PSY 390 ALL DQS
PSY 390 ALL DQS
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Date Created: 11/12/15
PSY 390 ALL DQ S Week 1 D9 1 In learning and cognition one of the major areas of discussion is the impact of nature and nurture What is the concept of naturenurture and why is it important in the study of learning and cognition Please post your response to this thread The nature versus nurture debate has been around for ages yet researchers have still not determined which of the two greater impacts an individual The concept of nature represents that our personality and behavior is based upon our genetics that we receive from our family An example of nature would be one s hair and eye color and body type One s emotions and motivations can also be a form of nature Research has shown that a newborn isn t born as a blank state but with inherited traits Human nature said the behaviorists is determined by what we experience The content of the mind is therefore the synthesis of our experiences and little else Olson amp Hergenhahn 2009 On the other side of the fence nurture represents that one s behavior is directed by experiences and surroundings For the Gestalt theorist the brain is not a passive receiver and storehouse of information from the environment The brain acts on incoming sensory information in such a way as to make it more meaningful and organized This is not a learned function it is the nature of the brain to impose organization and meaning on sensory information Olson amp Hergenhahn 2009 Nurture represents the fact that while genetics offers spunk to our personality the environment has the power to change it and form one into the exact opposite Nature and nurture not only affect one s personality but also the study of learning and cognition While studying the cognition of an individual or their learning style nature and nurture can offer explanations to their behavior For example is one better at learning how to read than how to do math because of nature or nurture or both Nature and nurture offer different ways for one to learn a certain way or their cognitive abilities Researchers can evaluate the environment while still considering one s genetics when studying learning and cognition all thanks to nature and nurture Reference Olson M H amp Hergenhahn BR 2009 An Introduction to Theories of Learning University of Phoenix Custom Edition eText Pearson Education Inc Retrieved from Univeristy of Phoenix PSY390 Learning and Cognition website Week 1 D9 2 Now that we have discussed the concept of learning and cognition I would like you to answer the following questions Can learning be defined as survival of the fittest Why or why not Provide specific examples in your response Please post your response to this thread Can learning be defined as survival of the fittest Well yes in some cases and no in others When one is in medical school or is doing a residency program at a hospital learning can be defined as survival of the fittest The truth of the matter is not everyone makes it through medical school A lot of individuals leave medical school after a year owing hundreds of thousands of dollars However on the other hands many show their true potential and can greatly affect the world of medicine It all depends on learning Individuals must be completely focused on learning so they can intake as much information as possible with understanding what it means On the contrary learning isn t always Characterized by survival of the fittest For example in a kindergarten Classroom filled with about twenty five five and siX year olds trying to learn the alphabet they don t have to form an alliance to graduate In this time of one s life they are simply trying to learn how to function in higher education and society Learning is defined by one sentence but can mean so many different things to people all across the world Learning can be the newborns thrive to work their fingers or the heart surgeon introducing a new procedure for cancer Learning can have a competitive edge to it but not always It all depends on the situation and people involved and time in one s life Week 2 D9 1 One of the most interesting issues related to learning and cognition is the use of punishment and reward Based on what you have learned so far about punishment and reward do you think that criminal behavior can better be controlled by using punishment or by using reward Why Please post your response to this thread Criminal behavior includes a wide spectrum of possibility It can range from speeding to murder In regards to punishment and reward I feel that each individual with their each unique case will react differently to reward and punishment What I have learned from the text however has taught me that reward and punishment is more complex and has a more in depth meaning and effect than what I once thought Punishment and reward must be used in the appropriate manner and in the appropriate situation in order to change behavior or reaction In regards to criminal behavior I recall what Guthrie believed that punishment works not because it changes the way the individual responds to certain stimuli Punishment is effective only when it results in a new response to the same stimuli Olson amp Hergenhahn 2009 Punishment will fail if the behavior in the situation is incompatible with the punished behavior I feel that punishment may work if one who participates in criminal behavior is arrested and put in prison Being in prison can represent Guthrie s belief in that the punishment will cause behavior that is incompatible with the punished behavior The individual will not be able to continue acting out with criminal behavior under the supervision Another reason punishment may work is that while in prison the punishment will be applied to the presence of the cues that caused the bad behavior such as cell mates or say recreational yard time Reward on the other hand may work if the one conducting the criminal behavior realizes that their bad behavior brings negative consequences and being good brings on positive enforcement I feel that one can t say that punishment and reward works more on criminal behavior because each individual and case are different If an individual doesn t want to end their criminal behavior neither reward nor punishment will change it Reference Olson M H amp Hergenhahn BR 2009 An Introduction to Theories of Learning University of Phoenix Custom Edition e Text Pearson Education Inc Retrieved from University of Phoenix PSY39O Learning and Cognition website Week 2 D9 2 Without a consistent reward behavior usually ceases Given the fact that most slot machine players almost never win why do they still continue to play Is your answer consistent with a Skinner s Views Why or why not One reason an individual would continue to play slot machines is because they are addicted One win can hook a player for life That one time they won big could keep them coming back for more They could have the mind set that they are lucky Skinner believed that if a behavior was reinforced it was apt to be repeated Skinner believed that positive reinforcement was more effective than punishment He also believed that the reinforcement must come swiftly Demand Media 2010 With gambling reinforcement does come swiftly Although one doesn39t t win often they do win and that positive reinforcement may be stronger then the all the negative ones times individual lost Another view on this is that although an individual won t win overall they do win small amounts during play The slot machine will give and take offering negative reinforces and positive ones and like Skinner believes the positive ones have more of an effect When the individual leaves the slot machine they recall the feeling of winning more than the do losing causing them to return and lose more of their money When an individual is addicted to gambling they often put themselves in positions where they have to win in order to pay their bills so they return to the slots Some people get so addicted that their life revolves around slot machines in order to survive This is obviously a hard life because one doesn39t t usually win To me this is an interesting subject that portrays how humans behave differently I don t ever see myself using a slot machine I couldn39t t imagine putting my own hard earned money into a machine and not getting anything in return However I have never had that big positive reinforcer where I won thousands of dollars Reference Demand Media 2010 Essortment Retrieved from httpwwwessortmentcon b f skinner behaviorism 35995html Week 3 D9 1 What does it mean when a behavior is classified as a conditioned response What are some examples of conditioned emotional response that you have observed in yourself or a friend When a behavior is classified as a conditioned response it means that it is a learned behavior It is when an individual behaves a certain way to the same stimuli or situation For example when I brush my son s teeth in the evening he runs to the bedroom because he knows when the toothbrush is presented bedtime is soon after He has learned to behave a certain way in response to his toothbrush I have also observed a conditioned emotion with my previous dog When he heard the back door slide open distinct noise he would run to go use the bathroom There are conditioned emotional responses all around us every day and I feel it is in our nature to create learned behavior Week 3 D9 2 According to Estes how is one learning experience generalized to another Our text explains that Estes viewed learning as the mechanical automatic association of contiguous events Essentially organisms including humans were viewed as machines that could sense record and respond Olson amp Hergenhahn 2009 Estes also included memory in his views on learning The text further explains that In Estes s more recent analysis rather than stimuli leading directly to responses stimuli elicit memories of previous experiences and the interaction of current stimulation with memories of previous experiences produces behavior Olson amp Hergenhahn 2009 One s learning experience is connected throughout their entire lifecycle What one learns not only affects their skill level but what they will learn later in life In other words while one is learning something they are also learnng how to learn better Although memory is an in uential factor the details of a situation must be similar in order to create the same or similar response The text states If no elements are conditioned to A1 at the onset of new learning situations the probability of an A1 response is zero Olson amp Hergenhahn 2009 These explanations display the Characteristics of learning in humans that connects us all Although we all learn differently and have our own perception of situations learning is a mechanic process that is affected by memory and each learning experience Reference Olson Matthew H and Hergenhahn BR 2009 An Introduction to Theories of Learning 8th ed Prentice Hall Pearson Education Inc Week 4 D91 What implications do Piaget s Stages of Development have on education Piaget s theory grew from his interest in Children and how they experienced and understood the world around them He developed his theory on development by observing Children including his own His theory of intellectual development is strongly grounded in the biological sciences He saw cognitive growth as an extension of biological growth and as being governed by the same laws and principles London 1988 In regards to education Piaget believed that educational experiences rely on the student s cognitive structure Piaget s theory has affected education in that it deciphers how leamer s intake information and material Educational material that cannot be assimilated into a child s cognitive structure cannot have any meaning to the Child If on the other hand the material can be completely assimilated no learning will take place Olson amp Hergenhahn 2009 In order for a student to learn the material being used must be somewhat familiar to the learner yet unknown as well Piaget s theory has in uenced education with the terms assimilated and accommodation Olson and Hergenhahn 2009 explain this by stating The part that is known will be assimilated and the part that is unknown will necessitate a slight modification in the Child s cognitive structure Such modification is referred to as accommodation which can be roughly equated with learning Piaget has paved a smooth road for researchers in understanding how humans learn and understand different material References London C 1988 A Piagetian constructivist perspective on curriculum development Reading Improvement 27 82 95 Retrieved on February 23 2011 from httpwwwskcombrsk piagehtml Olson M H amp Hergenhahn BR 2009 An Introduction to Theories of Learning University of Phoenix Custom Edition e Text Pearson Education Inc Retrieved from University of Phoenix PSY390 Learning and Cognition website Week 4 D122 One of the key individuals in the developing of Cognitive Theories is Jean Piaget Based on your readings for Week Four do you agree with Piaget s statement that failure is critical to learning Why or why not Please post your response to this thread The statement failure is critical to learning can be taken in many forms However in regards to this week s reading I must say that I agree The text states according to Piaget failure of previous knowledge to allow for assimilation of an experience causes accommodation or new learning Experiences should be moderately challenging to stimulate cognitive growth Again no such growth will occur if only assimilation occurs Olson amp Hergenhahn 2009 In order for me to understand Piaget s statement of failure is critical to learning I had to fully understand what assimilation and accommodation was and how it related to what Piaget believed Accommodation is when an old schema adapts to a new object or situation For example my infant has a schema of squeezing her hand around her rattle to pick it up However if she tried to do the same schema on a big round teddy bear she would have to adapt or accommodate her schema to using two hands while squeezing them together Assimilation is when on alters their surroundings to adhere to their personal unique mental structures they have already created Piaget s theory on learning relies on failure after understanding these terms to me means that one must fail in previous knowledge to experience assimilation and accommodation thus cognitively growing I feel that learning requires assimilation and accommodation which in turn rely on one failing to use prior information thus creating the process of cognitive intake or learned schemas Another relationship focused around reliance is assimilation and accommodation The constant need to balance the two triggers intellectual growth Olson amp Hergenhahn 2009 Piaget believed that optimal education involves mildly challenging experiences for the learner so that the dual processes or assimilation and accommodation can provide intellectual growth Olson amp Hergenhahn 2009 Reference Olson M H amp Hergenhahn BR 2009 An Introduction to Theories of Learning University of Phoenix Custom Edition e Text Pearson Education Inc Retrieved from University of Phoenix PSY39O Learning and Cognition website WEEK 5 DQ S WERE NOT REQUIRED IN THIS CLASS
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