BIOLOGY 150 - EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE
BIOLOGY 150 - EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE Biol 150
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katharyn Taylor on Wednesday March 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 150 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Benjamin Keck in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 120 views. For similar materials see Organismal and Ecological Biology in Biology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 03/30/16
BIOLOGY 150 – STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 3 • ICHTHYOLOGY – the study of fish. This is what Dr. Keck studies • Learning Objectives: o EVOLUTION – the way that organisms have changed over time, both in ways they chose and in ways out of their control o STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION – everything alive has specific structures and ways those structures interact o INFORMATION FLOW AND STORAGE – organisms use different signals and the transfer of biological information in order to stay alive. It happens inside each organism and between organisms o TRANSFORMATIONS OF ENERGY AND MATTER – everything alive needs some sort of nutrient or energy to live, and each organism changes what they take in somehow in order to use it o SYSTEMS – living things interact, with each other and their environments, and all of these interactions can be grouped in many different ways • ECOLOGY – study of all the interactions between organisms and the environment they live in (all the living and non-‐living parts) o GLOBAL ECOLOGY – study of the interactions across the globe. This is the largest scale. It analyzes how isolated occurrences have an impact on the globe as a whole o ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY – study of how energy and nutrients pass through the environment and the organisms of a trophic system o COMMUNITY ECOLOGY – study of biological interactions between different species in the same community (often competing for the same resources, space, etc.) o POPULATION ECOLOGY – study of biological interactions between individuals within a species, often between particular groups of individuals of the same species and their environment or resources o ORGANISMAL – study of an individual organism’s reaction to environmental situation or change • ECOLOGICAL Q&A: o What are the ecological causes of evolution? – interactions, both abiotic and biotic o What is limiting species’ range? – some biotic or abiotic factor o Which species in this ecosystem is the most crucial to the trophic order? – the keystone species o We can also predict the responses of ecosystems to environmental change based on the traits of species • NICHE – an organism’s place in the ecosystem • COMPETITION – occurs when more than one individual (sometimes the same species, sometimes different species) needs the same resource or space • LATITUDE & LONGITUDE – coordinates on the earth’s surface. Latitude (distance from equator) has a large effect on temperature and rainfall • CLIMATE ZONES – areas grouped into categories comprised of trends in temperature and rainfall • POPULATION: DENSITY & DISTRIBUTION – density is the number of organisms per area unit. The distribution (dispersion) patterns we need to know are uniform, random, and clumped • POPULATION CHANGE – the population size changes depending on the number of organisms that are born, die, immigrate in, and emigrate out. The equation we have for that is: rate = (births-‐deaths) + (immigration-‐emigration) • GROWTH PATTERNS o Increasing – more births/immigration than deaths/emigration o Decreasing – more deaths/emigration than births/immigration o Stable – births/immigration = deaths/emigration • GROWTH LIMITS -‐ the limit is what that “exponential growth” of a population approaches. Every ecosystem is limited to a certain population carrying size by the resources and space available 2 • GROWTH FACTORS o Density dependent – disease, competition, resources, predation o Density independent – natural disasters • REPRODUCTIVE STRATEGIES – have different advantages o ASEXUAL – fewer mutations, slower evolution, but extremely high reproductive rate and generally good dispersal (plants) o R SELECTED – high growth rate selection: think of rabbits. Lots of babies, small, don’t live very long but they have such a high reproductive rate that they are successful with population booms o K SELECTED – not focused on rate, but on competition success. Individuals are bigger, better competitors, and live longer, but there are significantly fewer of these guys • DEMOGRAPHY – study of population change over time, and what factors determine how a population forms • SPECIES INTERACTIONS – when species live in the same community, they will interact in one of the following ways o COMPETITION – they need the same resource, and they are constantly keeping each other in check o CONSUMPTION – one is predator and the other is the prey o COMMENSALISM – one organism benefits from an interaction while the other is completely unaffected o MUTUALISM – they both benefit from interacting • COMPETITION PERKS – competition sounds like a bad thing, but it is actually necessary to prevent overpopulation. By competing, one species can help ensure that another species doesn’t take over the ecosystem and throw off the ecological balance. The same goes for the other interactions, they all help keep that perfect stability • As the environment changes, species interactions change. This is the whole idea of ecology: we attempt to understand how abiotic and biotic factors are related, and in every scenario, this is different • SPECIES RICHNESS – this is the number of species in an area. A “peak” ecosystem has high species richness 3 • SPECIES EVENNESS – this is the relative equality of the ratios of all the species. A well-‐functioning ecosystem has relative equality of the amounts of the different kinds of organisms • COMPETITIVE EXCLUSION – this happens when one species limits the range of another species by outcompeting if for a resource • CHARACTER DISPLACEMENT -‐ • CO-‐EVOLUTION – evolution of one species in response to evolution of its competitor. Basically they are racing to be better than the other species • CRYPTIC PIGMENTATION – camouflage • APOSEMATIC PIGMENTATION – loud coloring to say “stay away” • MIMICRY – imitation, usually in color, of an organism with an advantageous trait that the mimicker does not have (Batesian) or to signify that the organism does have that trait, like the other mimicked organism does (Mullerian) • FOOD CHAINS & WEBS – these show who eats who in order to map the transfer of energy and nutrients throughout the ecosystem • KEYSTONE SPECIES – a species that is crucial to the functioning of the ecosystem. If you remove this species, the whole food chain collapses because there is nothing to fill its niche • BIOME – group of areas on the planet with practically the same environment (they have the same abiotic factors). Though the same biomes across the planet carry species with similar traits suited for their environment, the same species are not necessarily found in the same biome o TERRESTRIAL – defined by vegetation. tropical forest, subtropical desert, temperate grassland, temperate forest, coniferous (Boreal) forest, arctic tundra o AQUATIC – defined by depth and salinity. marine (coral reef, estuary, ocean), freshwater • LIMITING NUTRIENTS -‐ temperature, water supply, and mineral nutrients • PRIMARY PRODUCTION – primary producers generate energy and convert inorganic material into usable, organic material to introduce these things into the ecosystem • TROPHIC LEVELS – how energy and matter move through systems. things eat other things to continue passing nutrients through the web 4 • BIOMASS PRODUCTION BY BIOME – the biome that produces the most biomass per m is coral reef • ENERGY PRODUCTION BY BIOME – the open ocean produces the most energy because of its algae content and sheer surface area • DISPERSAL – this is the progressive arrangement and eventual patterned spread of individuals in a population, largely determined by territorial behaviors and resource availability o Random – found in no particular fixed way o Clumped – found in separated groups o Uniform – equally spread out • Great American Biotic interchange – the Isthmus of Panama allowed species to migrate between North and South America. However, there were relatively few species who made this interchange • Wallace’s Line – this separates the Indonesian flora and fauna from the Australian flora and fauna. Though these islands are close enough to where they could theoretically exchange species, there were no open niches because of the high biodiversity in these regions, so their ecosystems remain completely different • ISLAND BIOGEOGRAPHY – has to do with size and distance from the shore o LARGE – can support more species o SMALL – supports fewer species o NEAR-‐SHORE – quicker succession o REMOTE – slower succession • SUCCESSION – the progression of a community over time according to what trophic levels become able to succeed in the ecosystem. Easiest to observe on new islands • URBAN ECOLOGY: o POPULATION dependent because the human population density quantifies an area as an urban center o COMMUNITY dependent because it is focused on how we are impacting our community with what we change about our environment o ECOSYSTEM dependent because we make changes that have both abiotic and biotic effects • URBAN SYSTEM – any ecosystem with human technology (artificiality) involved 5 • % URBAN CENTERS -‐ 80.3% of the population on 3% of the land • EFFECTS OF URBAN ENERGY RELEASE o SOUND – disrupts animal communication (birds chirping) and scares animals away from their normal habitat o HEAT – can alter where animals live, especially in colder areas. May make a home for themselves on machinery or vent that puts out heated exhaust, and causes problems for humans and for the animal o LIGHT – makes some animals confused about the time of day (sea turtles drawn to shore) and can alter their behavior • EXOTIC SPECIES EFFECT – exotic species can often become overly successful in a new environment, and outcompete the endemic species, altering the trophic web of the ecosystem. When a niche is filled by a new organism, there is often loss of the food or habitat that the original species provided other species in the area • EXOTIC SPECIES INTRODUCTION – these are usually introduced accidentally (pets/livestock escaping), for visual enjoyment (usually plants), or to try and solve a problem (kudzu introduction to prevent erosion) • URBAN RESOURCE CONCENTRATION – humans artificially concentrate food, water, and other resources in our urban centers. This can also draw many species out of their natural habitat • GREENSPACE BENEFITS – greenspaces help combat the harm we are doing to our environment by allowing space for natural cycles to occur. We cover most of the ground in urban areas with impermeable surface: concrete. Greenspace allows rain to seep back into the ground and continue the natural water cycle, as well as putting a concentration of plants in an area where we need photosynthetic recycling of CO to 2 occur 6
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