Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide PHIL 1000 - 01
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by William Bartek on Thursday November 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PHIL 1000 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Matthew McGrath in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 134 views. For similar materials see General Introduction to Philosophy in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 11/12/15
Philosophy 1000 Exam 2 Study Guide indicates that the material is guaranteed to be on the test Basic Concepts Divine Command Theory To be morally right is to be commanded by God to be wrong is to be forbidden by God 0 This is used as support for moral arguments setting the precedent that quotIf objective right and wrong exist then right and wrong must be grounded in God Inference to Best Explanation o Inference to best explanation is taking a small fact and using it logically to lead into a big picture 0 White uses this in his FineTuning argument to prove God s existence GE Moore Shift 0 Take an argument take the conclusion as the first premise and then reverse the argument 0 EX The existence of God is incompatible with the existence of unnecessary evil I But there exists unnecessary evil I So God doesn t exist 0 Fpred I God exists If God exists he wouldn t allow unnecessary suffering So unnecessary suffering doesn t exist 0 Both arguments are valid but how do you figure out which one is more sound o If evidence for the falsity of conclusion 1 is stronger than the evidence for the premises of argument 1 then it s reasonable to do the shift Domination 0 When an act has higher utility in every way it dominates another act 0 This is in line with Pascal s Wager for God and his arguments on expected utility James Two Laws of Intellect 0 We can t believe at will 0 Reason doesn t always determine belief there s a role for passion Method of Doubt 0 Descartes argues about how he can doubt everything in the universe through two arguments 0 His dreaming argument disproves all certainty through the senses 0 His evil demon argument disproves his certainty in his beliefs even in simple math Vogel on Skepticism o Skepticism on the external world is Vogel s claim that we don t know anything through oursenses o The explanationist would say the Real World Hypothesis RWH is a better explanation than any SH therefore there s more reason to believe the RWH Dualism o The idea that the mental is not reducible to the material 0 Substance Dualism the mind is separate from the body 0 The mind thinks and doesn t occupy space 0 The body takes up space but doesn t think 0 Property Dualism mental properties aren t reducible to materialistic properties o A property is reducible if it can be fully explained by other properties Doctrine of Materialism o The mental is reducible to the material 0 The materialist denies all dualism Smart s Identity Thesis o Sensations are brain processes 0 He uses Occam s Razor in his argument 0 quotDon t believe in things unless you need to in order to explain your data 0 He is NOT talking about words but instead talking about sensations o Objection amp Response 1 Any illiterate peasant knows he has sensations but has no idea of neurophysiology a Response The illiterate peasant knows he sees lightning but has no knowledge about electrical discharges Yet lightning is still made up of electrical charges despite his lack of knowledge TopicNeutral Theory 0 To know the afterimage experience is similar to the perception of an orange don t we have to know what both are like individually and notice that they are similar 0 A duelist would say we observe by an irreducible mental property 0 A materialist would say we observe by a mental property which is also materialistic Examples to Understand Watch Analogy 0 Walking on a beach when a perfect watch appears This watch had to be put there by design and couldn t have been random chance 0 Therefore there is a designer That designer is God Alphabet Letters Example 0 If you flip a table with Scrabble letters on it and they make random gibberish we think nothing of it If you flip a table with Scrabble letters on it and they spell out HELP we think it s a sign 0 This proves that we value meaning more than just random chance in the universe The Fawn Example 0 A fawn is caught in a forest fire It dies a slow and painful death at the hands of the fire This death served no greater good nor would have saving it prevented any greater evil and was a meaningless horrible death for the creature If God truly existed He would have prevented the fire or put the fawn out of its misery with a quick death 0 This is in the quotProblem of Evil argument to rationally support the premise that says the existence of God is incompatible with the existence of unnecessary evil The Perfect Island Example 0 Imagine the perfect island If it can exist only in your mind then there s a greater conceivable island that exists in both mind and reality Yet there is no greater conceivable island than this one for it is perfect Therefore the perfect island exists 0 This is used in Anselm s Ontological argument to prove God s existence as long as we believe in him as a perfect being 0 This goes wrong in the fact that if an idea is in your mind you can always think of a MORE perfect one The Ship Disanalogy o quotI am not merely present in my body like a sailor in a ship Descartes says He indeed believes quotI and the body form a unit 0 Even if the body and mind are separate they can still affect one another in significant ways MorningEvening Star Example 0 We see the morning star and the evening star They are in fact the same star but we identify it with different properties at different times of day therefore leading the belief of two separate stars Philosophical Ideas to Know Euthvphro Dilemma o Is an act right because Gods approve of it or is it approved of because it s right 0 Divine command theorists say an act is right because God commands it James Principle 0 quotOur passionate nature not only lawfully may but must decide an option between propositions whenever it is a genuine option that cannot by its nature be decided on intellectual grounds 0 We have to decide on an option in a problem if one of them is genuine and can t be logically figured out immediately Practical v Theoretical Reasons 0 A practical reason to believe a proposition is evidence that it s beneficial to believe it o A theoretical reason to believe a proposition is evidence that the proposition is true Genuine Option 0 A genuine option is one that s live forced and momentous 0 Live is it a real possibility or ruled out as impossible o Forced can you resist taking either option 0 Momentous is something important at stake for you 0 By option James means a choice between hypotheses Expected Utility Theory 0 It s rational to do the act that has the highest expected utility Descartes Announced Goal 0 In his meditation Descartes announced that he was going to quotcreate a firm and abiding basis for science by using the method of doubt Princess Elisabeth s Main Question 0 How can an inphysical thing the mind get a material thing my body to move and create voluntary action 0 Descartes replies that we shouldn t compare mindbody relations to bodybody relations the mind can t push the body to act Arguments to Understand God s Existence o Ontological 0 God exists in the mind as the greatest conceivable being 0 If He exists in the mind and not also in reality then there s a greater conceivable being in both the mind and reality 0 There s no greater being than God 0 So God exists in the mind and reality 0 Cosmological 0 Some events are caused o Chains of causation can t be infinite nor can it cause itself 0 Thus there must be a first cause 0 So that first cause is God 0 De gn 0 Many things in nature are welladapted to certain purposes 0 The best explanation of their being adapted is that they were designed 0 So there must be a designer 0 That designer is God Argument From Evil 0 The existence of God is incompatible with the existence of unnecessary evil 0 There exists unnecessary evil 0 Therefore God doesn t exist Fine Tuning Argument Natural constants are finely tuned for life Had they been different life would be impossible The best explanation of this tuning is that God tuned them Therefore God exists Pascal s Wager o Wagering for God has a higher expected utility than not wagering for God 0 Therefore you should believe in God whether or not he exists is irrelevant James Argument for Passion 0 Passion s role is to believe the truth and shun error 0 Passion also has a role to determine religion where reason fails Dreaming Argument 0 Argument 0 Ican t be certain I m not dreaming o If I can t be certain I m not dreaming I can t be certain of anything I believe through the senses 0 So I can t be certain of anything I believe through the senses 0 You can replace the word certainty with knowledge to apply the argument to knowledge as well 0 Reply 0 Dreams are disjointed and fantastical 0 My current experience isn t disjointed or fantastical 0 So my current experience isn t a dream Descartes quotI Exist 0 Throughout any deception whether by dreaming or an evil demon he must exist in order to be deceived o If he isn t being deceived then he exists anyways 0 Therefore no matter what he exists Deceiver Argument Vogel wants to resist this 0 Argument 0 Your sensory experiences could have arisen either from normal perception of the world as it is or by being caused deceptively 0 You have no reason at all to believe that your sensory experiences arise in one way rather than the other 0 So you have no knowledge of the external world 0 Vogel s Response 0 Vogel responds with the Undetermination Principle I If your available info doesn t give you reason to believe one rather than another of two mutually exclusive hypotheses you don t know either hypothesis is true attacks the link between premises 2 amp3
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