Popular in Developmental Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Namrah Raja on Friday November 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 336LEC at University at Buffalo taught by Ostrov, J M in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University at Buffalo.
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Date Created: 11/13/15
Psy 336 Developmental Psychology Fall 2014 Dr Ostrov Review Sheet for Exam 2 30 questions 25 Multiple choice and 5 TH Define the following terms 0 Moro The tendency for babies to swing their arms wide and bring them together again across the middle of their body as if around the body of a caregiver This re ex can be elicited by a loud sound or when the baby suddenly loses support 0 Babinski When foot is stroked from heel to toes toes fan out amp foot twists 0 Tonic Neck On back tends to turn head to one side extend arm and leg on that side ex limbs on other side fencing position 0 Cephalocaudal head to feet development Infants can raise their head before they can stand up The cephalocaudal head to feet development is apparent 0 Equilibration A self regulatory process that produces increasingly effective adaptations 0 Recall Memory Active retrieval of information from memory 0 Cued Recall Memory in which a familiar stimulus triggers recall of stored information 0 Recognition Memory A type of memory in which a particular stimulus is perceived as familiar 0 Explicit Memory which is conscious involves mental representations of images or ideas amp can be explicitly stated or declared 0 Implicit Memory Memory which is unconscious involves memory for procedures or skills amp does not lend itself to explicit statement 0 Infantile Amnesia Inability to recall events that occurred very early in life 0 Deferred Imitation A delay occurs between seeing an act amp imitating it Provides evidence of infants long term memory infants must represent the novel sequence of events store it and retrieve that memory when asked to produce the sequence subsequently 0 Receptive Language Children s understanding of language Wemicke s Area of brain Precedes their ability to produce 0 Expressive Language Children s ability to produce language Broca s Area of brain 0 Child Directed Speech Simple repetitive sentences simple vocab spoken in attention getting ways High pitched voice loud and uses exaggerated intonations to direct amp maintain attention 0 Stranger Distress Negative reactions of infants to strangers 0 Emotion Regulation Babies develop more exible skills for coping with emotionally arousing situations 0 Social Smile Week 6 12 Recognition and visual stimulation leads to grin active smile and cooing reciprocitv First social smile o By 10 weeks of age the infant uses the smile for instrumental purposes to get something or to reinforce for a behavior that is appealing 0 Babies are more likely to smile to their mother when the mother is attentive to the child smile is responsive to the social context 0 Promotes close ties and social connection with caregivers adaptive 0 Development of Emotions Birth 1 E 3 11 5 SHEIIFIIEEE iEEILIEt Jug in HEW EWWWEE Ehymaas Intemst 0 Four Cries 0 Basic Cry Rhythmic pattern of crying with brief silence short inhalation whistle and brief silence o Anger Cry Excess air forced through vocal cord gives more breathy cry 0 Pain Cry Sudden and loud onset and duration breath holding o Hunger Cry Similar to basic cry tends to be rhythmic and kicking in same rhythm as cry Types of Attachment 0 Anxious Avoidant A Infant readily separates from caregiver and avoids contact after brief separation 0 Secure B Infant is confident of caregiver s availability and responsiveness and can use caregiver as a secure base for exploration Most 60 70 of infants show this 0 Anxious Resistant C Infant separates from the caregiver reluctantly but shows ambivalence towards caregiver after a separation Due to inconsistent care 0 Disorganized Disoriented D Infant shows contradictory features of several patterns of anxious attachment or appears dazed and disoriented 3 of the population show this Was introduced by Mary Main Hallmarks of Attachment 0 Separation distress Negative reactions of infants when the caregiver temporarily leaves 0 Greeting reactions Positive reactions of infants when the caregiver appears 0 Securebase behavior Behavior in which the infant uses the caregiver as a base for exploration AAI AAI Adult Attachment Interview A way to map infant attachment measures to adult attachment measures 0 Autonomy secure 0 Attachment is dynamic Can go from Insecure to secure over time I Lawful Discontinuity o Preoccupied o Dismissing avoidant Sensitive Period Hypothesis early experiences The idea that certain kinds of experience are especially important at particular points in development Dual representation to mentally represent a single entity in 2 different ways 0 Shrinking room experiment Judy Deloche o 2 year old has difficulty using model Child asked to locate Snoopy only by being given a model of the room and being shown where snoopy was I 2 year olds failed I Only able to find when told that the room was shrunken Egocentric thought tendency for children to lack empathy due to lack of development False Beliefs Task task which demonstrates toddlers lack of theory of mind Told a story about a boy who had a candy bar and left the room His mom entered the room and moved the candy bar Children asked to guess where the bar was moved to Many children responded as if they were unable to comprehend the mother s POV FalseUnexpected Contents Task Children asked to guess the contents of a box Further demonstrated lack of theory of mind 0 3 year olds when asked if a girl who didn t know what was in the box would think was in the box they d assume they knew there was only paperclips despite never being shown 0 4 year olds would identify that they weren t shown what was in the box and say that they would think that there was candy in the box Theory of Mind Understanding the mental world of others 0 Ability to recognize that our thoughts are different from others We have perspective taking abilities Autobiographical Memory Significant events with discussion and scaffolding 0 Scripts Concepts that people form about routines involved in everyday interactions and events helps sustain episodic memory 0 Awareness of self promotes cognitive development Executive Competence The child39s feeling he or she is an autonomous force in the world able to in uence the outcome of events Compliance 0 Situational compliance Children39s unwilling compliance with parents directives due to fear or parents control of the situation Child fearfulness o Committed compliance Children eagerly carry out parental directives and clear they want to comply Secure hx Social Referencing Use of cues from another person to interpret situations and guide behavior Gender Stability the idea that gender stays constant over time Occurs around ages 3 4 Gender Consistency by 5 6 children understand gender consistency gender does not change even with changes in appearances or activities Emotion Contagion The concept that emotions can be contagious to those encountering them indirectly The result of emotional contagion is empathy sympathy 0 One cries they all cry 0 They cry because they don t know they are not hurt EmpathySymp athy o Empathy Emotional state that matches another person39s emotional state feeling bad b39c someone else fees bad 0 Sympathy Feeling sorry or concerned for other people b39c of their emotional states or conditions Prosocial Behavior SharingHelpingRelational Inclusion Inductive Reasoning Reasoning in which the premises seek to supply strong evidence for not absolute proof of the truth of the conclusion Used in Authoritative Parenting Parenting Styles 4 types 0 Permissive Parents make few demands of their children and are accepting and tolerant of their children39s impulses and desires o Authoritative Parents encourage verbal give and take and share with their children the reasons behind discipline and rules 0 Authoritarian Parents try to shape control and judge the behaviors and attitudes of their children to rigid standards of conduct 0 Uninvolved Parents make few demands are unresponsive and rejecting RESPONSIVENESS WARMTH FOR THE PURPOSES OF THE EXAM Best type of parenting is Authoritative supports committed compliance and uses inductive reasoning 0 Temperament Biologically based does not necessarily mean that they are genetically fixed or that experience has no role source of individual differences in behavioral functioning that tends to be stable over time I Helpful Puppet could be eVidence of early discrimination of helping those that help others prosocial behaVior
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