MCB 244: Exam III(3) Study Guide
MCB 244: Exam III(3) Study Guide MCB 244
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This 29 page Study Guide was uploaded by Laura Kunigonis on Thursday November 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MCB 244 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by Dr, Chester Brown in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 147 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
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Date Created: 11/12/15
MCB 244: Exam III Complete Study Guide Chapter 9: Types of Movement and Location on the Body gliding two opposing surfaces slide past one another occurs between surfaces of articulating carpal bones, tarsal bones, and between clavicle and sternum Flexion Movement of the anteriorposterior plane that decreases the angle between articulating bones long bones of the limbs or axial skeleton Extension Movement in the anteriorposterior plane that increases the angle between articulating bones in long bones or axial skeleton Hyperextension extension past the anatomical position ex: when neck is looking up Abduction Movement away from longitudinal axis of the body in frontal plane ex: swinging the upper limb to the side Adduction Movement towards the longitudinal axis of the body in the frontal plane ex: bringing an outstretched upper limb down to the side Circumduction Circular rotation Medial Rotation rotation towards axis turning of the anterior surface of a limb toward the long axis of the trunk lateral rotation rotation away from axis turning of the anterior surface of a limb away from the long axis of trunk Supination turning the head so the palm faces forwards Pronation turning the head so the palm faces backwards Inversion A twisting movement of the foot that turns the sole inward, elevating the medial edge of the sole twists sole of food medially Eversion A twisting movement of the foot that turns the sole outward, lowering the medial edge of the sole twists sole of food laterally Protraction Moving a body part anteriorly in the horizontal plane Jutting out the lower jaw Retraction moving a body part posteriorly in the horizontal plane Elevation movement of a structure in a superior direction shoulder shrug Depression movement of a structure in an anterior direction mandible is depressed when mouth is opened Ankle Flexion pull toes towards shin Ankle Extension point toes down Opposition movement of the thumb toward the surface of the palm or the pads of the fingers Reposition thumb movement away from fingers or palm Lateral Flexion bending of the vertebral column to the sides Chapter 11: The Muscular System Fascicle Arrangement: Parallel Muscles (most common) Fibers parallel to the long axis Muscle shortens & becomes long in diameter ex. biceps brachii Fascicle Arrangement: Pennate Muscles Form an angle with the tendon Do not move as far as parallel muscles contain more myofibrils than parallel muscles develop more tension than parallel muscle of same size Fascicle Arrangement: Convergent Muscles A broad area converges on attachment site: tendon, aponeurosis, or raphe Versatile muscle as fibers can pull in different directions Stimulation of different motor units results in directionality When all fibers stimulated, less tensions is generated on attachment site as compared to parallel muscle because of the fiber arrangement Pennate Muscles (3 different types) Unipennate: Fibers on one side of tendon ex. extensor digitorum Bipennate (common): Fibers on both sides of tendon Ex. rectus femoris Multipennate: Tendon branches within muscle Ex. deltoid Fascicle Arrangement: Circular Muscles Also called sphincters Open and close to guard entrances of body (e.g. digestive & urinary tracts) ex. orbicularis oris muscle of mouth 1st Class Lever Applied force & load are on opposite side with fulcrum in between Seesaw or teetertotter are exs Fore and resistance are balanced ex. neck extension 2nd Class Lever Load located between applied force and fulcrum Ex. wheelbarrow or plantar flexion Because the force is always further from the fulcrum than the load, a small force cane move a large weight But load moves more slowly and covers less distance Thus, the increase in the effective force comes at the expense of speed and distance 3rd Class Lever Most common lever in body Applied force between resistance and fulcrum Maximizes speed and distance traveled at the expense of greater force requirement For the biceps brachii the load is 6 times further than the applied force (thus need 6x as much force) But speed and distance increased same 6:1 ratio Agonist (or prime mover) Produces a particular movement e.g. the biceps brachii muscle is the agonist that produces flexion at the elbow Antagonist Opposes movement of a particular agonist e.g. the triceps brachii muscle is the antagonist of the biceps brachii muscle Syngergist A smaller muscle that assists a larger agonist Helps start motion or stabilize origin of agonist (fixator) 4 characteristics to skeletal muscles Origin and Insertion Muscles have one fixed point of attachment (origin) and one moving point of attachment (insertion) Most muscles originate or insert on the skeleton Origin is usually proximal to insertion Actions Type of movements produced by muscle contraction Body movements Described in terms of bone, joint or region Innervation Skeletal muscles are voluntary Contraction requires stimulation from motor neurons Know the major functions of skeletal muscles in the axial and appendicular divisions. Axial Muscles (muscles of the head and neck, muscles of the vertebral column, oblique and rectus muscles, muscles of the pelvic floor) Position head and spinal column Move rib cage 60% of skeletal muscle Appendicular muscles (muscles of the shoulders and upper limps, muscles of the pelvis and lower limbs) Support pectoral and pelvic girdles Support limbs 40% of skeletal muscles Axial Muscles Facial Expression Orbicularis oris Location around mouth Action constricts the mouth opening, moves lips and corners of the mouth Buccinator Location in the cheek Action moves food around the vestibule (inside of cheek); provides suction Orbicularis oculi Location around eye Action closes eye Origin medial margin of orbit Insertion skin around eyelids Temporoparietalis Location side of head above ears Action tenses scalp; wiggles ears (auricle) Frontal belly of occipitofrontalis Location forehead Action raises eyebrows and wrinkles forehead Origin epicranial aponeurosis Insertion skin of eyebrow, nose bridge Occipital belly of occipitofrontalis Location over the occipital bone Action tenses and retracts scalp Origin occipital and temporal bones Insertion epicranial aponeurosis Platysma Location over the front of the neck Action depresses mandible and tenses the skin of the neck Origin superior thorax between cartilage of 2nd rib and scapula Insertion mandible and skin of cheek Axial Muscles Extrinsic Eye Muscles Inferior rectus Location bottom of eye Action eye looks inferiorly Origin sphenoid Insertion inferior, medial surface of eye Medial rectus Location medial surface of eye Action eye looks medially Origin sphenoid Insertion medial surface of eyeball Superior rectus Location top of eye Action eye looks superiorly Origin sphenoid Insertion superior surface of eye Lateral rectus Location lateral surface of eye Action eye looks laterally Origin sphenoid Insertion lateral surface of eye Inferior oblique Location bottom of eye, over the inferior rectus Action eye rolls, looks superiorly and laterally Origin maxilla Insertion inferior, lateral surface of eye Superior oblique Location top of eye, under the superior rectus Action eye rolls, looks inferiorly and laterally Origin sphenoid Insertion superior, lateral surface of eye Axial Mucles: Mastication Masseter Location cheek Action elevates mandible and closes jaws Origin zygomatic arch of zygomatic/temporal bones Insertion mandible Temporalis Location temples Action elevates mandible Origin temporal bone Insertion mandible Medial pterygoid muscle Action elevates the mandible and closes the jaws, or slides the mandible from side to side (lateral excursion) Lateral pterygoid muscle Action opens jaws, protrudes mandible, or performs lateral excursion Axial Muscles Tongue Palatoglossus Location tongue Action elevates tongue, depresses soft palate Origin anterior surface of soft palate Insertion side of tongue Styloglossus Location tongue Action retracts tongue, elevates side of tongue Origin styloid process of temporal bone Insertion along the side to tip and base of tongue Genioglossus Location tongue Action depresses and protracts tongue Origin mandible around chin Insertion body of tongue, hyoid bone Hyoglossus Location tongue Action depresses and retracts tongue Origin hyoid bone Insertion side of tongue Axial Muscles Vertibral Collumn Erector spinae group Action extension of the spine Spinalis muscles Location spine Action extension of neck and vertebral column Longissimus muscles Location spine Action extension of the head and vertebral column, lateral flexion Iliocostalis muscles Location spine Action extension of vertebral column, elevation of ribs Longus capitis and longus colli Action flexion and rotation of the neck Quadratus lumborum Action depress ribs and laterally flex vertebral column Rotatores Location between vertebrae Action extends vertebral column and rotates toward opposite side Origin transverse processes of each vertebra Insertion spinous processes of adjacent, more superior vertebra Interspinales Location between vertebrae Action extends vertebral column Origin spinous processes of each vertebra Insertion spinous process of more superior vertebra Intertransversarii Location between vertebrae Action laterally flexes the vertebral column Origin transverse processes of each vertebra Insertion transverse process of more superior vertebra Axial Muscles Oblique and Rectus Scalenes Location cervical vertebrae to ribs Action elevate ribs or flex neck Internal intercostals Location in between ribs Action depress ribs Origin superior border of each rib Insertion inferior border of preceding rib External intercostals Location in between ribs Action elevate ribs Origin inferior border of each rib Insertion superior border of more inferior rib External oblique Location lateral abdominal region, most superficial Action compresses abdomen, depresses ribs, flexes or bends spine Internal oblique Location lateral abdominal region Action compresses abdomen, depresses ribs, flexes or bends spine Transverse abdominis Location lateral abdominal region, deepest Action compresses abdomen Rectus abdominis Location medial abdominal region Action depresses ribs, flexes vertebral column, compresses abdomen Diaphragm Location under the lungs, thoracic region of the rectus group Action contraction expands the thoracic cavity and compresses abdominopelvic cavity Appendicular Pectoral girdle Trapezius Location superficial muscle, covers back and neck to base of skull Action depends on active region, may (1) elevate, retract, depress, or rotate scapula upward, (2) elevate clavicle, or (3) extend neck Rhomboid major Location deep to trapezius Action adducts scapula and performs downward rotation Origin spinous process of superior thoracic vertebrae Insertion scapula Rhomboid minor Location deep to trapezius Action adducts scapula and performs downward rotation Origin spinous processes of vertebrae C7T1 Insertion scapula Levator scapulae Location deep to trapezius Action elevates scapula Origin transverse processes of first four cervical vertebrae Insertion scapula Serratus anterior Location under armpits, on the chest Action protracts shoulder, rotates scapula so glenoid cavity moves superiorly (upward rotation) Appendicular the Arm Deltoid Location over shoulder Action abduction at shoulder Supraspinatus Location above scapular spine Action abduction at shoulder Origin supraspinous process of scapula Insertion humerus Subscapularis Location anterior portion of scapula Action medial rotation at shoulder Origin subscapular fossa of scapula Insertion humerus Infraspinatus Location under the scapular spine Action lateral rotation at shoulder Origin infraspinous process of scapula Insertion humerus Teres major Location posterior portion of scapula, inferior to teres minor Action extension, adduction, and medial rotation at shoulder Teres minor Location posterior portion of scapula, superior to teres major Action lateral rotation at shoulder Origin scapula Insertion humerus Pectoralis major Location anterior chest to humerus Action flexion, adduction, and medial rotation at shoulder Latissimus dorsi Location thoracic vertebrae to humerus Action extension, adduction, and medial rotation at shoulder Appendicular the Forearm Biceps brachii Location anterior upper arm Action flexion at elbow and shoulder; supination Origin scapula Insertion radius Brachialis Location deep to biceps brachii Action flexion at elbow Brachioradialis Location lateral portion of arm Action flexion at elbow Triceps brachii Location posterior upper arm Action extension of elbow Origin scapula Insertion ulna Anconeus Location posterior arm distal to triceps brachii Action extension at elbow, opposes brachialis Appendicular Muscles The Wrist Palmaris longus Action flexes wrist Flexor carpi ulnaris Action adducts wrist Flexor carpi radialis Action abducts wrist Extensor carpi radialis Action abducts wrist Extensor carpi ulnaris Action adducts wrist Pronator teres Action pronation (rotation of radius) Supinator Action supination Pronator quadratus Action pronation (assists pronator teres) Appendicular Muscles Hand and Fingers Abductor pollicis longus Action abduction at joints of thumb and wrist Extensor digitorum Action extension at finger joints and wrist Extensor pollicis brevis Action extension at joints of thumb, abduction at wrist Extensor pollicis longus Action extension at joints of thumb, abduction at wrist Extensor indicis Action extension and adduction at joints of index finger Extensor digiti minimi Action extension at joints of little finger Flexor digitorum superficialis Action flexion of the fingers and thumb Flexor digitorum profundus Action flexion of the fingers and thumb Flexor pollicis longus Action flexion of the fingers and thumb Appendicular Muscles Hip and Thigh Gluteus maximus Location gluteal group Action extension and lateral rotation at hip Gluteus medius Action abduction and medial rotation at hip Gluteus minimus Action abduction and medial rotation at hip Tensor fasciae latae Location lateral hip, superior to IT band Action flexion and medial rotation at the hip, withs with the gluteus maximus to stabilize the IT band which supports the knee Piriformis Action lateral rotation and abduction at hip Obturator group Action lateral rotation at hip Adductor group Action adduction, flexion, and medial rotation at hip Pectineus Action flexion, medial rotation, and adduction at hip Gracilis Action flexion at knee, adduction and medial rotation at hip Iliacus Location inside the pelvis to the femur Action flexion at hip Psoas major Location lumbar spine down to femur Action flexion at hip or lumbar intervertebral joints Appendicular Muscles Leg Hamstrings Action flexion at knee Biceps femoris Location lateral part of posterior leg Action flexion at knee, extension and lateral rotation at hip Semimembranosus Action flexion at knee, extension and medial rotation at hip Semitendinosus Location middle of the back of the leg Action flexion at knee, extension and medial rotation of the hip Sartorius Location crosses across the front of the thigh Action flexion at knee, flexion and lateral rotation at the hip Popliteus Action medial rotation of tibia(or lateral rotation of femur), flexion at knee Quadriceps femoris Location front of the leg Action extension of the knee Rectus femoris Location middle of thigh Action extension at knee, flexion at hip Vastus lateralis Location lateral to rectus femoris Action extension at knee Vastus intermedius Action extension at knee Vastus medialis Location medial to rectus femoris Action extension at knee Appendicular Muscles Ankle Gastrocnemius Location calf muscle Action extension (plantar flexion) of the ankle; inversion of the foot; flexion at knee Soleus Location deep to gastrocnemius Action extension (plantar flexion) at ankle Fibularis group Action eversion of foot and extension (plantar flexion) at ankle Tibialis posterior Action adduction and inversion of foot; extension (plantar flexion at ankle) Appendicular Muscle Toes Flexor digitorum longus Action flexion at joints of toes 25 Flexor hallucis longus Action flexion at joints of great toe Extensor digitorum longus Action extension at joints of toes 25 Extensor hallucis longus Action extension at joints of great toe Chapter 12: Neural Tissue Organization of the Nervous System CNS is made up of the brain and spinal cord PNS consists of efferent and afferent Efferent consists of Somatic and Autonomic Efferent Nervous System Carries motor command From CNS to PNS and effectors Made up of the Somatic Nervous System and Autonomic Nervous System Somatic Nervous System Apart of the Efferent division of the PNS Controls skeletal muscle contraction: voluntary and involuntary reflexes muscle contractions Autonomic Nervous System Apart of the Efferent division of the PNS Controls subconscious actions: contractions of smooth muscle and cardiac muscle Consists of Parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system Parasympathetic Nervous system Has relaxing effects Sympathetic Nervous system Has stimulating effect Afferent Nervous System Carries sensory information From PNS sensory receptors to CNS CNS Integrate information from different parts of the body and coordinate movements based on them Made up of Brain and Spinal Cord Sensory Data: from inside and outside body Motor commands: control activities of peripheral nerves Higher functions of brain: Intelligence, memory, learning, emotion PNS Deliver sensory info to the CNS Carry motor commands to peripheral tissues and systems Made up of all the other nerves in the body outside of the brain and spinal cord Anaxonic Neuron Have more than two processes but axons cannot be distinguished from dendrites Bipolar Neurons Have two processes separated by the cell body Unipolar Neurons Have a single elongate process with the cell body situated to the side Multipolar Neurons Have more than two processes There is a single axon and multiple dendrites Perikaryon Cytoplasm of soma RER and Ribosomes in soma Produce Neurotransmitters and Citoskeleton Nissil Bodies Dense areas of RER and ribosomes Make neural tissue appear gray Neurofilaments In place of microfilaments and microtubules Neurofibrils Bundles of neurofilaments that provide support for dendrites and axons Initial segment [of axon] attaches to axon hillock Axon Hilock Thick section of cell body that attaches to initial segment trigger zone Axolemma Specialized cell membrane that covers axoplasm Collaterals Branches of a single axon Telodendria Fine extensions of distal axon Synaptic Knob Area of an axon of a presynaptic Neuron Contains synaptic vesicles of neurotransmitters Sensory Neuron Convey sensory information from external stimuli to the central nervous system Motor Carry signals from the spinal cord to muscles Interneurons Connect different neurons (neither motor or sensory) Most are located in brain, spinal cord and autonomic ganglia Distribution of information, coordination of motor activity and higher functions Interoceptors (organs) Monitor digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular, urinary, reproductive; provide sensations of distension (bloated), deep pressure, pain Exteroceptors (senses) Provide info about external environment in form of external senses (touch, temp, pressure) or distal senses (sight, smell, hearing) Propioceptors (skeletal muscles) Monitor position and movement of skeletal muscles and joints Four Neuroglia in the CNS Ependmal Cells Astrocytes Oligodendrocytes Microglia Ependymal Cells Neuroglia of the CNS Form epithelium called Ependyma Line central canal of spinal cord and ventricles of brain Secrete cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Have cilia or microvilli that circulate CSF monitor CSF contain stem cells for repair Astrocytes Neuroglia of the CNS Maintain bloodbrain barrier (isolates CNS) Create 3D framework for CNS Repair damaged neural tissue Guide neuron development Control interstitial environment Oligodendrocytes Neuroglia of CNS Processes contact other neuron cell bodies Wrap around axons to form myelin sheaths Myelination Increases speed of action potentials Myelin insulates myelinated axons Make nerves appear white Microglia Neuroglia of CNS Migrate through neural tissue Clean up cellular debris, waste products, and pathogens (phagocytic cells) Two Neuroglia in the PNS Satellite Cells Schwann Cells Schwann Cells Neuroglia of the PNS Also known as Neurilemmocytes Form myelin sheath (neurilemma) around peripheral axons One schwann cell sheaths one segment of axon. Many Schwann cells sheath entire axons Satellite Cells Neuroglia of PNS Also called amphicytes Surround ganglia Regulate environment around neuron Graded Potential Temporary, localized change in resting potential Caused by stimulus Equilibrium Potential Depends on type of ion K+= 90mV Na+= +66mV Na/K ATPase Uses ATP to bring in 2 potassium ions from the extracellular fluid and take out 3 sodium ions from the intracellular fluid Serves to stabilize the resting potential to counteract tendency of Na to enter cell and K to enter the cell Maintain Resting potential at 70mV Permeability of plasma membrane for K+ High Permeability of plasma membrane for Na+ Low So Na+ contributes less than K+ to normal resting potential Chemical Gradient for Na+ More Na+ outside of the cell than inside Na+ travels into the intracellular fluid Electrical Gradient of Na+ More negative inside of cell so Na+ flows towards Intracellular fluid Net electrochemical gradient of Na+ Towards the inside, or intracellular fluid Chemical Gradient for K+ More K+ inside of cell than outside K+ travels out of cell Electrical Gradient of K+ Towards the intracellular fluid because inside of cell is more negative However, this is more smaller/weaker than chemical gradient Net electrochemical gradient of K+ Towards the outside of the cell Chemically gated channels Open when a specific ligand (Ex. ACh) binds to them Typically found on neuron cell bodies and dendrites This would cause a graded potential Voltagegated channels Open and close according to changes in transmembrane potential Characteristic of excitable membranes like axons , muscle sarcolemma, and cardiac muscle Mechanically Gated Channels When the membrane becomes distored, the channel opents up Found in sensory receptors that respond to touch and pressure changes Depolarization A shift in transmembrane potential toward 0 mV Repolarization When stimulus is removed, the transmembrane potential goes back to resting potential Hyperpolarization Increasing the negativity of the resting potential due to opening potassium channels Four steps in Generation of Action Potential 1. Depolarization to threshold due to graded potentials Initial (suprathreshold) stimulus changes the resting potential to 60mV to 55mV (threshold level of voltagegated sodium channels) 2. Activation of Na+ channels (voltage gated) Rapid depolarization occurs as Na+ ions rush into cytoplasm 3. Inactivation of Na+ channels. Activation of K+ channels At 30mV Repolarization begins K+ rushes out of cell to drive the membrane potential down towards resting potential 4. Return to normal permeability K+ channels begin to close when membrane reaches normal resting potential (70mV) K+ channels finish closing when membrane is hyperpolarized to 90mV Action potential is over Absolute Refractory Period Sodium channels open or inactivated No action potential possible Relative Refractory Period Membrane potential almost normal Very large stimulus can initiate action potential Graded Potential vs Action potential Graded Potential Depolarizing or hyperpolarizing No threshold value Amount of depolarization or hyperpolarization depends on intensity of stimulus Passive spread from site of stimulation Effect on membrane potential decreases with distance from stimulation site No refractory Period Occur in most plasma membranes Action Potentials Always depolarizing Depolarization to threshold must occur before action potential begins Allornone Action potential at one site depolarizes adjacent sites to threshold Propagated along entire membrane surface without decrease in strength Refractory Period occurs Occurs only in ecitable membranes Continuous Propagation Unmyelinated Axons Steps: 1. Action potential in segment 1 depolarizes membrane to +30 2. Depolarizes second segment to threshold Second segment develops action potential Saltatory Propagation Action potential along myelinated axon Faster and uses less energy than continuous propagation Myelin insulates axon Local current jumps from node to node depolarization only occurs at nodes 3 types of Nerve Fibers Myelinated: A and B Diameter: A is largest C is smallest Speed: A is fastest C is slowest Chemical Synapses Found in most synapses between neurons Found in all synapses between neurons and other cells Cells not in direct contact Action potential may or may not be propagated to postsynaptic cell depending on: Amount of neurotransmitter released Sensitivity of postsynaptic cell Electrical synapse Locked together at gap junctions Allow ions to pass between cells Produce continuous local current and action potential propagation Found in areas of brain, eye, ciliary ganglia Steps involved in neurotransmitter at chemical synapse Action potential arrives at synaptic knob Calcium ions enter synaptic knob which triggers exocytosis of ACh into synaptic cleft ACh binds to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane and triggers an action potential AChE breaks down ACh into acetate and choline Direct Effects of Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators Inotropic effects (affect muscle contraction like heart muscle) Open/close gated ion channels and produce gated potentials Indirect effects via G Proteins of Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators Receptors are Gprotein coupled receptors Work through intracellular second messengers Enzyme complex that binds GTP which serves as the link between neurotransmitter (first messenger) and second messenger Activates intracellular enzymes Indirect effects of Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators via Intracellular enzymes Bind to Intracellular enzymes in target cells Generally things that can diffuse through the membrane Two types of Postsynaptic Potentials 1. Excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) Graded depolarization of postsynaptic membrane 2. Inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) Graded hyperpolarization of postsynaptic membrane Two types of synaptic summation Temporal summation= one depolarizing stimuli arrives and then another right after that adds to the intensity and generates an action potential Spatial Summation= Multiple depolarizing stimuli arrive simultaneously and activate a new action potential Presynaptic Inhibition Anaxonic synapse decreases the amount of neurotransmitter that is released by the presynaptic membrane Inactivation of calcium channels of presynaptic neuron Presynaptic facilitation Anaxonic synapse increases the amount of neurotransmitter that is released by the presynaptic membrane Activation of calcium channels of presynaptic neuron Chapter 14: The Brain Cerebrum the largest part of the brain controls higher mental functions the cerebrum is divided into cerebral hemispheres surface layer is gray matter Neural cortex is also called the cerebral cortex gyri elevated ridges of the neural cortex sulci shallow depressions of the neural cortex fissures deep grooves of the neural cortex Cerebellum aka little brain second largest part of the brain coordinates repetitive body movements has 2 hemispheres is covered with cerebellar cortex diencephalon located under the cerebrum and the cerebellum links the cerebrum with the brain stem Thalamus major relay center for sensory information hypothalamus part of emotion center hormone production control center for autonomic function thalamus, hypothalamus divisions of the diencephalon pituitary glad major endocrine gland connected to hypothalamus infundibulum stalk that connects pituitary gland to hypothalamus Midbrain also called mesencephalon processes sight, sound, and associated reflexes maintains consciousness Pons connects cerebellum to brain stem is involved in somatic and visceral motor control medulla oblongata connects brain to spinal cord relays information regulates autonomic functions (heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion) Cerebral hemispheres each cerebral hemisphere contains one large lateral ventricle lateral ventricle is separated by a thin medial partition called the septum pellucidum Third ventricle ventricle of the diencephalon lateral ventricles communicate with it Fourth ventricle extends into medulla oblongata becomes continuous with central canal of the spinal cord connects with third ventricle via narrow canal in midbrain called cerebral aquaduct Cerebellum adjusts postural muscles fine tunes conscious and subconscious movements folia surface of the cerebellum that has highly folded neural the anterior and posterior lobes of the cerebellum are separated by the primary fissure broken up into anterior and posterior the hemispheres are separated at midline by the vermis vermis narrow band of cortex in cerebellum Purkinje large, branched cells found in the cerebellar cortex that receive input from 200,000 synapses arbor vitae (tree of life) the highly branched, internal white matter of the cerebellum peduncles tracts that link cerebellum with brain stem, cerebrum, and spinal cord Thalamus filters ascending sensory information for primary sensory cortex relays information between basal nuclei and cerebral cortex there are 5 groups of thalamic nuclei that relay sensory information to basal nuclei and cerebral cortex Anterior group of thalamic nuclei: part of limbic system that responds to emotions Medial group of thalamic nuclei: awareness and emotional states Ventral group of thalamic nuclei: relay sensory info Posterior group of thalamic nuclei: sensory: visual/auditory info Lateral group of thalamic nuclei: affects emotional states and integrates sensory info Hypothalamus: mamillary bodies process olfactory and other sensory information control reflex eating movements In Hypothalamus:pituitary gland a narrow stalk that connects hypothalamus to pituitary gland infundibulum Function of Hypothalamus: provides subconscious control of skeletal muscle controls autonomic function coordinates activities of nervous and endocrine systems secretes hormones ADH is secreted by supraoptic nucleus Oxytocin is secreted by paraventricular nucleus produce emotions and behavioral drives (Hunger and Thirst) coordinates voluntary functions regulates body temperature (preoptic area) control circadian rythms (suprachiasmatic nucleus) limbic system functional grouping that establishes emotional states links conscious functions of cerebral cortex with autonomic functions of brain stem facilitates memory storage and retrieval longitudinal fissure separates left and right cerebral hemispheres lobes are divisions of cerebral hemispheres (frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital) Sulci deep fissures which separate lobes central sulcus divides frontal from parietal lobe (divides moto from sensory areas) lateral sulcus divides frontal from temporal lobe Parietooccipital sulcus divides parietal from occipital lobe Fibers association fibers: connections within one hemisphere commissural fibers: bands of fibers connecting two hemispheres projection fibers: connect cerebrum with lower areas projection Postcentral gyrus receives somatic sensory information (touch, pressure, pain, vibration, taste, and temperature) aka "sensory homunculus" Precentral gyrus directs voluntary movements and contains the primary motor cortex Lobes visual cortex = occipital lobe auditory/olfactory cortex = temporal lobe gustatory cortex = frontal lobe Left hemisphere reading, writing, math decision making speech and language Right hemisphere senses (touch, smell, sight, taste, feel) recognition (faces, voice inflections) EEG assesses brain activity alpha waves found in healthy, awake adults at rest with eyes closed Beta waves higher frequencies, found in adults concentrating or mentally stressed Theta waves found in children; intensely frustrated adults; can be indicator for brain disorders Delta waves present during certain phases of sleep Gamma waves often seen during intensive states Nerves Sensory nerves: carry somatic sensory information (touch, pressure, vibration, temperature, pain) Specialized sensory nerves: carry sensation of smell, sight, hearing, and balance Motor nerves: axons of somatic motor neurons Mixed nerves: mixture of motor and sensory fibers Cranial Nerves Cranial Nerve 1: olfactory, sensory Cranial Nerve 2: optic, sensory Cranial Nerve 3: oculomotor, motor Cranial Nerve 4: trochlear, motor Cranial Nerve 5: trigeminal, both Cranial Nerve 6: abducens, motor Cranial Nerve 7: facial, both Cranial Nerve 8: vestibulocochlear, sensory Cranial Nerve 9: glossopharyngeal, both Cranial Nerve 10: vagus, both Cranial Nerve 11: accessory, motor Cranial Nerve 12: hypoglossal, motor
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