Exam 3 Study Guide
Exam 3 Study Guide ANTH2800
Popular in Cultural Anthropology
Popular in Language
This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ciara Peace on Thursday November 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH2800 at University of Toledo taught by Seamus Metress in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 151 views. For similar materials see Cultural Anthropology in Language at University of Toledo.
Reviews for Exam 3 Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 11/12/15
Cultural Anthropology Study Guide Exam 3 General 1 How has human variation been explained historically a Divine creation b Diabolical intervention c Interaction of heredity and the environment 2 Why is human variation difficult to study Human families are small and the generations long Human experimentation can t be performed to support theories Human mating is controlled by culture not genetics Many human physical characteristics are controlled by polygenes skin color and it s a multifactorial process 3 Differentiate between quotNew School and quotOld School approaches to human diversity a Old school studies i What people looked like ii Racial classification iii Racial history b New school studies i Why people vary ii Individual variation iii Stress the evolutionary significance 4 What are the different types of human biological variation a Individual b Sexual c Age d Geographical clinespopulation e phenotypic 5 Identify the biological mechanisms responsible for human adaptation a Genetic those passed on from one generation to the next by the genes due to natural selection sickle cell lactose intolerance b Phenotypic plasticity the inherited ability to alter one s anatomy physiology and behavior in response to stress i Psychological accommodation modification of one s behavior in response to stress noise light etc ii Physiological acclimatization modification of one s body structure and physiology function on a short term basis iii Developmental acclimatization long term modification of body structure and function Andean Indians nutritionally deprived 6 What is biocultural adaptation a Biological and sociocultural factors interact to aid adaptation Andean Indian example below 9969 Stresa Fattr 39 anginamag Increase short wave radiatir i liniciludng ultraviolet Relativer izlarilt Elfin color Liana fwide brim hats by both sexes Covered retaiin by clothing Low vapor pressure or dry air Lng narrw inaes Swaddling system for infants Low temperature High rate of blondquot flow to EIHEI W EE Layered clothing Ith fire Reduced aygen can affe ct fertility and en ergy levels Red blood cell differentiation i ll mil as 35 mil Greater 1iiital ca FJiEit39lgl39 Larger cheat cavity large lungsfiheart F production is difficult at high altitude Biological Race 1 What is a quotsocalled biorace a A population that is distinguished from other groups by real or imagined biological Reduced body size Tirade with people clown lower differences historically determined by class inequalities b Even though its members vary individually An invalid biological concept that has been of sociocultural significance d Population variation does exist for traits i Clines geographic gradients ii Discontinuous variation isolated pockets of increased frequency of a physical trait 2 What are the difficulties associated with the classifications of races a All individuals do not fit into a definite category b Much human variation integrates from population to population clines thus classification oversimplifies c Most of the characteristics used in classification are not inherited collectively as a quotracial package or cluster Physical similarities do not necessarily mean close relationship or common ancestry Phenotypic expressions of more biological traits are the results of the complex interactions of heredity and the environment f Differences between individuals in a race or population are often greater than the average differences between racespopulations g Racial traits are not absolutes but a matter of proportions No genes are found only in one race h Scientists cannot agree on the definitions or numbers of race i Bioraces only exist in the mind of the classifier 3 What is the significance of the human propensity for classification a It is a fundamental human thought process b One of the major organizing principles of language categorization communication c Hunting and gathering survival d Relied on rapid identification of i Poisonous plants ii Sources of water iii Areas of shelter v Discrimination of friend or foe e Billions of objects must be analyzed quickly to plan appropriate action f Grouping into appropriate classes was important for the survival of our species 4 Why do many scientists feel that the biological concept of race has no scientific significance a Many people no longer live in the geographic areas their ancestors came from and possibly adapted to immigration and slavery b Any time groups come into contact with each other they intermix biologically c Human adaptation has become largely cultural not biological d Biocultural adaptation to environmental challenges has always been important 5 Identify the major biocultural misconceptions associated with race a Myth of superiorinferior race i No race is superior or inferior to another b Myth of blood i Blood does not carry so called quotracial traits ii Humans have interchangeable blood providing types are compatible c Myth ofJewish race i Jews are a socioreligious group ii Physically they share characteristics with the local populations among whom they reside d Myth of half breed inferiority i There is no biological disadvantage to mixture ii Prejudice and discrimination may lead to social disadvantages iii Outcome of contact iv Occurs whether local mores approve or not whether or not the local customs approve or not v Attitudes variable English SpanishPortuguese French vi Some groups have strong endogamous feelings 1 Religious ethnic pseudobiological e Myth of quotpurequot races i There are no pure races so called races have been exposed to mixing since the beginning of humans f Myth of the racially superior black athlete i There are no biological characteristics of blacks that enable them to be superior athletically but according to Edwards the acceptance of this idea opens the door to the idea that if blacks are superior physically whites can be superior intellectually 7 g Myth of the Melanin Theory That the superiority of an individual is proportional to the density of melanin supply Melanin is supposed to stimulate the immune system as well as expand memory and consciousness and contributes to athletic process False because neuromelanin has no correlation with the amount of skin melanin and it cannot relate to athletic performance because it isn t found in muscle What is the relation between a Race and culture Culture is not inherited but the ability to learn is All quotracesquot or people have the capacity for culture educability belongs to the species as a whole Vast changes in culture have occurred that are not associated with biological changes not enough time Further color tells us nothing about power relations 1 During the 1840s the white Irish starved while the white English landlords watched 2 During the 1980s the black Ethiopians got rich b Race and intelligence vi vii We use IQ tests to see how different races compare intellectually The question of skin color and IQ is relevant in America only because skin color has been an issue for 400 years If we related IQ to head shape eye color or arm length we would be laughed out of the scientific community In Japan and India low castes have lower IQs but are genetically similar In America the differences disappear German American children fathered by American soldiers during WWII had the same IQ regardless of the father s race raised in Germany Here is the range of IQ s 1 Asians 104 2 Europeans 100 3 Hispanics 90 4 Africans 85 5 American Indians score badly but they are of east Asian anscestry It isn t about race but more about culture and where the kids go to school and how they are learning You can take two kids from different races and teach them in the same way and either one could end up having a higher or lower IQ What are some of the major ideological assumptions related to the concept of race in EuroAmerican thought a Humans are naturally divided into distinct biological groups b Human biological groups can be ranked from superior to inferior the great chain of being c The outer physical attributes of different human groups are indicative of temperamental moral and intellectual differences d All of these qualities are inherited physical behavioral and even social rank e These differences are fixed and unalterable and thus can never be transcribed or changed ordained by God and fixed by nature 8 What are some of the major generalizations about human biological diversity a We all belong to the same species We are more similar than different only 6 of variation is polytypic There are no sharp boundaries between groups Race has given us chaos not boundaries Most characteristics gradually grade into each other Given the widespread distribution of humans the degree of physical differentiation is quite low g Biological differences between humans are due to the interaction of heredity and the environment Thee9939 Racism 1 What is racism a The belief that real or perceived biological differences between groups are a legitimate basis for differential treatment of groups 2 Differentiate between ethnocentrism and racism a Ethnocentrism is i Based on ideas of culture rather than biological superiority ii A universal feature of human social life while racism is characteristic of only some societies and individuals b Racism is a heightened form of ethnocentrism where people are treated differently but the mechanism behind it is different c Ex Johnny thinks he s better than Freddy because he s English while Freddy is Irish This is ethnocentrism based on cultural values and history IfJohnny were to think he was superior to Freddy because he had red hair or freckles and therefore he was an inferior race because he wasn t as pure as the English then that would be racism d Ethnocentrism looks at culture while racism looks at genetics and physical traits 3 What is the theoretical basis for an ideology of racism a Racism was necessary to resolve the ideological conflict between ideas of equality liberty and brotherhood and the reality of colonialism and slavery i So humans were dichotomized into humans and subhumans ii Only true humans could claim equality and liberty iii This allowed the preservation of profitable forms of discrimination and exploitation while still espousing democracy iv For example the Irish were excluded from the concept of humans in the 17th century England and were looked as being 1 Half savages Coarse Belligerent Dirty Boisterous 9159quot 6 Superstitious over religious 7 Too fond of drink 8 this all made them targets for abuse and derision 4 How did early racism differ from later scientific racism a Early racism was based on folk concepts that relied on ideas of God given or divine rights favoring one group over another b Scientific racism was in the 18th and 19th century i It was an attempt to use scientific language and techniques to support racism 5 What were 4 historical factors that were important in the development of western scientific 6 7 racism a When Europeans came to the new world and discovered indigenous people racist ideas were widespread about the American Indians b During the 1840 s and 50 s the massive influx of Irish immigrants fleeing from starvation i Led to violent quotnativistquot reactions eg riots burnings murders ii Developed stereotypes eg lazy superstitious belligerent alcoholic c During the controversy over slavery i The bible was used tojustify it ii Sterotypes of blacks developed similar to the Irish iii Groups such as the KKK reacted with violence d During the flooditde of Eastern and Southern European immigrants in the late 1800s i Violent nativist reactions occurred ii Immigration quotas were established that favored northern Europe e During WWII especially with regard to the Japanese i Japanese Americans were uprooted from their homes and interned in prison camps ii Stereotypes were developed by the media and became an important part of the war cause iii Japanese American soldiers were not allowed to serve in the pacific area f Following the supreme court decisions against segregation and discrimination in the late 1950s i Violent attacks resulted even by the state ii Murder of participants and non participants occurred iii Racist literature was produced iv Hate groups made a comeback How has scientific racism reemerged today a Scientific racism survives in the thinking of writers such as Jensen Shockley Herrnstein Rushton Murray Lynn and Eysenck These writers posit that some groups are born more intelligent than others and that remedial education programs are a waste b These writers have applied these ideas to explain whiteblack differences on IQ tests and to illustrate Irish inferiority in Britain c These people have little or no training in genetics and no credentials in social science They ignore all studies that refute their findings Identify some prominent racist works of the 20th century and their significance a The Passing of the Great Race and The Rising Tide of Color were used on the floor of the US Senate to justify discriminatory quotas against immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe b Race and Reason and The Biology of the Race promote pseudoscientific racist ideas of race over the past 25 years c m promoted an old time typological view of human diversity1 8 Identify Curtin s three schools of racist thought a Theological view i God created humans unequal and these inequalities had a purpose great chain of being ii Noneuropeans were not descendants of Adam but a separate creation 1 17th century Puritans 2 Late 18thearly 19th century popular 3 Supported slavery iii Whites were made more intelligent so they could direct the labor of others iv Blacks were adapted by God for working in the tropics and should be used to exploit resources b Evolutionary view i Races are the result of competition where the weaker die out to make room for the stronger Greece 9 Rome 9 Germanic states of Europe ii Extinction of natives was nature s way of making room for superior groups iii There is a systematic hierarchy of life from lowest to highest and human variation must fit into categories of lower to higher great chain of being c EvolutionaryChristian view i Noneuropeans were inferior but they could become good Christians ii The white man s burden philosophy with obligations and trusteeship not extermination not beasts iii Mid 9th century God created all humans in his image and thus should be equal iv Missionaries were important because they stressed the weakness of pagan societies 1 Evil 2 Wicked customs 3 Needed Christian influence 9 What are the functions of racism a Racism was necessary to resolve the ideological conflict between ideas of equality liberty and brotherhood and the reality of colonialismslavery i Humans were dichotomized into humans and sub humans ii Only true humans could claim equality and liberty iii This allowed the preservation of profitable forms of discrimination while still keeping democracy 1 Ex if blacks are sub humans then they don t need rights and that s why slavery was legal since only true humans got rights 10 Under what circumstances historically do racist ideologies become prominent a In times of conflict over economical and political power jobs political position etc b When a subordinate groups refuse to accept its position Irish immigrants black civil rights c When some of the dominant groups begin to disagree with the dominant positions d When emigration brings a new group into an area or region Colonialism Race and the Expansion of Europe 1 How was racism tied to the expansion of Europe a It was used to justify i The seizure of land and resources ii The expulsion or extermination of the indigenous people iii The establishment of territorial claims to the indigenous land 2 What was the role of racism in the rise of the British Empire a The natives were incapable of self government and higher civilization It was the duty of the AngloSaxon to lead the world to civilazation To do so it was necessary to destroy native culture and institutions Stereotypes were developed from Ireland to India White man s burden philosophy became prominent i The white man had obligations to the inferior races ii Colonial rule was in the best interests of the natives iii Needed strong quotparentalquot authority to guide them 3 Identify the major historic turning points in the history of American racism a Listed in above section 4 Differentiate between prejudice and discrimination a Prejudice i Attitude of dislike and hostility towards members of some other group ii Emotional response or feeling iii Property of an individual not a society iv Not a belief system v One can be prejudice without racism vi One can be racist without prejudice old south b Discrimination i Unequal and unfair treatment of a group at the hands of another group ii Practice not just a feeling iii A societal property iv Related to a belief system v Does not have to involve racism 5 What is a stereotype a An exaggerated belief associated with a social category such as a racial ethnic religious or occupational group i Can be either positive or negative ii Does not allow for individuality iii Interferes with cross cultural understanding 6 What is the function of stereotypes a To degrade others in order to promote one s own group DP95quot 7 8 9 To deal with personal frustration To justify prejudice and discrimination To develop a self fulfilling image among some of the group stereotyped To construct a perceptual prison blinding one to the reality of social relations How we overcome stereotypes Educate yourself on the nature of stereotypes Don t prejudge be open minded and flexible Seek positive interaction with others Develop a broader world view Why might race be considered a biopolitical concept a Race is related to the sociopolitical climate of the time b Race can change with shifts in sociopolitical power or economics c d b c d e a b c d Cultural changes not biological changes are involved During 18301890 the Irish were i Ignorant vicious shiftless impulsive superstitious drunks animals By the 1890s the Irish were i Loyal ingenious adaptable daring fun loving compassionate f This change in political attitude was related to the fact that the Irish gained political control of most of the American cities Discuss the social responsibility of science to combat racism a Take part in public education i Begin at an early age ii In areas of the curriculum iii In schools churches the media government at all levels b Produce popular jargon free accurate information c Make their research and scientific expertise available to the public d Indirectly by example D The Concept of Race in Physical Anthropology reading assignment he will ask 2 P1P L09 gtIsn 10 11 12 What is the historical basis for Brace declaring that quotRace is a social construction How did marine technology and navigation skills change European perceptions of other peoples Why was the colonization of the Western Hemisphere so important for the concept of race What are clines and their importance for understanding biological variation How did his study of sickle cell anemia cause Livingstone to state quotthere are not races only clines What are the major theories that try to explain variation in skin color Why is the cline for skin color more marked in the Old World than in the Western Hemisphere Why are the skin color clines different in Australia from the Americas How is tooth size reduction related to the cooking of food and the invention of pottery What is sickle cell anemia How did it originate How is sickle cell anemia related to the spread of agriculture in Africa Why is the ABO blood group system worthless for group classification 13 Why does the identification of regional variations in biology bot mean that biological races exist The Concept of Race in Physical Anthropology reading assignment he will ask 2 1 What is the historical basis for Brace declaring that quotRace is a social construction a Before the expansion into the New World people didn t really think of race as being a thing If you look through history and look in ancient times or during the Renaissance there wasn t mention of different races Even when famous explorers like Marco Polo went on expeditions they never mentioned that certain people were of a different race everyone was just human and the same All of that changed with the colonization of Europe Whenever they would take over somewhere else the indigenous people there were seen as being of a different race because it was constructed that way by the settlers Humans came up with the idea of race to separate other groups that we thought were different 2 How did marine technology and navigation skills change European perceptions of other peoples a It made long distance voyages possible and that meant that European perceptions of other people were categorical distinctions instead of borderless gradations that were seen by other explorers on foot Flying from Ohio to Africa and seeing the difference is a much bigger shock than if we were to take a train from France to China We would see a gradient instead of a huge jump 3 Why was the colonization of the Western Hemisphere so important for the concept of race a This involved the actually movement of people from one small part of the works western Europe to other places where they were immediately installed next to the indigenous people and categorized as being different 4 What are clines and their importance for understanding biological variation a Clines are a geographic gradient of a trait and they are important because it shows that there isn t a jump in genetics in population You can see slight variations in all populations and races that are geographically near each other 5 How did his study of sickle cell anemia cause Livingstone to state quotthere are not races only clines a There was a study done indicating that there could not be subspecies for forms that were reproductively continuous over large areas Over the next decade it was realized that Homo sapiens is also a continuous species and so the same logic would apply meaning there are no subspecies or races but only clines or slight variations in the species itself 6 What are the major theories that try to explain variation in skin color a Skin color is produced by the pigment melanin which blocks UV light It is suggested that humans in the tropics would have more melanin and darker skin because of survival As you get away from the equator the amount of melanin would decrease but the reason for this isn t agreed upon b People with lighter skin can absorb vitamin D more efficiently and so they wouldn t get deficiencies or Rickets during growth where the amount of sun isn t as much c Another theory is that when selection for skin pigment is relaxed as it is in the north where the chances of UV induced cancer are small no matter the amount of melanin the accumulation of chance mutations affecting pigment production will fail to produce a full tropical amount of epidermal melanin 7 Why is the cline for skin color more marked in the Old World than in the Western Hemisphere a There is no skin color cline in the New World because it has not been occupied long enough for a pigment gradient to develop b The Old World has a cline because the current inhabitants have only come south from temperate latitudes within the past few thousand years 8 Why are the skin color clines different in Australia from the Americas a In Australia there is a northsouth pigment cline with the darkest skin color occurring in the tropical north The 60000 years that Australia has been occupied is long enough to have produced the beginnings of a cline but it is not as strong as the one from Africa to Spain which would take 200000 years 9 How is tooth size reduction related to the cooking of food and the invention of pottery a Skin color took 200000 years to get where it is today while our teeth took 100000 years Our ancestors had very large teeth and today Africans still have larger teeth than those of European descent Our ancestors didn t get dental care and food wasn t always available ready to eat sometimes it was frozen from the cold This lead to the development of cooking so humans didn t have to chew such tough food It was necessary to have teeth for survival and so this was very important Because cooking food requires you to chew less eventually the tooth evolved to be smaller since we didn t need such large ones anymore b The same argument is made with skin color those who didn t live in the tropics slowly began losing their melanin and then different races started forming with different amounts of pigments in their skin 10 What is sickle cell anemia How did it originate a Sickle cell anemia is when the hemoglobin are a different shape and cannot carry oxygen properly from the lungs to the tissues where it is used for metabolic purposes and then the product of these reactions carbon dioxide is taken back to the lungs and released into the atmosphere b When someone has the hemoglobin variant hemoglobin S will tend to crystallize after it gives up the oxygen and these crystals start to align themselves in the red blood cell as stiff rods These change the shape of the red blood cell making it angular instead of round and these now sickle cells get stuck in the capillaries and prevent blood from flowing The body then dissolves these red blood cells and that s what causes the anemia c It originated in Africans who were brought over as slaves but the genes responsible for the condition weren t of African origin but of Middle Eastern from traders down the African east coast or by caravan routes across the Sahara 11 How is sickle cell anemia related to the spread of agriculture in Africa a The west Africans adopted agriculture a couple of thousand years ago but the changes in settlement patterns altered the conditions to an extent that a noxious kind of malaria flourished and became a huge threat to survival When hemoglobin S was introduced it meant that people could be immune to malaria because the sickle cells destroy the virus 12 Why is the ABO blood group system worthless for group classification a For blood there are a lot of differences that make type 0 the universal donor but A or B can t donate to anyone but A or B but any race can have any blood type so there is no use in trying to classify people by blood type because its not a racial trait 13 Why does the identification of regional variations in biology not mean that biological races exist a There are certain features that we can associate with a particular region that aren t just dealing with skin color such as eye shape cheek shape ear shape or aspects of noses But unlike skin color which had evolved to the geographic area these other features didn t always evolve they were just present in the ancestors from that area b If traits can be identified with a particular region then they have no adaptive significance and no regional manifestation is better or worse than another Some traits are just inherited
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'