Study Guide For Exam 3
Study Guide For Exam 3 Fw 104
Popular in Wildlife Ecology and Conservation (GT-SC2)
Popular in Animal Science and Zoology
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Courtney Potter on Thursday November 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Fw 104 at Colorado State University taught by Nicole K M Vieira; Ann L Randall ; Tyler Ryde Swarr in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 183 views. For similar materials see Wildlife Ecology and Conservation (GT-SC2) in Animal Science and Zoology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 11/12/15
Readings Frog Reading 0 Global warming may be causing some frog species to become extinct o J Alan Pounds suggested multiple harlequin frog species in Central and South America have disappeared due to disease cause by climate change 0 Biodiversitynumber of species in an area 0 Two thirds of harlequin frog species disappeared between 1980 1990 0 Thin skin makes them susceptible to chytrid fungus o Fungus grows at 6377 degrees Fahrenheit 0 Cynthia Carry is skeptical about this hypothesis Burmese Python 0 112000 pythons captive bred in the United States 0 Hundreds have ended up in the Everglades National Park from owners releasing them into the wild Can be twenty feet and reach around 200 pounds 0 Eastern diamondback and eastern indigo snake at risk 0 Planted tracking devices into seventeen snakes to nd out where they reside and set traps Dogs also can help in locating snakes and maybe also luring males by female pheromones Endangered Species Act Habitat Programs 0 Safe Harbor Agreements 0 Landowners voluntarily aid in the recovery of a species under the ESA 0 Works with the service to develop a management plan and implement actions 0 Can return land to original condition after agreement ends 0 Habitat Conservation Plans 0 Incidental take permit allow economic development during conservation of species 0 Funding to implement steps to minimalize killing of a species whilst constructing O Nonfederal landowners Conservation Banks 0 Permanently managed and protected lands owner must see if their lands are suitable for species given mitigation credits 0 Any landowner of public or private lands Cooperative Endangered Species Conservation Fund Grants 0 Federal assistance to states for voluntary conservation projects candidate and listed species 0 Conservation Grantsspecies status surveys and management plan funding 0 Habitat Conservation Planning Assistance funding for habitat conservation plans 0 States territories landowners communities tribes Candidate Conservation Agreements with Assurances o Landowners implement plan for at risk species and agrees to a certain number of years assurance that if species ends up on list they don t need to implement new plan given incentives o Nonfederal landowners Candidate Conservation Agreements 0 No regulatory assurances both federal and nonfederal landowners Partners For Fish and Wildlife Program 0 Assistance and cost share incentives to get landowners help in restoring habitats 0 Private landowners not issued by state or federal government Grizzly Bear Video In the 19805 there were around 48 bears in Yellowstone National Park nearex nc on Grizzlies have made a comeback and are causing problems in urban areas 0 Feeding on livestock farmers cannot kill them because they are protected by the Endangered Species Act 0 Raiding trash cans o Becoming aggressive towards humans There is a need to remove them and relocate them around summertime 0 Mark Versino Wildlife Specialist in Wyoming does this with problematic bears 0 They get two chances then they are euthanized o Sedating the bear gives them time to get data radio collars 0 Calls come from ranches farms and small towns 0 Not enough area to relocate the bears Yellowstone and Glacier Parks are the only areas left for the grizzlies after the 18005 0 At rst dump sites were established to watch the bears feed 0 By the 19605 they had forgotten how to defend themselves due to constant human handouts Dumps were closed the bears became dangerous People began to kill them 1975 the grizzlies were placed under the Endangered Species Act 0 They began to learn to hunt elk Bear Evidence scat tracks or a kill 0 Mainly found in the back country 0 Also found where elks calve In June calves are too fast for them to catch bears switch to eating cutthroat sh The Grizzly Discover Center has been working on ways to keep trash cans bearproof In the end ofJuly the bears go to the rocky slopes to eat cutworm moths ingest 40000 a day 0 Also eat seeds from white bark pine which they nd in squirrel dens 550 bears today are found in Yellowstone and their territory extends 17000 square miles 000 In Wapiti Wyoming the apple trees attract bears In the fall hunters go out into the woods to hunt elk and attract bears o 300 tons of elk leftovers for bears to eat 0 Mimic bear prey causing confusion in bears Potential Problems with Delisting Grizzlies 0 Hunting of bears would begin again 0 Encroachment on their territory for gas and energy development Four Foods Their Dependent on 0 Meat 60Bison which are being infected with Brucellosis Cutthroat sh which are being taken over by invasive lake trout moths are being attacked by pesticides and global warming could keep them from coming back onto the cool rocky slopes 0 White Bark Pines being killed by a pathogen called blister roots usually determine how many mother bears survive in a year and how many cubs they have Development outside of the park is increasing the national forests may resume logging and looking for oil in grizzly territory could harm the population Ocean Video Baited hooks long nets and SONAR all of this advancement in hunting techniques depleting the sh populations 0 Can t reproduce enough to keep up with demand Private sherman without legal jurisdiction taking sh Populations have been decreasing since the 19805 Bycatch Bottom of trawls destroying the ecosystems at the bottom of oceans Fleet for catching is two times as big as it should be to keep the sh populations sustainable o Aquaculture of raising carnivores that feed on other smaller sh from the ecosystem contributing to problems for other sh Salmon fed pellets made of sh meal feeds could pose a threat to human health by producing animals that are high in pcb levels making them dangerous to eat Overuse of chemicals and antibiotics sh now contain antibiotics resistant bacteria Sea water ows freely through the holding tanks untreated as it goes back into the ecosystem killing other sh Some farm sh escape causing problems Large volumes of waste polluting the sea oor Solutions 0000 O Aquacultures that produce omnivores and herbivores that feed on byproducts of crops and fertilize the elds Use of vaccines instead of antibiotics stronger nets to keep sh from escaping new type of holding area like sh tanks Treated waste water restoring mangroves putting less shrimp together in a holding tank to keep the spread of disease down Small sh farming of tilapia and cat sh and shell sh Marine Stewardship giving MSC ecolabels to sheries making them of cially approved Lecture Notes Disturbance and Ecosystem Management Disturbance Periodic change destruction or removal of ecosystem components 0 May cause large scale ecosystem change 0 Examples logging ooding dams re drought landslides agriculture disease erosion pollution construction noise invasive species timber harvest light climate change tree falls hurricanes burrows wallows migration paths avalanches tornadoes Range In Severity and Extent 0 O O O Minorlocal tree fall beaver dams wallows burrows Severeregionalfires oods hurricanes clear cut development Discrete clear beginning and end Windstorm avalanche Constant continuous with no clear end Pollution wood harvesting Natural disturbance Integral part of functioning of many ecosystems Biological diversity may depend upon natural disturbances I Fire oods avalanches hurricanes beetle kill Anthropogenic disturbance Human caused negative impacts on biodiversity Ecological Succession O O O O 0 Process of community development working towards a stable climax community After a disturbance ecosystems undergo successional recovery Sequence of species groups present at various times since disturbance Primaryvolcano Secondarymost ecosystems Climax community is not always reached Frequent disturbances may maintain an ecosystem in the earlier successional stages R species do better with more disturbance K species found normally in climax communities Don t do well with disturbance Anthropogenic changes alter disturbance patterns Put out res Change species composition Push systems beyond disturbance tolerance limits Rainforest deforestation 67 of Earth s surface and 50 of species on Earth a Lost 47 of previous rainforests I Little reforestation pasturing and wood gathering a Cattle ranching leading cause of deforestation in the Amazon Small scale cultivation of crops I Not sustainable beyond small population densities Need To Do To Protect Ecosystems 0 000000 Educann Changed behavior and demands Sustainable agriculture and forestry International collaboration and assistance Networking of parks and reserves Using already deforested land Different forms of income how to use land and keep it healthy Wildlife Manager s Toobox Knowledge 0 Scienti c Method TechniquesPopulation Ecosystem Management 0 Ecological Function structure processes Biodiversity o Socialpolitical Values and perceptions 0 Economic Costbene t analysis 0 Agencies National Park Service preserve USFWS conserve USFS ecosystem management teams TNCconservation by design CPWhabitat restoration and biodiversity Edward Grumbine 0 Goals 1 Viable Populations reproduction 2 Native Ecosystem Types 3 Ecological Processes Maintained 4 Long Time Periods to maintain and evolve 5 Accommodation of human use and occupation 0 Themes Hierarchal Context scale and systems Ecological Boundaries Ecological Integrity Data Collection Monitoring Adaptive Management lnteragency Cooperation Organizational Change Humans Embedded ln Nature 0 Values HPWFP P FWF Endangered Species Act o 1973 President Nixon signed the endangered species act 0 Protect and recover imperiled species and ecosystem o Allowing them to recruit and have tness 0 Covers endangered and threatened species 0 Administered by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and the Department of Commerce s National Marine Fisheries Service 0 Includes foreign species as well as our citizens business in our countnes Conserve candidate species at risk of being listed Eighteen sections stabilize reduce threats to the population and recovery 0 Mandates that you follow up with conservation efforts 0 Reasons to list As Endangered or Threatened 0 Present destruction of existing regulatory methods 0 Overuse of commercial recreational scienti c or educational purposes 0 Disease or predation o lnadequacy of existing regulatory mechanism 0 Natural or manmade factors affecting existence 0 What areas are essential as species territory includes potential habitat critical habitat 0 Not everything is protected on private land 0 Recovery Process 0 Reducing threats 0 Plan to help sustainable populations 0 Taking them off of the list 0 Federal government has to consult with the US Fish and Wildlife Service and the Department of Commerce s National Marine Fisheries Service before allotting money towards projects to make sure they won t endanger any species Takes a long time to get near extinct populations back to healthy population sizes Why Species Become Threatened Endangered or Extinct Habitat loss disturbance contaminants consumption invasive species commercial value differing values climate change Three Phases of Recovering o ldenU cann 0 Endangered any species or sub species in danger of extinction throughout all or a portion of their habitat 0 Threatened any species or sub species likely to become endangered Critical habitat area containing welfare factors for a species 2246 listed species 50 have recovery plans 83 more proposed Candidate speciessufficient evidence exists to support the proposal to the list Warranted but precluded get help after the top priority species are restored Critical habitat Includes areas with welfare factors not currently occupied Affect federal agency actions and federally funded activities Exclusions loopholes for the federal government 846 species listed with a de ned critical habitat 0 Protection 0 0 0 Federal agencies have to consult with Fish and Wildlife Service States and private individuals consult for permits or funding 70000 federal actions are reviewed a year 1200 receive consultations 6 are in jeopardy of funding Department of defense is exempt Take harass harm pursue hunt shoot wound kill trap capture or collect includes habitat destruction that kills or injures listed species 50000 ne and a year in jail Recovery 0 GOOD Reduce or eliminate threats Restore self sustaining wild populations Remove a species from the list Monitoring for 5 years after removed from the list Cooperation of Federal and State Governments Relationships with private land owners Knowledge of existing species within a state that are in danger Consultations Enforcing the federal laws Know their area better than the federal government does Keep animals close to being threatened off of the ESA Experimental population Treated as threatened Designated as nonessential can still be taken out if they cause problems Convention of International Trade In Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora ClTES international agreement to protect species Polar Bears Climate Change and Feral Species Greenhouse effect gases keeping heat in o Albedo light re ection needed happens by ice re ecting rays 0 and other things Indications of human in uence carbon nitrogen methane sulfur increasing Climate Forcing s things that upset the balance between incoming and outgoing energy in climate systems 0 Natural solar energy and volcanic eruptions o Anthropogenic green house and pollution Tipping point put more greenhouse gases into the atmosphere than the Earth can remove 450ppm of carbon dioxide Global Reactions to Temperature Change O 0000 Lakes freezing later Glacial retreat Weather change Coasts Permafrost unfreezing and releasing methane Animalia Mammalia Carnivora Ursidae Ursus maritimus Listed as threatened under the IUCN Genetically closest to the grizzly Largest living bear species Upper level predator of marine environment Protected by the MMPA CITES and the ESA Specialist eat seals ambush predator too big to run long distances Late sexual maturity small liters long time raising young Indicator species 0 O Rely on holes in the ice to hunt seals Indicates the health of the ice caps in ecosystems Umbrella Species 0 Save the polar bear save other arctic species Starvation drowning quottakequot from oil and gas companies Anchorage 2013 District Court for Alaska vacated the US Fish and Wildlife s designated critical habitat because of oil companies Coral 2015 conservation plan is to reduce greenhouse gases USFWS is doing a ve year status review on the polar bear to make a new plan Related to rabbits hares Not listed under the ESA Live at high elevations in granite boulder elds Dry forbs grasses Have sub nivean runways under snow Narrow temperature tolerance limit no greater than 75 degrees can freeze in the winter Live at the tops of mountains Indicator species 0 Global warming Ecological ecosystem engineers Stressed by changes in temperature light acidity and nutrients Algae expelled coral loses nutrient source 2005 US lost half of the coral in the Caribbean Biodiversity and Global Warming WWF released a study showing global warming could alter 13 plant and animal life Study by Nature shows we could lose 1 million of terrestrial species in the next 50 years Feral Species Previously domesticated animals that have established themselves in the wild can be invasive or noninvasive Feral Swine o Damage agricultural crop by rooting 800 million dollars in damage 0 Millions of them In the middle of rk spectrum high reproduction intelligent parental care of young Carry disease and infect livestock Aggressive males Generalists o Bait and trap hunting culling predation panther Feral Cats 0 Released by pet owners 0 OOO 000000 0 Rselected animals Kill 1 billion birds small mammals a year Disease toxoplasmosis feline leukemia No predators on islands like Hawaii Trap neuter and release collar to nd others in the population Localized eradications Public participation is absolutely necessary Feral Mustangs 0 O O 0000 CO Brought over by the Spanish Successful reproduction polygamous Protected from harvest Wild and Free Roaming Horses and Burros Act of 1971 Few predators Damage riparian habitats and springs Overgrazing Exceed social carrying capacity Need to set one to enforce Fertility control Round up and sell Public values protection vs cullingharvest Reptiles and Amphibians Called Herptiles Herpetology study of reptiles and amphibians Play an important role in ecosystems apex predators and prey items Indicators of climate change and pollution 13 of amphibian species are threatened with extinction and half are in decHne O Dif cult to sample nd new species all of the time Reptiles crocodiles alligators lizards birds 0 0 Am 000000000 0 Chordata Reptilia Scales plates Ectothermic Havelungs Amniotic eggs hibians newts frogs toads caecilians Chordata Amphibia Moist smooth skin used for cutaneous respiration Lungsgills Metamorphosis softgellike eggs Bet hedging decide to stay aquatic or land spread out populations Newts are toxic but gardener snakes are adapting the ability to eat them arms race escalating the newt s toxin production I More resistant the snake is to the toxin the more slowly it moves I Red queen hypothesis Hallucinogenic Toads Bufotoxins produced in paratoid glands I Wart like texture I Drier habitats I Paratoid gland I Shorter more muscular back legs Frogs I Smooth moist skin I Paratoid uncommon Tympanum 0 Population Assessments of Amphibians Small and hide nocturnal Cryptic coloration Wary of predators Hard to mark and capture 0 Six Major Threats to Herpetiles Habitat loss Disease and parasite Boreal Toad chytrid fungus interferes with metamorphosis and cutaneous respiration near threatened Climate the sex of the eggs they lay are dependent upon temperature Pollution metals pesticides acid rain estrogenic chemicals Invasive species such as the Burmese python and Cane toads Unsustainable use ornate box turtles are listed on CITES 1214 years to mature kselected used in labs for dissections near threatened IUCN
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