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Sociology Chapter 10 Study Guide

by: valerie zaid

Sociology Chapter 10 Study Guide SOC 10000 - 016

Marketplace > Purdue University > Sociology > SOC 10000 - 016 > Sociology Chapter 10 Study Guide
valerie zaid

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Complete study guide for chapter 10 of sociology 100
Introductory Sociology
Dan M Weiss
Study Guide
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by valerie zaid on Wednesday March 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 10000 - 016 at Purdue University taught by Dan M Weiss in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Purdue University.


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Date Created: 03/30/16
Sociology Exam II Study Guide Chapter 10-Poverty:  Poverty: a condition of deprivation due to economic circumstances that is severe enough that the individual in this cannot live with dignity in his or her society o A recession is a period of economic decline lasting half a year or more in which poverty rates may be higher  Lyndon Johnson’s administration established some anti- poverty programs (For example: programs of education, job training and placement, housing- War on poverty)  Perverse incentives: reward structures that lead to suboptimal outcomes by stimulating counterproductive behavior  Unintended consequences: results of a policy that were not fully anticipated at the time the policy was implemented, particularly outcomes that are counter to the intentions of the policymakers  The culture of poverty o The culture of poverty theory argues that poor people adopt certain practices, which differ from those of middle-class, “mainstream” society, in order to adapt and survive in difficult economic circumstances o William Julius Wilson turned the focus from welfare to factors such as deindustrialization, globalization, suburbanization, and discrimination as causes of urban poverty o In the past 20-30 years, policies to combat poverty have focused on encouraging work and offering benefits that directly serve children  Does poverty impact us? o Susan Mayer states in her book that she found very little evidence to support the widely held belief that parental income has a significant effect on children’s outcomes o Charles Murray and Richard Hernstein argue that its not poverty or education or parenting that has the most impact on children’s outcomes, but simply genes o James Rosenbaum’s study of the Gautreaux Assisted Living Program in Chicago and the MTO were designed to see if moving to less impoverished communities might affect quality of life o MTO in particular seemed to show that living in a quieter, less stressful environment did have very positive effects on children  Absolute poverty is the point at which a household’s income falls below the necessary level to purchase food to physically sustain its members o The official poverty line in the US is calculated using a formula developed by Mollie Orshansky. Estimated food costs for minimum food requirements to determine whether a family can “afford: to survive. o The cost of food has decreased but the cost of living has increased o 3 theories about why poverty is bad for kids: 1. Researchers have gone beyond basic needs to show that low-income households experience other forms of material deprivation, which may explain part of the effect of poverty on childhood 2. Parenting stress hypothesis: low income, unstable employment, lack of cultural resources and a feeling of inferiority exacerbate stress levels which leads to detrimental parenting practices which are not conductive to healthy child development 3. It is not poverty, lack of nonmonetary resources, or relative inequality that is so 2 detrimental to child development as much as it is the differences between poor parents and higher-income parents  Relative poverty is a measurement of poverty based on a percentage of the median income in a given location  The US has a much broader range of inequality, as well as higher poverty rates.  3


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