Health Communications & Health Behavior Change Interventions
Health Communications & Health Behavior Change Interventions PSY3206
U of M
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cassie Ng on Thursday November 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY3206 at University of Minnesota taught by T.Mann in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 82 views. For similar materials see Health Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Minnesota.
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Date Created: 11/12/15
Health Communications October 19, 2015 Most common causes of death, USA – 2007: Behaviors associated with the most common causes of death: (Even count everything together, smoking still the biggest one) • Cardiovascular disease • Cancers • Strokes • Chronic lung diseases • Unintentional injuries • Diabetes • Alzheimer’s Disease • Influenza and pneumonia • Kidney disease • Septicemia (blood poisoning) • Suicide • Chronic liver disease Do you behave in healthy ways? • Do you sleep 78 hours per day? • Do you eat breakfast most days? • Do you rarely eat between meals? • Are you at an appropriate weight for your height? • Do you refrain from smoking? • Do you drink alcohol only in moderation? • Do you exercise regularly? (The more you have, bad, when you grow older) (The more healthy behavior you practice, lower chance you will die early) Aspects of Health Communications: 2 Ways to Frame Equivalent Content: Gain frame Emphasizes benefits associated with behaving a certain way. “An advantage of getting regular mammograms is that you will find tumors early, which will increase treatment options.” (It’s about what you can gain if you do this..) Loss frame Emphasizes costs associated with not behaving that way. “A disadvantage of failing to get regular mammograms is that you won’t find tumors early, which will leave you with fewer treatment options.” (Bad things will happen if you do not do this issue…) Frames Matter: • When framed as gains: Riskaverse (Those who do not want to risk) • When framed as losses: Riskseeking (Those who are willingly to risk) Examples: Choosing Between Surgery and Another Treatment The doctor says: (Loss Frame, risk) A: You have a 32% chance of dying by the end of the year if you have the surgery. OR (Gain Frame, don’t want to risk) B: You have a 68% chance of living for longer than one year if you have the surgery. Message Framing and Health Behaviors: Illness Detection Behaviors (Help to finds out are you the risky one, e.g.: go to see the doctor) (Loss Frame Better) • e.g., mammogram, HIV test • Potential for losses – Might find a disease • Riskseeking Health Promotion Behaviors (Gain Frame Better) • e.g., exercise, getting a vaccine (Eat healthy) • Potential for gains – May prevent an illness • Riskaverse Mouth Rinse Study: • Subjects read about a: • health promotion behavior OR • an illness detection behavior. • Information is: • Lossframed OR • Gainframed • Measure: Do they take a free sample of the product they read about? Health Promotion Behavior: “Mouth Rinse” Gain: If you use this you take advantage of a way to reduce plaque. Loss: If you do not use this you are failing to take advantage of a way to reduce plaque. Illness Detection Behavior: “Disclosing Rinse” (Major teeth are red) Gain: Using this enhances your ability to detect plaque. Loss: Not using this limits your ability to detect plaque. (Usually certain frame matters in this kind of public health situation) (Certain frame works certain kinds of behavior) Message Framing and Type of Person: (Certain frames works better with people) Which phrase better characterizes you? A. When I see an opportunity for something I like, I get excited right away. B. I worry about making mistakes. If you chose A (“When I see an opportunity for something I like, I get excited right away”). ApproachOriented Approachoriented people are people who actively seek out positive and good things. If you chose B (“I worry about making mistakes”) AvoidanceOriented Avoidanceoriented people are people who actively try to avoid negative things. Message Framing and Type of Person: • Approach Oriented People: Should prefer a gainframed message. • Avoidance Oriented People: Should prefer a lossframed message. Message Framing and Type of Person: • Step 1: Measure approach/avoidance orientation (see what is the result) Step 2: Read either gainframed or lossframed message about flossing (e.g: whether they will admit will they brush their teeth) • Step 3: Sent home with 7 individuallywrapped flosses • Step 4: Return 1 week later and report flossing behavior Paradox of Personal Relevance: The people for whom the information is most relevant...…are the people who are least accepting of the information. (People who needs the information the most usually the least who will go to) SelfAffirmation Theory: The goal of the selfsystem is to maintain global selfintegrity. How do people respond to threatening health information? 1. Change their health behavior 2. Deny the health information 3. Affirm the self in alternative domain Selfimage: competent, worthy, and adaptive person: Health Family Religion School Reducing Defensiveness I: Step 1. Write affirmation essay or not. (give them different choices: family, relationships; let them rank it & write an essay) Step 2. Watch video about AIDS in young people. (ask them how risky do they feel) Step 3. Measure risk for HIV and whether they take condoms. (Let them help choose, whether they want condoms or not) Results: Affirmed people report feeling more at risk for HIV Affirmed people were twice as likely to purchase condoms Reducing Defensiveness II: Step 1: Affirm self or not Step 2: Read threatening coffee article Step 3: Measure acceptance of information and intentions to change behavior. Results: Affirmed coffee drinkers more likely to accept risk. Affirmed coffee drinkers more likely to intend to change behavior. Health Behavior Change Interventions October 21, 2015 Does Fear lead to Attitude Change? (If there is only a few amount of fear—attitude will change, increase) (But if there is only some slightly fear, it would not have much affect) Effective Interventions Target Multiple & Appropriate Levels: (try to get as much as we can, the more—the better) • Individual • Couple (Helping each other as a unit) • Family • Community • Policy/Legal • Medical • Technological Effective Interventions are (usually) Sustained and Intense: • Sustained interventions are more likely to lead to sustained behavior change (It is not a onetime thing) • More intense interventions are more likely to result in larger changes • With interventions, more is usually more Stanford 5City Study: (Successful) • 2 intervention cities, 3 control cities • 6year intervention • Multiple levels: – Mass media: ads on tv, radio, print media; direct mail; tv cooking shows; news segments on smoking cessation (local news, weekly hours) – Provider education: School and health care staff – Group education: school, community, and worksite programs on nutrition, exercise, smoking – Community: organized walks – Schools: Antismoking events (Quite smoking tips) Policy/environment: Altered food options at stores, restaurants Types of Peer Pressure: • Active Peer Pressure (But sadly, that is not how pressure works) – An actual demand – E.g., “Have a drink or you are a loser” – Not so common • Passive Peer Pressure – Internalized norm – E.g., You’ve noticed that the cool kids drink – Very common Effective Interventions Target People Who Are Actually at Risk: Don’t miss people who ARE at risk (even if it is hard to find them) Don’t target people who are NOT at risk (even if they are right in front of you) (Usually it is a waste of time as they always miss the ‘right’ people) (For example: At school—fail; as those children usually always skip schools) Cigarette Labels (No matter what, it would not miss those smokers) Effective Interventions are Tailored to the Risk Group: • Relatable interveners • Understandable language • Not condescending • Demographically appropriate content American Legacy Foundation: • “Truth” campaign (e.g: Students stand in front of a company & talk to people) • Expose deceptive marketing tactics of “big tobacco” • Entice kids to rebel against it • Funded by money from the tobacco industry settlement Evaluation of “Truth” Campaign: • PrePost study – Precampaign smoking levels: 28% (After 2 years, decrease) – Postcampaign smoking levels: 18% • Compared towns by frequency of ads shown – no random assignment – Doseresponse relationship: the more your town saw the ads, the less smoking. (Those Tabaco companies do not admit it’s their fault, they said they are just making it—they do not admit it’s bad) It Gets Better: • Response to suicides among bullied gay teens • Videos: (design for preventing suicides) – After high school it really does get better – You will find a community that accepts you (like saying: ‘I know it sucks, I have been those stage, but hang in there.’) – You are not alone – Your life is worth living, even if you can’t tell now – Stick it out and you’ll see how great it will be • 10,000 videos in first six months Effective Interventions Keep Primary and Secondary Prevention Distinct: • Primary Prevention Keeping someone from starting something unhealthy/getting an illness • Secondary Prevention Intervening early to stop a behavior before it gets worse/reduce the damage an illness causes Do Abstinence Pledges Work? • Compared pledgers to nonpledgers • 5years later, no differences on: • Premarital sex • Age at first sex (Do they have sex before marriage) • STDs (Birth control) • Frequency of oral or anal sex • Number of lifetime partners • Pledgers were less likely to use birth control Effective Interventions are Ethical: • Control group should have access to intervention • What will happen when you remove your intervention? • What is your intervention preventing from happening in the community? Effective Interventions are Appropriate for Individuals’ Level of Readiness for Change: • Use a Stage Model: They don’t assume everyone is equally ready to change. • Don’t Use a Stage Model: Tailor any intervention/model to particular levels of readiness
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