Examtwo-StudyGuide- FINAL MENA 160A1
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Noor Rana on Wednesday January 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MENA 160A1 at University of Arizona taught by Mr. Badareen in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 365 views. For similar materials see Islam in Religion at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 01/28/15
The Religion of Islam ExamTwo Study Guide Mr Badareen I p x I I P 11 TermsPlaces Caliph The successor of the prophet Later on the definition morphed into the lieutenant of the god by the Umayyad s Shar ia Gods Law Legal ruling in the Quran and the Sunnah Jurisprudence qh Human understanding of Gods Law Understanding Sharia Mujtahid Lawyers they engage in the interpretation of infallible texts They interpret the Quran Sunnah and are an expert of Sharia Qadi They judge cases in court Renders legal opinion Mufti Answer legal questions with a Fatwa Fatwa Legal opinion Kharijite Rejected arbitration and left Ali in 661 A Kharijite murdered Ali in 661 Mutazilite Theological Schools discuss free will vs determinism and more Battle of the Camel First civil war Occurred in 656 A isha went against Ali A isha went to Ali and said to him that he has to punish the killers of Uthman Ali said as soon as the government is strong A isha disagreed and went against Ali along with Al Zubayr and Talha AlZubayr and Talha were close companions of the prophet A isha meets Ali in the Battle of the Camel in Syria Ali won the war by ordering someone to cut the legs of the camel A isha was on 800010000 people died in the battle Including Al Zubayr and Talha A isha regretted her decision later on and retired Importance First civil war A isha a woman was the leader of the army AlZubayr and Talha died in the war It is also said thatA isha went against Ali because of a personal grudge Due to an incident Ali advised the prophet to divorce A isha and she didn t like that After that Aisha developed a grudge against Ali Battle of Siffin Occurred in 657 Mu awiya against Ali Mu awiya was a distant relative of Uthman and he wanted to avenge the death of Uthman Mu awiya thought that Ali was The Religion of Islam ExamTwo Study Guide Mr Badareen responsible for the death of Uthman Therefore starting another war with Ali Later on Ali made a deal with Mu awiya and he had equal power to Ali Concept of Arbitration Importance Due to Ali agreeing with the arbitration a group of people left him Later on they were known as the Kharijites Mu awiya becomes a strong contender to become the next caliph after Ali 12 Event of Karbala Second civil war Took place in 680 Mu awiya appoints his son Yazid as the next caliph Most people disagreed with that decision so they approached Husayn to become the next caliph Husayn was the grandson of the prophet Husayn eventually agreed and took a group of 150 people and Yazid ordered 3000armed men to fight in the war As a result 72 people were martyred on Husain s side including his infant son Yazid assassinated Husayn This took place on 10th of Muharram on the Islamic month Importance Modern day today both Sunni and Shi a mourn the death of Husayn in the month of Muharram Shia s Muslims in ict violence on themselves and Sunni Muslims recall the event and pray 13 Occultation lesser occultation and Greater Occultation 0 Concealment of the 12th Imam 0 Lesser Occultation is when there were small connections to Mahdi This lasted from 875951 Agents communicated between the hidden Imam and the community 0 Greater Occultation is when all the connections were cut off from Mahdi The time period of this is from 951Present IIPeople Abu Bakr 0 Close companion to the prophet Muhammad PBUH 0 He was the first caliph Caliph from 632634 0 His title was Commander of the Faithful The Religion of Islam ExamTwo Study Guide Mr Badareen Significance Apostasy Wars AlRidda Ridda translates to apostasy During the time of AbuB akr weaker tribes wanted out of the treaty that made them pay taxes So some tribes left the union and pronounced themselves as prophet Therefore revenue was lost because the tribes left the union As a result Abu Bakr got angry and waged a war against them A meeting took place and people disagreed with AbuBakr about waging the war but he convinced them After the war AbuBakr unified the tribes and because of him Islam spread even more AbuBakr appointed Umar as the next caliph AbuBakr died in 634 of natural causes Close companion to the Prophet Early convert to Islam Was appointed by AbuBakr to become the second caliph in 634 He served as caliph from 634644 His title was Commander of the Believers Significance Spread Islam to Syria Palestine Iran Iraq and more Bishop of Jerusalem gave the key to Umar when he saw his humble nature Umar took the law out during the drought and he said People stole to eat because they are hungry Umar started a new calendar the Hijiri Calendar He established the system of pension He established the system of Diwan register of the tribes A Persian slave stabbed Umar Upon his death he appointed a counsel of six individuals to run to become a caliph The six individuals were Ali AlZubayr Talha Uthman Sa d Abi Waqqas and Abd al Rahman Umar died in 644 U thman Third Caliph The Religion of Islam ExamTwo Study Guide Mr Badareen A isha Ali Compiled the Quran in the single text Conquests Khurasan Iran and Africa He dismissed and disrespected early companions Supporter of Nepotism Was assassinated by a group of people from Kufa Egypt and Medina Wife of the prophet Went against Ali in the ciVil war The Battle of the Camel She led the army opposing Ali Lost the war resulted in the death of 800010000 people She regretted her decision later on Cousin of the prophet Fatimas Husband Fourth Cailph His title was Commander of the Faithful Ruled from 656661 Engaged in the first ciVil war against A isha Battle of the Camel 656 Ali won Engaged in a war against Mu awiya Battle of Siffin 657 Ali agreed to arbitration and a group of people left him now known as the Kharijites A Kharijite murdered Ali in 661 The end of the first four Caliphs AlZubayr He was a close companion to the prophet He was a military leader The Religion of Islam ExamTwo Study Guide Mr Badareen 0 Teamed up With A isha and went against Ali 0 Died in the Battle of the Camel in 656 Ibn Zubayr 0 Son of AlZubayr 0 Emerges a caliph in 683 after Yazid dies 0 Rose against the Umayyad s 0 He secures Jijaz and Iraq He gets killed in 692 by Abd alMalik b Marwan Hasan 0 Son of Ali and grandson of the prophet 0 He goes against Mu awiya but Mu awiya offers Hasan a handsome retirement and Hasan retires After a While it is said that Mu awiya orders Hasan to get killed 0 It is said Hasans Wife poisoned him on the orders of Mu awiya Who might be her uncle But that s not confirmed 0 Shi a consider Hasan the second Imam H usayn 0 Son of Ali and grandson of the Prophet 0 Known mostly for the Event at Kharbala Where Yazid killed him in 680 0 Till today in the Islamic month of Muhurram all Muslims mourn the death of Husayn and his followers This event is called Ashura 0 Shi a consider Husayn third Imam Mu awiya 0 Distant cousin of Uthman 0 First Umayyad caliph The Religion of Islam ExamTwo Study Guide Mr Badareen Yazid Ali Agreed to arbitration With Mu awiya After Ali Died Mu awiya emerged as the next caliph Mu awiya started the dynasty of the Umayyad Caliphate Damascus is the new Caliphate capital Siege of Constantinople and minor conquests Served as a Caliph from 661680 Appoints his son Yazid to be the next caliph before he died Appointed by his father Mu awiya to become the next caliph Is known mostly for the event at Kharbala in 680 Where he killed Husayn Yazid dies in 683 and Ibn alZubayr emerges as the caliph Abd alMalik Son of Marwan Becomes the next Umayyad Caliph in 658 Started second Islamic conquest in Afrcia Gave army salary Retakes Iraq in 691 Retakes Mecca and kills Ibn Zubayr in 692 Second civil war ends Marwan A cousin of Uthman s from the Umayyad He was caliph from 684685 The Religion of Islam ExamTwo Study Guide Mr Badareen 0 Before he agreed to becoming caliph he said after he dies his son Will emerge as the next caliph III Historical Sequences 1 Abu Bakr 0 632634 2 Umar 0 634644 3 Uthman 0 666656 4 Ali 0 656661 5 Mu awiya 0 661680 6 Battle of the camel 0 656 7 Battle of Siffin 0 657 8 Sack of Baghdad 0 1258 IV Dates 1 Establishment of the Umayyad Caliphate The Religion of Islam ExamTwo Study Guide Mr Badareen 0 661680 2 Battle of the Camel 0 656 3 The Murder of Husayn 0 680 4 Sack of Baghdad 0 1258 IMongols burned the Islamic books in Iraq V Questions 1 Name the contributions of the followings a Abu Bakr Apostasy War Unified the tribes b Umar I Hijiri Calendar Diwan Established the tax system Led the first Islamic Conquest c Uthman Assembled the Quran in single text Conquest of Iran and Africa d Mu awiya Foundation of Ummayid Caliphate Moved the Capital of Caliphate to Damascus e Abd alMalik Ibn Marwan Second Conquest coins in Arabic Arabic becomes official language Established postal serVice and built the Dome of Rock in Jerusalem 2 Who was responsible for the killing of Husayn 0 Yazid 3 In which city was Husayn killed 0 Kharbala I In Iraq The Religion of Islam ExamTwo Study Guide Mr Badareen 4 Who were the major actors in the first Islamic war in 656 What was the outcome 0 Ali A isha AlZubayr and Talha Ali won the war 5 Who were the major actors in the second civil war 0 Ibn Zubayr and Abd Malik Marwan Abd Malik Marwan Wins 6 What are some of the legacies of the Umayyad caliphate 0 Muslim political rule from Spain to central Asia 0 Caliphate as the political idea 0 Islam as the state religion 0 The opposition in favor of Ali become the Shi sldescendants 0 Arabic culture administration 0 Tolerance of the nonMuslim minorities 7 Name the four Sunni schools of law 0 Hanafi 0 Maliki 0 Shia fi 0 Hanbali 8 Name two Shia schools of law 0 Zaydies 0 Ismalies 0 TwelversImami 9 Name five sources of Islamic law according to Sunni Islam The Religion of Islam ExamTwo Study Guide Mr Badareen 0 Quran 0 SunnahHadith 0 Opinion of Early Muslim Authorities 0 Consensus Ijma of JuristLawyers 0 Analogical Reasoning Qiyas 10 What do Mu tazilite Kharijites and Sunnis say about the status of a Muslim Who committed a grave sin 0 Kharijites NonMuslim Kafr I Infidel 0 Sunnis Still Muslim Mu min o Mu tazilite Sinner Fasiq 11 Who waswere supposed to lead the Muslim community after the death of the Prophet According to Sunnis According to Shia Kharijite 0 Ali according to Shia s 0 AbuB akr Umar Uthman and Ali according to Sunnis 0 The most pious Muslim person according to Kharijites 12 Name the five categories of human actions according to Islam 0 Obligatory Wajib 0 Recommended Mandub 0 Disapproved Makruh The Religion of Islam ExamTwo Study Guide Mr Badareen 0 Permitted Halal 0 ProhibitedForbidden Haraam 13 Name the three types of legal authorities in Islam 0 Mufti 0 Jurist Lawyers Mujtahid 0 QadiJudge 14 Name give attributes of God according to the Sunni doctrine 0 Knowledge 0 Power 0 Will 0 Sight 0 Speech 0 Hearing 0 Life 15 What are the two major sects in Islam 0 Sunni 0 Shi a 16 Name three Shi a sects in Islam 0 Zaydis 0 Ishmalis 0 Twelvers The Religion of Islam ExamTwo Study Guide Mr Badareen 17 What are the first three Shi i Imams according to Shi is 0 Ali 0 Hasan 0 Husayn 18 What is the name of the 12th Shi a Imam 0 Mahdi 19 Which Shia Imam is the most popular among the TwelverImami Shi a 0 Imam Husayn 20 What is the characteristic of an Imam according to ZaydisImamiTwlevers 0 Zaydis ScholarWarrior Descendent of Hasan or Husayn Multiple Imams can exist simultaneously and it is not necessary to have an Imam at all times The last Imam passed away in 1962 Sinless individual 0 Isma ilies Designation from Isma il b J a far hidden has perfect knowledgeinfallible Current Imam Agha Khan who lives in France Sinless individual 0 ImamiTwelvers Designation nass by the previus Imam like the Isma ilies they possess special knowledge and have 12 imams Sinless individual 21 What are the two major differences between Shia and Sunnis 0 Sunnis believe that Abubakr Umar Uthman and Ali are the rightful caliphs while the Shi as believe that Ali and his decedents are the rightful successors 0 Second main difference is the doctrine Shi a say that you must believe in an Imam to be a Shi a while Sunni s don t have that concept The Religion of Islam ExamTwo Study Guide Mr Badareen 0 Another difference is that Sunnis are likely to pick anyone With credentials to be the successor Where as Shi a Will most likely pick family members 0 Sunnis and Shi a have difference school of laws they follow 22 Name two contributions of the Fatimid Caliphate What is the faith of the Fatimid Caliphate 0 AlAzhar University 0 Conquest of Egypt 0 Built Cairo in 969 0 Organized missionaries 0 Tolerance of nonMuslims 23 Name the three Islamic gunpowder empires in the 16th And 17th century and their location 0 Ottomans c 13001924 Constantinople 1453 and Arab World 1516 0 SafaVids Twelver Shi I 15011737 Iran 0 Mughals of India 15261707 or 1857 Taj Mahal Extra Name the invaders 0 Crusaders from 10981291 Jerusalem 10991187 Saladin 11711193 Reconquista in Spain 10851250 1492 0 Mongols Chingiz Khan raids 12191223 Hulegu 12531265 Sack of Baghdad 1258 Descendants become Muslim around 1300 The Religion of Islam ExamTwo Study Guide Mr Badareen
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