PSY 390 Learning and Cognition Paper Week 1 Ind. Assign.
PSY 390 Learning and Cognition Paper Week 1 Ind. Assign.
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Date Created: 11/12/15
Learning and Cognition Paper Your Name PSY 390 Learning and Cognition Teacher s Name Date Learning and Cognition Paper 1 Learning and Cognition Paper 2 Learning and Cognition Paper Learning is a practice that one participates in on a daily basis and in different ways However it is an extremely difficult term to define Princeton 2011 defines learning as the cognitive process of acquiring skill or knowledge Although accurate this definition doesn t justify what learning actually is A definition that includes changes in observable behavior is favored instead One of the most popular of these definitions is the one suggested by Gregory A Kimble 19172006 which defines learning as a relatively permanent change in behavioral potentiality that occurs as a result of reinforced practice Olson amp Hergenhahn 2009 Unfortunately although popular this definition isn t accepted universally It is more appropriate to explain learning in relation to behavior rather than define in one sentence The leading characteristic of the term learning is that it is related to changes in behavior The term learning would not exist without behavior it couldn t be recognized How would one exhibit that they could do something they couldn t do before the learning experience if they didn t portray that behavior When behavior changes through learning it is neither transitory nor fixed and this change will not always occur immediately after the learning experience Olson amp Hergenhahn 2009 explains that the change in behavior results from experience or practice The experience or practice must be reinforced that is only those responses that lead to reinforcement will be learned Along with this explanation comes the revised Kimble 1961 definition of learning that is more widely accepted Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior or in behavioral potentiality that results from experience and cannot be attributed to temporary body states such as those induced by illness fatigue or drugs Olson amp Hergenhahn 2009 Learning and Cognition Paper 3 Learning is experienced differently by each individual not only because each individual is different but because there are different types of learning Because there are two kinds of conditioning instrumental and classical many theorists conclude that there are at least two kinds of learning or that learning ultimately can be understood in terms of classical and instrumental conditioning Olson amp Hergenhahn 2009 Classical conditioning includes a stimulus and receives an automatic reaction such as salivating to food Classical conditioning relates to a neutral stimulus that does not cause an unconditioned response such as a mood In other words this type of learning results from learning that certain things go together Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov demonstrated this learning type by using nonfood stimuli such as bells along with the stimuli food using dogs as subjects The dogs learned that when the bell rang they received food thus salivating when they heard the bell This experiment is popular in many fields of study especially psychology Instrumental conditioning includes a much different bondage between the reinforcement and the behavior With instrumental conditioning the organism must act in a certain way before it is reinforced that is reinforcement is contingent on the organism behavior If the animal does not emit the desire behavior it is not reinforced Thus in instrumental conditioning the animal s behavior instrumental in getting it something it wants that is a reinforcer Olson amp Hergenhahn 2009 Another important factor involved with learning is cognition Learning is related to cognition just as it is behavior Princeton University 2011 defines cognition as the psychological result of perception and learning and reasoning An individual wouldn t be able to develop cognitively without learning Cognition greatly relies on learning Learning and Cognition Paper 4 much like learning relies on behavior For example take a five year old in kindergarten adapting to their busy environment and surrounding peers This moment in their education Will shape and enable them to further their education throughout their entire life Their cognitive development during this time is crucial and relies completely on What they learn What they learn at home from their siblings and care givers to What they learn in the classroom It all attributes to their cognitive development and personality This is also When they Will discover their own personal learning style Learning and Cognition Paper 5 References Kimble G A 1961 Hilgard and Marquis conditioning and learning 2nd ed Englewood Cliffs NJ Prentice Hall Olson M H amp Hergenhahn BR 2009 An Introduction to Theories of Learning University of Phoenix Custom Edition e Text Pearson Education Inc Retrieved from University of Phoenix PSY39O Learning and Cognition website Princeton University 2011 Word Net Retrieved from httpWordnetwebprincetoneduperlwebwnslearning
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