Study Guide for Engagement Assessment Five!
Study Guide for Engagement Assessment Five! SWK 320-003
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashley Jerread on Thursday November 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SWK 320-003 at University of North Carolina - Wilmington taught by Mrs. Jacquelyn Lee in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 102 views. For similar materials see Human Behavior and the Social Enviornment in Social Work at University of North Carolina - Wilmington.
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Date Created: 11/12/15
SOCIAL WORK WEEKS 11 & 12 11/1/2015 Chapter 8 Middle childhood – age range of 5 or 6 to 11 years old, a time when growth and development continue at a steady, consistent pace, particularly in the area of physical, cognitive, and motor skills. Physical development o Increases in height, weight, muscle mass, and coordination skills o Skeletal structure is taking its adult shape as permanent teeth are established and bones become harder o Continued development and refinement of motor skills such as hitting, running, jumping, climbing, and other activities that require fine motor skills with fingers and hands Cognitive development o Critical thinking skills o Ability to think with more flexibility and complexity o Gains in memory, attention, and ability to think about details of tasks o Long-term memory increases during this times o Ability to link new information with existing knowledge increases Emotional and personality development o Increased ability to define self through internal and social characteristics o Increased ability to understand complex emotions o Improvements in ability to control and redirect emotions Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence o Componential intelligence The way people process and analyze information Way people formulate ideas, argue points, and evaluate ideas Perform well on standardized IQ tests o Experiential intelligence How well people perform on tasks How people bring in new information and incorporate it into what they already knew Also known as “insightful” intelligence o Contextual intelligence Stresses the practical side of intelligence Ability to adapt to new situations Successfully navigate in different environments “Street smarts” They’re good at “working the system” or “jumping through the hoops” o There are limitations Describes only one of many factors that can impact human behavior Underlying concepts can be difficult to define, measure, and evaluate Finding ways to validate and justify the use of alternative forms of intelligence can be daunting Theorists have debated the idea that intelligence encompasses a singular characteristic Standardized tests have a lot of criticisms o One is that they seem to test people’s abilities to perform in ways that follow the standards of the white majority o Minority group members are often faced with questions that are foreign to them ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) o Consistent displays of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity o Seem easily bored, have trouble focusing on tasks and activities, demonstrate high levels of activity, show an unwillingness or inability to think before acting, and exhibit low levels of impulse control o Diagnoses among children have been increasing over the past few decades o Overcrowding in classrooms can contribute to ADHD o Medication have shown promising results in managing symptoms of ADHD as have other psychosocial interventions such as parent training and behavior modification Social anxiety disorder – fear of meeting new people or of embarrassing oneself in social situations Separation anxiety disorder – unreasonable fear of separating from home or primary caregivers Panic disorder – unpredictable and repeated panic attacks, marked by hyperventilating and increased heart rate PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) – generalized panic or anxiety due to witnessing or experiencing a traumatic event Phobia – unreasonable fear of specific triggers such as dogs, spiders, air travel, or large crowds Peer groups – a part of a child’s immediate environment that can have lasting effects on their development o Modeling and social learning – interaction with the environment and peers to express their opinions, try on new roles, test their social, physical, and academic capabilities o This is how children develop intimate, sensitive relationships in which compromise and empathy are a part o They can also have negative effects – if there is a bad relationship or rejection, hostility, loneliness, and depression – all which can happen from poor interactions with peers Parten’s Categories of Play o Unoccupied Uncharacteristic of typical play Standing around, not doing anything, engaging in movements that seem to lack goal or purpose Watching events happening around them o Solitary Solitary or independent activities Unconcerned with what others are doing Children 2-3 years old o Onlooker Child observes play of others May ask questions Seems interested in others’ play but doesn’t participate o Parallel Occurs simultaneously but separately from play of other child May play with similar toys or in similar manner As children age, less likely to engage in this type of play o Associative Involves a great deal of social interaction with others, but still individualistic Children play together, but no organization, or attention being paid to, the play occurring Children may talk together or share toys, but focused on own activities o Cooperative Includes social interaction with organized activity Sense of group identity Children share a purpose in play Work toward a common goal Corporal punishment – the u se of physical punishment, particularly spanking, on children. o Debates about spanking are social, cultural, religious, and political o They are usual very heated o Usually they center around whether spanking promotes violent behavior among children who are spanked and whether spanking helps to reinforce other modes of discipline such as time-outs o Research dates back several decades, but only several findings are consistent Majority of findings agree that spanking is positively correlated with aggression, misconduct, and similar behaviors among children, even in cultures where it is socially acceptable and normative. At the same time, studies also confirm spanking does succeed at getting children to comply with parents’ demands BUT CORRELATION DOES NOT IMPLY CAUSATION Studies cannot account for the relationships between spanking and aggressive behaviors among children Separation and Divorce o Coping ability Predivorce stress included This is a good predictor of how children will cope with a divorce and the aftermath o Level of development Children who are able to cognitively process the divorce as well as understand the complex nuances behind the reasons for the divorce will fare better than the younger children Younger kids cannot understand why the divorce can be occurring o Gender Early research suggests boys adjust better than girls Current research suggests these differences may be less significant than originally thought Though girls may still struggle more than males, trends toward increasing father participation by fathers after divorce, ease difficulties girls may experience throughout the divorce How can parents help their children adjust to the divorce? o Maintain open and respectful communication with children o Ensure that children (young ones most definitely) understand that they are not to blame for the divorce o Maintain a consistent daily routine o Remain realistic but hopeful about the situation o Be supportive of the children Alternative family forms o Stepfamilies o Blended families o Single parents o Cohabitating households o Single parents o Gay and lesbian parents Many have children from prior heterosexual relationships Many also face a lot of discrimination when trying to adopt or foster a child Research shows that children reared in homosexual households are raised the same as those in heterosexual homes, they show similar levels in cognitive, emotional, social and sexual functioning developments The ability to marry can have a profound positive impact on not only the couple’s relationship, which can affect parenting, but also the ability to become parents, and care for their children These couples are pushing the limits of court and legislation which are also challenging the definition of the traditional family Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) o Law was originated in 1975 as the Education for All Handicapped Children Act which mandated that all children with disabilities have access to free and appropriate education o The name was changed to IDEA in 1990 o The provisions state Eligibility criteria for services be clearly defined Evaluations for these criteria be readily accessible to children who need them Children who meet criteria receive individualized education plans, which offer students specialized services targeted to their specific needs Students with disabilities be offered educational services in the least restrictive environment (LRE), meaning that the setting is similar and equal to that of other students o Mainstreaming – this is the current philosophy that children with disabilities should spend time in a regular classroom and interact with children who do not have disabilities (it’s also called inclusion) For it to be implemented successfully teachers have to receive specialized training to meet the needs of children with disabilities, and social workers must provide support services for teachers, children, and their families o Often the teachers, schools, and social workers complain that funding is inadequate to provide the needs mandated by IDEA Main ideas of chapter 8 o Motor, emotional, cognitive, and physical development continues to progress from ages 5-11 o Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence describes 3 main models of intellectual functioning. o There are debates over diagnosis of learning disabilities, including dyslexia and ADHD, as well as how best to educate children with special needs associated with learning disabilities o ADHD and anxiety disorders are increasingly being diagnosed in children o Peer relationships have profound impact on children’s motor, social, emotional, and cognitive development o Types of play children engage in as well as parental discipline are two additional factors in the immediate environment that impact development o Results of research on effects of divorce and remarriage on children and their development show that some children experience problems in development and behavior, while others seemingly show no adverse effects. o A combination of factors such as children’s temperament, level of development, gender, and whether parents maintain open communication and support their children during the divorce contribute to how well the children cope o Although controversy remains, research indicates that children reared by gay or lesbian parents do just as well developmentally as children reared by heterosexual parents o Evidence suggests that exposure to violence on TV and through other media is associated with aggressive behavior in children as well as with decreased time spent engaging in physical and social activity o Laws enacted in the 1970s and updated in the 1990s have contributed to mainstreaming children with disabilities and special needs o Though there is consensus that the current public education system needs reform, many alternatives to education such as voucher programs have mixed results in providing quality and equitable education 11/9/2015 Chapter 9 Adolescence – typically begins around ages 10 – 12 and lasts until ages 18 – 22 o Because of many biopsychosocial changes that take place during this time, problems can emerge for individuals and their families o Adolescents are trying to develop their identity and independence while still legally dependent on their parents and guardians, social workers can face many legal, ethical, and practical challenges when working with the teen clients Developmental milestones in adolescence o Physical Onset of puberty and the hormonal changes associated with it Development of primary and secondary sex characteristics o Cognitive Cognitive skills become more complex and sophisticated Thinking becomes more abstract Teens can think hypothetically about situations Teens can use reason and logic and take the perspective of others when considering situations o Personality and emotion Identity development continues with the integration of physical, cognitive, and emotional components to form a more mature identity Movement toward autonomy o Puberty – rapid physical and sexual growth accompanied by hormonal, emotional, and other changes o Primary sex characteristics – aspects of the body directly related to reproduction o Secondary sex characteristics – aspects related to gender but not directly related to reproduction Meta-thought o Ability to think about thinking o Adolescents are able to think about abstract ideas such as ideals, qualities, and characteristics that describe people and their personalities as well as concepts related to right and wrong o Due to this ability, they become capable of grappling with complex issues such as morality and spirituality Kholberg’s theory of moral development & criticisms o Level 1 : preconventional reasoning (conventional role conformity) People have not internalized moral values. Moral thinking is ruled by rewards and punishments Stage 1 – punishment and obedience orientation. o People make decisions about what is good and bad to avoid punishment Stage 2 – Naïve instrumental hedonism. o People obey rules to get rewarded o Level 2 : conventional reasoning (role conformity) People value the opinions of others Behavior is guided by external social expectations Stage 3 – good boy/girl mentality. o People behave in ways that please others Stage 4 – authority-maintaining morality. o People strongly believe in law and order o Social order is paramount and people will defer to higher authority to guide behavior o Level 3 : postconventional reasoning (self-accepted moral principles) People have internalized moral values Morality extends beyond laws and self-interests Stage 5 – morality of contract, of individual rights, and of democratically accepted law o People view laws and social order as necessary o Laws need to be questioned in light of the common good Stage 6 – morality of individual principles and conscience o People’s behavior is based in internal principles of what is right and wrong o People make decisions based on what is right for the common good, regardless of whether or not decisions go against law or higher authority Gilligan’s theory of moral development o Level 1 : orientation to personal survival Describes women’s orientation to self-interest and survival Consideration of others is not important Transition 1 – transition from personal selfishness to responsibility o Women begin to take the considerations of others into account in moral reasoning o Self is important, but women realize that the well- being of others is also important o Level 2 : goodness as self-sacrifice Women see morality as sacrificing their own needs for the sake of others Women become dependent on the perspectives of others, to the point that they may sacrifice their own needs and feelings Transition 2 – from goodness to reality o Women are able to balance the needs of others with their own o They consider what is best for others as well as themselves and make decisions that will benefit both o Level 3 : the morality of nonviolent responsibility Women think about the consequences of their moral decisions Opinions of others are not as important as the integrity of their decisions and the impact those decisions will have on everyone’s well-being David A. Kolb – circular, ascending spiral of learning o His theory of experiential learning is partially derived from Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, it suggests that learning is a four- step process Students engage in hands-on learning to gain experience Students spend time in subjective, personal reflection on the experience Students engage in abstract conceptualization by connecting their experiences with larger perspectives provided from theory, research, and other authoritative sources that enable students to reflect of their experiences from an objective perspective Students practice their previous learning in more complex learning environments Anorexia Nervosa VS. Bulimia Nervosa o Anorexia Refusal to maintain body weight appropriate for age and height Intense fear of gaining weight Disturbance in perceived body image Loss of menstruation for at least 3 consecutive months o Bulimia Recurrent binge-eating episodes Use of laxatives, excessive exercising, or vomiting Behaviors must occur at least twice a week for at least three months Disturbance in perceived body image Disturbance does not occur with an episode of anorexia Sexual identity – refers to a person’s sexual orientation as well as an array of beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors related to sexuality Sexual orientation – refers to the gender with which a person prefers to have sex Sexual development in heterosexual teens o Biopsychosocial lens Helps conceptualize sexual development within teens’ environment o Medical model Great deal of information about how hormones influence physical development and sexual preferences Research is uncovering biological bases to hetero and homo sexuality through studies that involve genetics, hormones, and the brain o Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development Compares stage of identity vs. identity confusion to conceptualize how teens develop and articulate their sexual orientation o Freud’s theory of psychosexual development How teens may have become fixated in previous stages May influence their sexuality as they age o Feminist theory Shows how sex and gender roles, and even the idea of heterosexuality, are socially constructed and how these concepts might influence sexual identity o Queer theory Examines socially constructed labels, categories, and relationships that are seemingly binary in nature Suggests that we should look at how definitions of “normal” are socially constructed and problematic for a large proportion of the population Queer theory – developed in the later 1980s and early 1990s, advocates for examining how a society’s definition of “normal” effectively excludes, and even pathologizes , all that is not normal o Guides social workers in their work with gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgendered, and questioning teens as they grapple with their sexuality and other psychosocial issues associated with it o Can provide a great deal of information and support teens on all levels o Help teens explore personal feelings and beliefs about sexuality, and to explore how to involve family and friends in their work, and help them learn how to negotiate larger social issues Adaptive tasks for homosexual adolescents o Expanding one’s self-concept within the context of gender, family, and cultural group Teens must come to terms with the discrepancies between how they think, feel and behave and a world that assumes people are heterosexual Must learn to develop positive feelings about themselves in an environment that rewards heterosexuality o Changing one’s relationships and establishing independence A time when people begin to question the values and beliefs of their parents Many families hold heterosexist beliefs and may even openly condemn homosexuality as immoral These teens have to confront these beliefs o Building social supports Through peer groups – they can explore identity Can find social structure o Exploring career, vocational, and educational goals A time to work on self-efficacy through achievement and success in academics, setting the stage for pursuing higher education and career-related goals Must confront institutional discrimination Must move towards their goals while fighting social barriers that may impede their success o Establishing intimate relationships Dating, flirting, holding hands, falling in love, and other activities that occur during adolescence that help teens prepare for adult relationships are different for these teens, at least in public Must find other ways to “practice” relationship skills – don’t through passing as heterosexual or lying about one’s identity which hinders development of honest, trusting intimate relationships Common sexually transmitted infections o Chlamydia – most commonly occurring STI o Genital herpes – an incurable STI o Gonorrhea o Hepatitis B o Syphilis o HIV/AIDS Because of complex relationship of biopsychosocial factors that contribute to suicidal thoughts and attempts, understanding which factors contribute to the problem is difficult, but research has pointed to some consistent factors that play an important role in suicide o Stressful life events such as academic problems or unintended pregnancy o Strained relationships with peers, friends, parents, boyfriends, and girlfriends o Substance abuse o Feelings or hopelessness o Physical and sexual abuse o Previous suicidal thoughts and attempts Suicide is a particularly important issue among homosexual youths o 15% of gay and lesbian teens said they had attempted suicide compared to only 7% of heterosexual teens o Among almost 3,000 young gay men in one study (21%) had made a suicide plan o Gay and lesbian teens who perceive an unsupportive social environment are significantly more likely to attempt suicide than their gay and lesbian peers who feel they have more social supports in place SAD PERSONS Suicide Assessment (acronym) o Sex – males are more likely to complete suicide o Age – younger than 25 and older than 45 are more likely to complete suicide o Depression o Previous attempt o Ethanol abuse o Rational thinking loss o Social support loss o Organized plan o No spouse or partner o Sickness Peer groups in adolescence o Peers can exert a great deal of influence over an adolescent’s behavior o The extent to which one teen influences the behavior of another teen can depend on many factors such as personality, coping skills, and other support systems. o Peer pressure is an example of poor influence on an adolescent o A helpful way to conceptualize peer relationships is through attachment theory The quality of attachments with parents influences attachments with peers during adolescence and later in life Secure and supportive attachments with parents help teens form secure attachments with peers, may also make teens more resilient to negative peer pressure Insecure attachments with their parents may make teens more vulnerable to negative peer pressure making teens feel the need to conform to group norms and feel the need to please the friends Critique of sex education o Currently many schools lean toward an abstinence perspective on sex o Research has indicated that abstinence-only programs are not effective at reducing teen pregnancy rates or problems with STIs o Professionals argue that abstinence-only programs fail those teens who are sexually active o Effective sex education is probably best viewed from an ecological or systems approach o Comprehensive programs, even with their limitations, are most effective in reducing rates of teen pregnancy and STIS o Evidence suggests that programs for reducing teen pregnancy need to be built around a comprehensive model that incorporates myriad components including parenting education, job training, employment opportunities, academic support, health and mental health care, parental and familial support, developmentally and culturally appropriate sex and contraceptive education, and recreation to promote self-esteem and appropriate emotional outlets. o These studies stress the important of respecting teens’ attitudes, beliefs, and decisions about sex and parenting which also keeps up with the NASW’s code of ethics Heterosexism – prejudice or discrimination in favor of those who are heterosexual Homophobia – another type of prejudice based on sexual orientation, but it involves a fear of, or anger, disgust, or discomfort with, homosexuals and homosexuality Deviance, crime, and violence o Some of the factors that have been found to predict violence and delinquency in adolescence Micro level Being male Substance use Low educational achievement Low impulse control Feelings of powerlessness Childhood aggression Hyperactivity withdrawal Meso level Family conflict Lack of familial support and discipline Negative peer pressure Macro level Poverty Living in high-crime urban neighborhoods Exposure to violence through media and social environment Main Points chapter 9 Hallmark of adolescent development is puberty and hormonal changes associated with it Patterns in development can impact well-being depending on the timing of maturation and the gender of the individual Cognitive development in adolescence allows the abstract thinking behind development of moral reasoning Self-esteem can be influence by a number of factors – including immediate and larger social environments – it’s a protective factor Developing a sexual identity includes experiencing and managing sexual feelings incorporating this identity into an overarching self-concept as a member of a larger society Teens of all sexual orientations grapple with the tasks of sexual development, but gay and lesbian teens have additional tasks associated with it Learning styles, self-esteem, eating disorders, early and late maturation, sexual identity and sexuality, substance abuse, and suicide are major problems for adolescents in the US, and have many short and long-term consequences for overall health and well-being Peer pressure can have both positive and negative effects on teens – the extent to which one teen influences the behavior of another can depend on many factors such as personality, coping skills, and the presence of other support systems, particularly parents There are many debates in the US about how to deal with sexual issues and how to provides services for teens, including teen parents – debates include sex education Heterosexism and homophobia exist at both the individual and institutional levels, and they greatly affect the well-being of gay and lesbian people Social workers can use interventions that maximize positive interactions with sexual minorities, but they need to be aware of how their own believes and values might affect this work. 11/11/2015 Class Notes The brain is always developing, it doesn’t stop at adolescence Age 25 – pre-frontal cortex isn’t fully developed until this age Neuroscience lens – tells you about the brain! Child sets up framework of a house – observing information from the society Adolescence – remodeling the house is called PRUNING – “gardening” getting rid of the neurons and circuits that aren’t needed anymore – sort of the “use it or lose it” – decrease of neurons and synapses (which are the neuron connections) Myelination – 3000x more energy makes neurons more effectively integrated CLASS WORKSHEET – BRAINSTORM Adolescence is an opportunity for growth through learning about yourself While there are changes in hormones, the changes in the way adolescents think and feel is more about changes in the brain Adolescence is a necessary period of growth and change The adolescent brain processes the “pros” and “cons” of situations differently o Awareness of consequences are decreased and they don’t think it’d happen to them! Brain basics o Spinal cord – brings signals from the body up to the “head brain” o Brain stem – awake states, fight/flight/freeze response -> DEVELOPS FIRST o Limbic area – emotion, motivation, appraisal, memory, attachment -> developed with adolescence o Cortex – maps of the outside world, internal world of ourselves and others o Middle prefrontal cortex – connects all of these together – last to develop – responsible for thinking and decision making and desired outcomes Integration – linking differentiated parts of the brain and mind so that none of them is over-functioning but so that they work together in harmony (controlling mental health) Neuroplasticity – ability of the brain to change and grow over the lifespan -> where you put attention is what’s going to grow! Experience – changes and strengthens the structure and function of the brain Reflective (“mindful awareness”) – paying attention to experience help the brain! Stimulates growth of the integrative middle prefrontal cortex Same circuits that enable insight into oneself also enable empathy for others – care for yourself, it’s easier to care for others, can understand why people did what they did Developing this capacity strengthens nine integrative functions of the middle prefrontal cortex o Body regulation o Attuned communication o Emotional balance o Response flexibility o Empathy o Insight (self-knowing awareness) o Fear modulation o Intuition o Morality During adolescence the brain is changing in order to prepare them to leave the nest, and to go out into the world and creatively problem-solve “ESSENCE” (acronym) o ES – EMOTIONAL SPARK – more signals coming from the limbic area, brainstem, and body are creating emotion and passion that influences the reasoning of the cortex “the thrill” o SE – SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT – changes in signals from the brainstem and limbic area case adolescent to begin looking to peers for connection – separation from family! o N – NOVELTY-SEEKING – changes in dopamine levels motivate adolescents to seek new experiences o CE – CREATIVE EXPLORATION – adolescents are pushing against the status quo and imagining creative solutions to the world’s problems Ways that the adolescent brain functions differently from a child or adult o Dopamine levels o “Hyper-rational thinking” – exaggerated responses to things o “Pruning” – brain destroys self, parts it doesn’t need, loss of neurons and synapses o “Myelination” – healthy sheath among connected neurons, 3000x more effectively connected or integrated, more efficient!
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