Sociology exam 2 study guide
Sociology exam 2 study guide 1500-23210
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by ysu34 on Wednesday March 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1500-23210 at Youngstown State University taught by Denise A. Narcisse, Ph.D. in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at Youngstown State University.
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Date Created: 03/30/16
SOC 15002320 and 23205 Introduction to Sociology Spring semester 2016, Professor: Dr. Narcisse Exam 2 Study Guide GENERAL INFORMATION 1. Your Exam 2 is next Wednesday, March 23, 2016, during our regular classroom session 2. The exam includes 35 multiplechoice questions. Some of these questions are application questions 3. You will need a #2 pencil and your Banner ID # in order to complete your answer sheet. THE SPECIFICS From lecture and/or your textbook on Sociological Research Methods, know 1. The strengths of the survey research method ● Surveys are relatively cheap and fairly easy to administer 2. Limitations of the survey research method ● We cannot go in depth info on a topic ● The response rate for mailed surveys is low 3. Why conducting research is necessary ● To know more about a topic 4. The first four steps in conducting research 1. Sociological interest 2. Your access to subjects 3. Appropriate methods 4. Ethical consideration 5. Limitations of experiments ● experimental conditions may not match real life situations ● consistently results from an experiment may not tell us much about people's behavior under normal everyday conditions ● Sometimes there's not a one to one match to an experiment and everyday life 6. Limitations of the participant observation research method ● Usually can only study small groups/communities ● Research may not take place if the researcher doesn't know how to get close to people so that the researcher can study them ● May be greater risk for the researcher to lose his/her neutral or objective perspective using this method ● This is true if the researcher closely identifies with the people being studied 7. The name of the book that summarizes findings from Barbara Ehrenreich’s study of low waged women workers ● Catch 22 8. The research method that Barbara Ehrenreich used in her study of lowwaged women workers ● Participation Observation Research Method ● “Damned if you do, damned if you don't.” ● Observing what you participate in 9. The type of data that researchers use when conducting secondary analysis ● Secondary Analysis Research Method ● Involves examining data someone else collected, and sometimes for another purpose 10. Whether or not all universities that receive federal funding must have an Institutional Review Board (IRB) ● Any institution that engages in federally funded research involving human subjects must have an IRB ● Purpose of the IRB is to ensure that appropriate steps are being taken to protect the rights and welfare of humans participating in research studies. The objective is to make sure you are protecting your human subjects and if you don't you're technically not allowed to conduct research From lecture and/or you textbook on Culture, know 1. What a negative sanction is, well enough to identify one ● Negative sanction is a reaction that expresses disapproval for breaking the norm Example: facing people in elevator instead straight ahead, riding toys at toys r us, going up escalator opposite way, speeding ticket 2. What a positive sanction is, well enough to identify one ● Positive sanction is a reaction that expresses approval for following a norm Examples: hand gestures like a high five, thumbs up, a trophy, prize money, pay raise 3. Cultural differences in norms, as presented in class ● Folkways ● Mores ● Taboos ● Showing soles of feet, standing other way in elevator, walking opposite way on sidewalk 4. What gestures are, well enough to identify some ● Gestures are the ways that we communicate without words but with using our body ● Middle finger, peace sign, eye roll, smile, frown 5. How to rank the norms more, folkway, and taboo, going from that for which you receive the most punishment if you break it to that for which you receive the least punishment if you break it ● Folkways are norms that are not strictly enforced Examples of folkways include: Burping at dinner table, Putting elbows on dinner table ● Mores are norms that carry moderate to severe punishment if broken Examples: stealing car, rape, arson ● Taboo are norms that carry the most severe penalty if broken Examples of taboos in the US: Multiple or serial killings, Incest, Cannibalism 6. Examples of folkways ● Burping at dinner table, Putting elbows on dinner table 7. What cultural lag is, well enough to identify an example of it ● Cultural lag occurs when developments in parts of the society do not keep up with technological innovations 8. The definition of counterculture ● smaller culture that is at serious odds with mainstream culture 9. Examples of dress, language, and equipment that would identify physicians as a subculture, as discussed in class ● Subculture represents a smaller culture within a larger dominant culture the values, norms, language, clothing, and activity of a subculture set it apart from the dominant culture ● TcH2Oqd (Take two tablets with water everyday) ● Example: Physician's, things that set a physician apart from others include white lab coat, certain language (TcH20qd), and stethoscope. 10. What cultural wars are, well enough to identify an example of one ● Cultural wars refer to clashes in cultural values between groups ● Example: when groups clash over same sex marriage , one group values heterosexual relations and opposes same sex relationships , another group supports same sex marriage; believing it should be valued as much as heterosexual marriage 11. The definition of cultural relativism ● Cultural relativism judging a culture on its own terms, without concluding that is is good or bad ○ Some cultures people use utensils to eat and others use their hands 12. Core values in America, as presented in class ● Core values in mainstream America have included ○ Achievements and success ○ Individualism ○ Material Comfort e.g. nice homes and late model cars ○ Freedom, the ability to act and think as one chooses without restraint (not everyone has the ability to talk about government) ○ Democracy majority rule and the right for everyone to express an opinion and representative government ○ Equality having the same or equivalent privileges, status, rights, and opportunities 13. What ethnocentrism is, well enough to identify an example of it ● Ethnocentrism refers to a tendency to view your culture as good, proper, and even superior the idea that your culture is at the center of everything ● Ethno means group, centrism means center of the universe ● Ethnocentrism says my group is the center of everything/universe, if your group doesn't do what my group does there's something wrong with your group ● Can lead to discrimination From the film “Merchants of Cool,” know 1. Who cool hunters were ● People who track down the latest cool trends in teen life. 2. Whether or not the film revealed that the media only sells to youth culture ● Media tries to sell things to youth culture, the film justifies it 3. The number of advertisements that the film said teenagers watch each day ● 3,000 4. The top media giants that market products to youth, according to the film ● AolTime Warner ● Viacom, owns MTV ● Universal Vivendi ● Disney ● News Corp. From lecture and/or your textbook on Socialization, know 1. Characteristics of feral children ● Feral children are kids that have been lost or abandoned in the wild, they have had little if any human contact so they display more animal like traits than human traits ● Monkeys, wolves, and bears are reported to have reared some feral children ● There have been 100 confirmed cases of feral children, Romanian is where feral children have been found most recently ● Feral children are undersocialized 2. What Skeels and Dyke concluded from their study of kids in orphanages in the 1930s ● suggest that the development of human intelligence depends on kids early social interaction 3. The percentage of kids in the “test group” in the Skeels and Dyke study who went on to college ● 40% 4. The definition of “taking the role of the other” ● Put yourself in someone else's shoes to understand how someone else feels ● Anticipating how that person would react 5. The person who invented the concept of “the looking glass self” ● Charles Horton Cooley 6. What the critical learning period for learning a first language is ● Humans must acquire a first language before age 13 if they are going to speak more than a few words 7. What George Mead called “significant others” ● Parents, brothers, and sisters ● George Herbert Mead agree with Cooley that people self concept is based upon their concept with other people 8. The definition of socialization ● Socialization refers to process by which people learn the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behavior thought appropriate for people within their culture
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