moment for the press - Main witness for Emmett Journalists obligation to history Mamie Till Mobley – Emmett’s mom Charles Diggs – US congressman at trial as observer Ernest Green – one of students who integrated Little Rock High in Arkansas; MLK came to his graduation When is an old story worth pursuing when its issue live on in the present like Ferguson 2014, Sandra Bland 2015 Do we really see or do we just think we see our society? Shifting time frames – Baltimore 1968 and 2015 Reporting techniques – shifting frames - Time frames - Frames of reference - Generational time frames Karen Attiah – “now western media cover Baltimore” Shifting frames of reference: seeing ourselves as others see us - Using imagination to think about story in broadcast terms - Attiah – raising questions by shifting frames How differently would US media cover Baltimore if it occurred overseas? Would foreign governments express concern or criticism? What would CNN say? Shifting generational frames – “Chicago students to news media: “You don’t know us” - Reporters spent 24 hours here but you don’t really know us When we look at world do we really see whats there or do we see what we have been conditioned to see? question of visibility Seeing involves appreciating historical context Stories grow out of older stories and unresolved issues If making sense of stories is journalism’s job is it possible if we don’t know and cant convey important background Understanding context is crucial Journalism when done right can make invisible more visible and allow people to be better informed Dr. Paula Poindexter Minorities and Media News hour Mitt Romney vs Obama college kids voting at Ohio State - Social issues – college kids are liberal - Young voters up for grabs Did news story on millennial (us) Framing = what you include or don’t include Had to decide what to do in this story on millennials football game at OSU (not all millennials go) When story focused on people of color – essentially was stereotype; news is more likely to stereotype This story: young voters missed an opportunity, still need to hold journalists accountable because it represents all of us Agenda setting = what media says doesn’t necessarily show what we think is important, but it does because were talking about it Important dates in journalism: - 1440 = Johann Gutenbury - 1776 = Declaration of Independence - 1787 = US constitution - 1789 = first amendment - 1965 = Report of national advisory commission on civil disorders published - 1968 = benchmark study with adversity and media 5 requirements society is entitled to demand of its press: 1. A truthful, comprehensive, and intelligent account of days events in a context which gives them meaning 2. A forum for the exchange of comment and criticism 3. The projection of a representative picture of the constituent groups in the society 4. Such failure may occur indirectly and incidentally 2001 Elements of journalism 1922 stereotyping 1970 agenda setting 2000s implicit unconscious hidden bias; in film “disadvantage” cut to African American shot of kids Diversity in news taxonomy done studies of news coverage on racial and ethnic groups she did trends - For most part people of color are not covered in news and if they are its in a stereotypical manner (athletes, crime, poor, celebrity) June tienth? – slaves didn’t know they were emancipated until years later in Texas Poindexter’s keys to achieving quality journalism thru representative, nonstereotypical, informed reporting: 1. Know population statistics 2. Know key history 3. Cultivate diverse sources 4. Enhance your diversity awareness 5. Be aware of unconscious bias 6. Know news media’s record on excluding and stereotyping racial and ethnic groups 7. Avoid stereotypes 8. Familiarize self with Hutchins Commission Report and Kerner Commission Report Tuesday September 11, 2001 Documentary - After 19 hijackers killed 2,977 people on U.S. soil, there was huge American patriotism - Bush was given softball questions, press was afraid to criticize government action and be seen as “antiAmerican” (Public fear + compliant press = aftermath of 9/11) - On Letterman, Dan Rather controversially said he’d do anything George Bush asked - Achmed Chalabi Iraqi politican who wanted Saddam out became a figure in U.S. who “conned” America into war. Gave appearance of two sources by telling journalists and administration the same facts. When journalists checked facts with administration, they would really only be confirming what Chalabi said. - Bush sold the war like he was marketing a product. Used repetition such as “weapons of mass destruction”. Said Iraq was part of “Axis of Evil”, and Saddam was behind the attacks as part of Al Qaeda. - Front page stories did not raise important questions about the war. Stories that were not definitive were ignored. Press was told to keep Iraqi civilian deaths out of the front page. - Strobel and Landay at Knight Ridder “truth squatting”. Discovered that Achmed Chalabi was main source of info, and were skeptical of administration early on. Mightier than the Sword - Journalists never answered why we were attacked on 9/11. - Bush made it as black and white as “terrorists bad, Americans good.” - So why were we attacked? Three reasons: - Foreign policy: U.S. supported Israel and other Middle Eastern governments. - We disrespected Mecca by putting soldiers in the Persian Gulf. - Military had killed Iraqis in the past. - Susan Sontag spoke out against the war and was immediately criticized. - The Internet information era may have been sparked by 9/11. - War started March 2003. By the time news media knew the truth, the public had made up their mind. Robert Jensen - Fundamentalism any intellectual, political, or moral position that asserts certainty or righteousness. - America has national, economic, and technological fundamentalism. The problem is not that people don’t like conflict but that they don’t have faith in honest public argumentation. More Notes, sports, etc. - Listening is best journalistic trait. Listen to what isn’t said. - The most important question is the follow up question. - Three types of off the record 1. say their position, not who they are 2. use their info but not actual quote or their name 3. can’t even indicate that a source was involved Digital Media - Most adults get news from Facebook. - Social Media leads to discussion and sharing of news. However, people who click on facebook links are usually not as engaged in the story as those who deliberately seek out news. - Political views shared and heavier discussion is not more likely on social media than in person. - Fluid Intelligence process info quickly, mental agility, set of skills that exist in the moment. - Crystallized Intelligence building a foundation of learning over time, cumulative. - David Brooks says the internet nurtures fluid intelligence. Both kinds of intelligence are important. - Social media and texting has caused people to lack empathy and solitude. People drift in and out of conversations and have low tolerance for “boring”, heavy topics. - People think certain actions will lead to predictable results because apps do. Information Revolution - Verification was a product of the European Enlightenment. Voltaire was an initial polarizing figure who practiced verification. - railroads and telegraphs were the opening of the “fact frontier” - Oliver Wendell Holmes supported mass communication, and said it was the equalizing and steadying of public opinion. Henry David Thoreau was a skeptic, and said “..what does Texas have to say to Maine? - PostWorld War 2 = information tsunami due to radio, television, newspapers. - C. Wright Mills saw that facts began to not be enough. People need a quality of mind, and want to make sense of facts. - Reporter’s Approach: 1. Command the facts. 2. Put yourself in circulation to get those facts. 3. Stop to make sense of facts. 4. Practice individualized thought that makes sense making possible. 5. Know when to connect, when to engage, when to practice solitude. 6. Prioritize your time and make sacrifices when needed. Robert Quigley Watergate Today - Public would have immediate feedback, and it would not have been as “under the radar’ - Verifying info would be difficult because of how much of it there would be. Tips for Covering Breaking News Tips from Denver Post, who were commended for how they dealt with Aurora theater shooting 1. Aim for accuracy 2. Use social media to listen and report 3. Seek to understand developing narrative, craft strategy to deliver it 4. Have a process in place so you are prepared for breaking news. Race - Summer of 1955 Emmett Till was murdered in Money, Mississippi. - Till, who was from Chicago visiting his uncle Mose Wright, supposedly flirted with Carolyn Bryant at Bryant Grocery. - body found in Tallahassee River. J.W. Millam and Roy Bryant were the murderers. - Jet magazine ran photos from Till’s open casket, sparked debate in north - Mose Wright powerful moment. Stood tall and pointed at the killers in court. Said “that’s them” - Charles Diggs black US congressman who went to the trial. - William Bradford Huie journalist who paid the murderers to tell the true story after the trial. - During Civil Rights movement, television made the racism visible. - First time northern reporters went to south to cover a racial story, first time journalists of black and white race reported in the same setting. - 1954 Brown v. Board of Education struck down Plessy v. Ferguson “separate but equal”. Ruled that racial segregation in public schools is unconstitutional - 1957 Little rock school integration. Swat teams had to be sent to protect black children going to school. TV newscasters showed the terrors of the south. - Ernest Green black student who went to Little Rock High in 1957. MLK attended his graduation. - Shifting Time Frames journalism technique used to show how the past affects the present. - 1968 Kerner Commission Report Otto Kerner, Illinois governor, blamed the news media in part for the riots of summer 1967 and reprimanded press for lack of diverse coverage and lack of a diverse newsroom. - Diversity the inclusion of all as well as fair and accurate reporting about groups that have historically been excluded. - Clint Wilson and Felix Gutierrez (1985) mainstream coverage of minorities happens in 5 stages: 1.) Exclusionary minorities not included in news 2.) Threatening issue minorities depicted as poor and as criminals, threatening the wellbeing of nation. 3.) Confrontational blacks depicted as loud and yelling, black leaders depicted as complainers. 4.) Stereotypical Selection Selecting members of a minority group for an interview if they meet a stereotype. 5.) Integrated coverage Minorities integrated into news in a better way. - There are more minorities in newsrooms now, but black reporters are usually assigned to black issues. - Blacks on news shown in mugshots, jail clothing. White victims get more air time than black victims. - A frame is a central organizing idea for news content that supplies a context and suggests what the issue is through the use of selection, emphasis, exclusion, and elaboration. - First level agenda setting object salience - Second level agenda setting attribute salience - Minorities likely to be used as 3rd source as a token. Not 2nd or 4th. - Latinos not used as sources nearly enough. - 1947 Hutchins Commission didn’t think the news showed a representative picture of society. Gunnar Myrdal - 1944 wrote of “an astonishing ignorance” northern whites had about racism - A Swede who realized American press could challenge racism. Northern press must challenge the south’s views. - Carnegie Corp chose Myrdal to write An American Dilemma because he was an outsider from a not racist country - Spoke of “American creed”, which is a common set of values that embodied fair play and an equal chance.
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