Bio II Exam 3 Answers
Bio II Exam 3 Answers BIO 1144
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This 24 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rocket on Wednesday March 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 71 views.
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Date Created: 03/30/16
❏ Epithelial Tissues +Sheets of cells which line or cover a surface/cavities Tightly Packed Separated by underlying connective tissues by Basal lamina (basement membrane) Classification +Cell Layers Simple Epithelium (1 layer) Stratified Epithelium (+2 layer) Morphology +Cell Shape Squamous Cuboidal (centered nucleus) Columnar ★ Simple Squamous Epithelium Single layer of flat cells Function: Absorption/Secretion Exchange of materials ★ Simple Cuboidal Epithelium Single layer of cubed cells Function: Absorption/Secretion ★ Simple Columnar Single layer of rectangular cells Function: Absorption/Secretion Protection ❖ Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium All cells attached to basal lamina, but looks like multiple layers Function: Absorption/Secretion Protection ➢ Stratified Squamous Epithelium Multiple layers of flat cells Outermost cells dead, replaced by keratin Hard outer portion Function: Protection ● Stratified Cuboidal + Stratified Columnar Epithelium 23 layers thick Function: Transport Forming barrier ❏ Transitional Epithelium Stretchable cells Lines urinary bladder Funtion: Expands bladder to hold more ❖ Connective Tissues Connect, bind, support, anchor structures +Loose (areolar) Tissues Hold internal organs in place Lines body cavity +Dense tissues Tightly packed fibers Strength, support body parts Tendons/ Ligaments +Cartilage Support and cushion but flexibility for joints Tightly packed fibers +Bone Support and Protection +Adipose Tissue Fat storage tissue Support, protection, energy storage, insulation +Blood Transports materials ➢ Muscle Tissues +Skeletal Attached to bone, movement of body Composed of compacted tubes “Voluntary” control +Smooth Layers of tightly packed flattened oval cells Cavities in tubes, veins, organs “Involuntary” control, ex. digestion of food +Cardiac Only found in heart Pumps blood through heart “Involuntary” control Nervous Tissue Initiates and Conducts Signals through Body Central Nervous Systems= Brain + Spinal Cord +Neurons= Nerve Cells Carry impulse signals +Neuroglial Cells More numerous than neurons Maintenance, Ion balance, Metabolic support Examples: Organs: Stomach Connective tissue: lining Smooth: helps move materials Nervous: cause contractions Epithelial: outer protection Integumentary System Skin and all accessory structures +Vertebrates: skin largest organ Functions: Protection from damage/water loss Barrier to pathogens Protection from UV light, temp. regulation Sensory receptors, sense of touch Limited Ion Release +Skin 2 Layers Epidermis: outer tissue layer Stratified squamous Langerhans cells: defense cells, immunity Melanocytes: UV protection, pigment cells Merkel cell: textile, touch cells Keratinocytes: cells producing keratin, outermost cell layer dead Dermis: inner thicker tissue layer Highly vascularized Vessels, sensory, glands, nerves Hair, feathers, scales origin +Meissner’s Corpuscles Associated with light touch +Pacinian Corpuscles Deep pressure vibrations +Sweat glands Duct into outside Humans have approx. 2.5 million Ion secretion(salt)/ Water secretion +Sebaceous Glands Oil/Secretes sebum Soften and lubricates hair and skin Found throughout body, except palms and soles, enhanced on face and neck +Hypodermis *not part of skin* “below dermis” Support for actual skin Stores adipose tissue Insulation→ holds in heat Digestive System Ch. 45 + 46 +Heterotrophic Ingest feeding Needed for survival, maintenance, growth, reproduction +Gut Tract (2 types) ➔ Blind Gut System: No cavity between gut and body wall One opening ❖ Tubewithinatube Arrangement Advanced form Flow through digestive tube Fluidfilled body cavity (coelom) between gut and body wall Separate openings +Digestive Enzymes Hydrolases Need water for splitting bonds Carbohydrases→ carbohydrates Proteases→ proteins Lipases→ lipids Nucleases→ Nucleic acids +Basic Functions of Digestion Systems 1. Digestion Breakdown of large molecules into smaller forms Chemical (water + enzymes) and Mechanical (teeth to break things down) 2. Absorption Uptake of digestive foods by cells lining the gut track (ex. glucose) 3. Transport Moving food through gut track Mouth to tubbing to stomach to tubbing to intestines 4. Elimination Removal of undigested and unabsorbed materials +Alimentary Canal: Digestive tract/tube Distinct separate mouth and anus Region of Reception: Food Breakdown +Buccal cavity: Mouth and all accessory structures in the mouth Both chemical and mechanical digestion occur here Jaws, teeth, tongue Salivary glands (*amylase) Pharynx: back of mouth cavity, point where digestive and respiratory system cross paths Region of Conduction: Conducting food away from mouth cavity +Esophagus lined with simple epithelium and moves food by smooth muscle food gets pushed down by Peristalsis (rhythmic wavelike contractions pushing food through) Region of Storage and Digestion: +Stomach: Most vertebrates contain Insects and Bird have a *Crop Storage organ, where enzymes continuously breaking down food +Stretchable Rugae (when small): folds of inner linning, simple epithelium +Wall of stomach lined with smooth muscle 3 layers churning movements when contracting speeds up digestion +Enzyme→ Chemical Digestion Protein breakdown begin in stomach +Inner lining Epithelium with pits and glands Mucous cells: secrete moisture to soften things Chief cells: secrete pepsinogen (inactive enzyme) Parietal cells: secrete hydrochloric acid *Lumen (cavity) of stomach Pepsinogen + Hydrochloric acid→ Pepsin→ Enzyme for proteins Stomach itself +Minimal absorption Lipid soluble materials ex. nutrients, alcohol Region of Terminal Digestion + Absorption: Whatever gets to this region is waste +Small Intestine (SI) Vertebrates/ called midgut in insects Chemical digestion of lipids and nucleic acids begins and ends Chemical digestion of carbohydrate and proteins and continued here In mammals: estimated length of SI = 8 x height + 3 regions of SI Duodenum: many secretions, beginning Jejunum Ileum +Absorption: lined with simple epithelium Surface lining modifications to increase absorptive area 1. Plicae Circulares : folds of inner linning, estimated to increase surface area x2 or x3 2. Villus (plu. villi): finger like projections, estimated to increase surface area x10 3. Microvilli: folding of plasma membrane of cells lining villi, estimated to increase surface area x20 Region of Water Absorption and Concentration of Solids +Large Intestine (LI) hindgut in insects Average mammal roughly 1.5 meters No plicae, villi, microvilli Water absorbed from tube through epithelium, reduce much water loss Compacts/ eliminates feces +Wastes Eliminated Water 75% Inorganic substance 5% Fat 5% Undigested protein, bile, dead cells 7% Roughage 8% +Vitamin Synthesis via Bacteria Anus: opening to outside Cloaca (all birds + reptiles): chamber receiving the contents of the urinary, digestive, and reproductive tracts Accessory Digestive Glands Not part of tube but necessary for digestion +Pancreas: secretes enzymes into duodenum +Liver: constant production of bile trickle, necessary for breakdown of fat molecules +Gall Bladder: storehouse where bile is kept, when higher quantity of bile needed it’s send from here How they break down: Carbohydrates→ Polysaccharides→ mono + disaccharides Proteins→ Polypeptides→ Amino acids Fats→ Glycerol→ fatty acids Nucleic acids→ nucleotides *Enzymes activity: speed up chemical reactions, allow them to occur at biological temperatures* Nervous System Ch. 41, 42, 43 +Closely tied with Sensory system ❖ Central Nervous System (CNS) Increase of size of brain relative to body size (the more advanced the organism is) and nervous system functions CNS composed of Brain + Spinal Cord ex. Fish: 2:1 Reptiles: 25:1 Humans: 55:1 ➔ Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) All neurons and projections outside of CNS +Invertebrates simple system but difficult to distinguish between CNS and PNS ❏ Neurons Nerve cells which are the basic structural and functional units of Nervous systems Found in all phyla except porifera +Functions: Send and receive chemical and electrical signal +Structure: Soma (cell body): nucleus and regular organelles Dendrites: extensions of plasma membranes, incoming signals Axons: extensions of plasma membranes, sending signals ★ Glial Cells More abundant in nervous tissue than neurons x1000 fold Provide support + Myelin Sheath Allows for more efficient and insulation of impulses Oligodendrocytes (CNS) Schwann cell (PNS) Microglial cells: remove dead cells, cleaners Astrocytes: metabolic support, associated with nutrition of neurons Radial Glial Cell: layout pathway for neuron migration during embryonic development *Last 2 groups often called “Stem cells” able to produce more glial and neuronal cells 3 Types of Neuron + Sensory “Afferent” transmitting signals to CNS + Motor “Efferent” carry signals away from CNS to elicit response + Interneurons Interconnecting cells between other neurons Reflex Arc Involuntary Act: Stimulus → Receptor (striking knee) → sensory and interneurons neurons send to → CNS→ motor neurons and interneurons carry response back → (received at flexor muscles) Effector→ Response Electrical Properties +Membrane Potential Gatekeeper, only neurons and muscles cells generate electrical signals Difference in charge between inside and outside +Ion concentration and Electrical differences Provides concentration differences Cell considered “polarized” Ions will move through channels if open Different restrictions depending on chemical +Resting Membrane Potential When neurons are not sending signals +Selectively Permeable to chemicals leading to difference in charge Cation (+) Anions () Inside is more () Combined together Outside is more (+) makes it polarized +Anions inside drawn to cations on outside to edge 3 Factor Contributing to Resting Membrane Potential 1. SodiumPotassium Pump expenditure of ATP to pump molecules 3 Na + pumped out for every 2 K + in 2. Ion specific channels allows passive ion movement Works as long as channels are open Membrane is more permeable to K+ K+ channels more frequently open at resting potential 3. More () charged ions are inside cell (polarity) Electrochemical Gradient No net movement of molecules opposing forces of electro + chem can cause NEAR equilibrium (equal charges no K+ flow) Ion movement (+) or () Chemical movement of K+ Na+ Cl Imbalance normal created by inside and outside membrane Neuron Signaling Changes in membrane potential, changes in degree of polarization +Depolarization Movement of Na + inside cell makes the Membrane becomes less negative making it less polarized More gated channels open for Na + movement in so inside becomes more positive Inside + charged, outside charged +Hyperpolarization K+ moves out of cell making the inside to become less positive, more negative instead Membrane becomes more polarized again *ALL cells exhibit membrane potential* *ONLY neurons and muscles cells are “excitable” capacity to generate electrical signals *Use of gated ion channels: Voltage gated: open/close in response to voltage charges Ligand (chemical) gated: open/close in response to chemicals ● Nerve Impulse Frequency: “language” higher frequency = greater excitation 1. Resting Potential Imbalance between K+ and Na+ Charge imbalance (gradient) between inside and outside axon +At rest → membrane selectively permeable to K+ 2. Action Potential “Electric potential” of impulse Rapid/brief change of nerve fiber “selfpropagating” After passing membrane it quickly returns to resting positions At a given point Na+ channels open Na+ diffuses in K+ diffuses out (due to electrical gradient changes) 3. Sodium/Potassium Pump Complex of proteins in membrane Pump out Na+ Both require Carry in K+ ATP expenditure 3Na+ : 2K+ Impulse Conduction Rate Conduction Rate: +Variable Sea anemones: 0.1m/second Mammals: 120m/second +Inverts Speed is directly related to axon diameter +Vertebrates Speed related directly between axon diameter and layers around myelin sheath Myelin sheaths is in sections: Nodes of Ranvier Saltatory conduction: “jumping” Synapse: junction/gap where nerve terminal meets a neuron, muscle, or some gland + Axon myelin sheath has gaps, as impulse travels down the axon it “jumps” these gaps +2 Types of Synapse Electrical: ionic currents flow across gap; very fast gotta go fast Chemical: transport/movement of neurotransmitters/ packet of chemicals (most common form) In muscle; Acetylcholine *Acetylcholine released (carrying impulse) across cleft to open channels Evolution of Nervous System: Kingdom Animalia +Phylum Cnidaria (jellyfishes) Very simple neural organization With proto neurons→ simple primitive cells “before” “nerve cells” Nerve Net : impulse are not oneway Simplified Nervous Organ +Phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms) 2 Anterior Ganglia: each has network branching off Weakly developed nervous organization (no brain or spinal chord so not true CNS) Mostly oneway impulses +Phylum Annelida (segmented worms) Motor and sensory neurons Brain and Ventral Nerve Chord Primitive CNS +Phylum Mollusca (squids, octopi, oysters, mussels) Squids and Octopi: Nervous system that might be equivalent to fish, very advanced for Mollusca Most advanced and complex of all nonchordate invertebrates? +Phylum Arthropoda (insects, crustaceans) Similar to Annelida and Mollusca Groups of Insects (social insects ex. Bees, ants, wasps) have well developed brain Well developed system ties along with complex social structures, queen, soldiers, workers Social behavior, learning, division of labor Most advanced and complex of all nonchordate invertebrates? Vertebrate Nervous System Brain +Spinal Cord (dorsal/hollow) = CNS +Spinal Cord structure pertained and protected within the vert. Colum +Layers (Meninges) Protection and Support for entire CNS Dura Mater outer Arachnoid middle Pia mater inner *Cerebrospinal Fluid: found in between each layer and in hollow canal +Brain increased in size and complexity with vert. Evolution Changes in embryonic development Changes in “sections” of brain, especially cerebrum Entire nervous system develops from Neural fold in embryo +3 Divisions of Vert. Brain 1. Hindbrain: continuation of spinal cord and brainstem 2. Midbrain: right above hindbrain, small section 3. Forebrain: where most significant changes occur of development of brain (i.e. cerebrum) Vertebrate Evolution of Brain > Size! (Direct correlation) *ON TEST* Spinal Cord: provides structure and support Midbrain : visual and auditory sensors Medulla oblongata: basic functions breathing, heart rate Cerebellum: movement, equilibrium, balance, largest in birds + mammals Thalamus: middle relay station between hindbrain and forebrain Hypothalamus : housekeeping center; homeostasis Pituitary gland: hormonal gland Corpus callosum: thick band of nerve fibers connecting right and left cerebrum Cerebrum : thought process, problem solving, language, emotions Muscular and Skeletal System Ch. 44 +Skeletal System: endoskeleton; constant living structure being replenished Phylum Chordata and Echinodermata Function: Locomotion Support Protection Calcium and other Mineral Storage Attachment sites for Skeletal Muscle Production of Blood Cells Bone Tissue: is hardened connective tissue, very strong but lightweight Contain collagen fibers make them flexible Depository of Minerals: Calcium and phosphorus salts +2 Bone Formation Endochondral: bone replaces cartilage (majority of bones) Intramembranous: bone forms within membranes of connective tissues (thin bone/plates) Types Of Bone Tissue: 1. Compact Bone: ground bone or dense bone, tightly packed together tissue organized into Osteons (structure unit of compact bone) 2. Spongy Bone: lightweight, looks like bony spikes like chain lick, lots of air pockets and space, not organized into Osteons +Long Bone Anatomy: Femur Periosteum: Entire Outer Covering of Bone except on Epiphyseal ends Articular Cartilage: hyaline cartilage; shock absorber Bone Cells: 1. Osteoprogenitor Cells: early developed bone cells Found in periosteum Differentiate into osteoblasts 2. Osteoblasts Bone Forming cells Producing bony tissue 3. Osteocytes Matured osteoblasts “trapped” by the bone tissue they produced 4. Osteoclasts Bone resorbing cells Breaking down old/damaged bone tissue Osteonic Canal: Passageway for vessels Lamellae: concentric rings of bone tissue Lacuna: spaces between lamellae where osteocytes are located Canaliculi: microscopic canals that connect lacunae to lacunae to the osteonic canal Skeleton (2 parts region) +Axial Skeleton : includes all bones associated with the central axis of the bottom; skull, ribs, sternum, and vertebral column +Vertebrae: Cervical (neck) Thoracic (upper back) Lumbar (lower back) Sacral (hip) Caudal (tail) In humans, Coccyx (tailbone) *Number of each varies among vertebrates *All of these allow vertebrates flexibility, support, and protection of nerve chord +Appendicular Skeleton : everything associated with the appendages; appendage bones (limbs/fins), pectoral girdle (shoulder), pelvic girdle (hip) +Pectoral Girdle: attaches front appendages to axial skeleton Scapula (2) Clavicle (2) +Pelvic Girdle: attaches hing appendages to axial skeleton Fusion of pelvis bones Fused to lower vertebral column Appendages: +Forelimb bones Humerus Radius and Ulna Carpals Metacarpals Phalanges *All attached to pectoral girdle +Hindlimb bones (legs) Femur (largest) Patella (knee cap) Tibia and Fibula Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges *All attached to pelvic gridle Joints + Bones + Muscle(skeletal) enhanced movement better contact with substrate advanced locomotor skills Muscular System Tissue Types: 1. Skeletal Muscle Striated Pattern Voluntary movement Multinuclei Mostly associated with skeletal Fiber cell type 2. Cardiac Muscle Only found in heart Striated pattern Involuntary movement 12 nuclei Fiber cell type Branching Intercalated disks, electrical impules Contraction “pumps” blood 3. Smooth Muscle Not striated Involuntary movement Single nucleus, centralized Walls of internal organs +glands Skeletal Muscle Structure +Muscle Fascicles: Collection of skeletal muscle fibers bounded by connective tissue Skeletal Muscle cell fibers Each fiber composed of myofibrils (series of filaments) Thin and thick filaments (myofilaments) “Contractile proteins” Actin: thin Myosin: thick ❏ Sarcomere Functional Unit of Skeletal muscle cells The distance from one zline to the next zline The sarcomere shortens during skeletal muscle contraction Overlapping of thick and thin filaments produces the striations Anatomy of Muscle Fiber (sarcomere) +Sarcolemma Plasma membrane of muscle fiber +Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Specialized endoplasmic reticulum where calcium is stored and released from here for contraction +T (transverse) Tubules Transverse invaginations of the sarcolemma, allows for faster movement for impulse Contraction: “Sliding filament” model Energy required high energy bond of the 3rd Phosphate group of ATP ★ Mitochondria Muscle cells contain MANY mitochondria “powerhouse of cell” Site of Bulk of ATP is formed Requires O2 for Aerobic Cellular Respiration Circulatory System Ch. 47 (Cardiovascular system) ❖ Blood connective tissue A. Plasma : 55% of blood volume 90% of plasma is h2o 10% is amino acid, glucose, gases, enzymes, hormones +Intracellular Fluids Fluid within cell +Extracellular fluids Fluids outside cell Blood plasma +Interstitial fluid Fluid between cells B. Formed Elements Fancy word for cells 1. Platelets: cell fragments/pieces used for blood clotting 2. Leukocytes : white blood cells, not very abundant, easy to distinguish, in cubic centimeter of blood there's about 7000 nucleated cells Neutrophils : eat other cells (phagocytosis), associated with immune system, first leukocytes to reach the inflamed area Lymphocytes : Bcells and Tcells, Bcells produced in bone marrow, Tcells produced in thymus gland, attack virus infected cells and even cancer cells Monocytes : also phagocytic cell eaters, cleaning up extra red blood cells Eosinophils : limit inflammatory response Basophils: limit inflammatory response 3. Erythrocytes: Red blood cells Anucleate (no nuclease) in mammals Transport of oxygen in blood stream Produced in Red Bone marrow and spleen Lifespan of 120 days; 5 million in a cubic centimeter +Contain hemoglobin an iron contained protein binds to O2 200,000 hemoglobin molecules per RBC RBC is biconcave ➢ Blood Vessels Tubes carrying blood Lined with simple squamous epithelium 1. Arteries (+ Arterioles) Carry blood AWAY from heart Smooth muscle layer in the wall of artery is THICKER than the veins 2. Capillaries Smallest diameter tubes Arranged in clusters; capillary beds Thin walled; 1 cell thick, need to be thin for oxygen and other gas exchange/diffusion Function as gas exchange site for blood, organs, and tissues of body Oxygen diffuses out of vessels, CO2 diffuses in 3. Veins (+venules) Carry blood TOWARDS heart Thinner smooth muscle layer Lower pressure vessels Blood to heart Some of the veins have valves, they prevent backflow of blood Black line simple squamous epithelium Red line smooth muscle Artery → Arteriole → Capillary (no muscle just 1 layer of epith./ gas exchange occurs here) Thinner walls Vein→ Venule Vein (rich in CO2) Artery( rich in O2) Heart Large organ especially in mammals +Vertebrate evolutionary advantages Increase in size Increase # of chambers Decrease # of pseudo chambers (A chamber off or outside of the heart receiving pool blood) ● Fish 2 chambers (atrium/ventricle) 2 pseudo chambers (conus arteriosus/ sinus venosus) ❖ Amphibians 3 chambers (2 atria/ ventricle) 2 pseudo chambers ➢ Reptiles 3 chambers (2 atria/ ventricle) Some have sinus venosus but no conus arteriosus (turtles) *Crocodiles have 4 chambered hearts/ no pseudos ➔ Birds 2 atria/ 2 ventricles Lack pseudo chambers ★ Mammals 2 atria/ 2 ventricles Lack pseudo chambers *Both Birds and Mammals have remnants of sinus venosus which is a Patch of cells in right atrium, its the “pacemaker” of the heart +Heart Anatomy: Mammals 4 Chambers 2 atria: smaller chambers, thinner walls 2 ventricles: thicker walls, larger chambers, (left is thickest wall) Pulmonary Circuit Right Side: conducts blood to lungs for gas exchange and then back to heart Systemic Circuit Left side: conducts blood out to the body and then back to heart +Heart Valves Atrioventricular Valves: junction between atrium and ventricle, prevent backflow of blood into artium Semilunar Valves: prevent blood from backing up into ventricles when ventricles relax Pulmonary SV (right ventricle and pulmonary artery)/ Aortic SV (left ventricle and the aortic) END OF MATERIAL FOR EXAM 3
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