Hypothesis Testing Paper - Autisim
Hypothesis Testing Paper - Autisim
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Date Created: 11/13/15
Running head HYPOTHESIS TESTING ASPERGER SYNDROME Hypothesis Testing Autisim Asperger Syndrome Psy 3 15 Katherine Sainz HYPOTHESIS TESTING ASPERGER SYNDROME 2 Abstract Hypothesis testing is most essential when one is seeking answers to an important question such as a reason for a medical condition The hypothesis testing through statistics says that boys between the ages of two and six within families who show signs of Autism are more likely to show symptoms of Asperger syndrome compared to girls are who fall under the same parameters of the boys tested The statistical data fell within the margin of error type 1 error and after calculating all the data the null hypothesis rejection is based upon the z score which says the alternate hypothesis has been accepted Hypothesis Testing Asperger Syndrome HYPOTHESIS TESTING ASPERGER SYNDROME 3 When performing a hypothesis test one is trying statistically to answer a question The question is are boys between the ages of two to six within a family who show signs of Autism more disposed to asperger syndrome compared to girls are who fall between the same parameters After the question creating a hypothesis occurs One may ask why create a hypothesis or what is the value of testing a hypothesis These questions and others such as what is Autism and Asperger syndrome and how does one develop a verbal and numerical hypothesis to discover the statistics to answer the hypotheses As one is discovering the answers to these questions he or she will understand the five steps involved in a hypothesis test So the journey to discovering these answers begins with what is Autism What is Autism To understand Autism one needs to understand that the title Autism pertains to a group of developmental disorders known as Pervasive Development Disorders PDD Some brain disorders that fall under this category are Rett Syndrome Childhood Disintegrative Disorder and Asperger s Syndrome According to Mayo Clinic 2011 Autism is one in a set of developmental problems under the umbrella of autism spectrum disorders ASD This disorder shows at an early age which is prior to age three Despite that symptoms and severity differ each autism disorder hinders the child39s capability of communicating and interacting with others Furthermore according to Mayo Clinic 2011 genes seem to be involved with the disorder so a hypothesis are developed using children from families who showed signs of Autism HYPOTHESIS TESTING ASPERGER SYNDROME 4 What is Aspergers Syndrome One can say that Asperger s syndrome belongs to the family of Autism However according to WebMD 2011 children with autism do not typically function as well as children with asperger s At first glance one may think that asperger diagnosed children appear normally developed but if one looked closer one would notice the differences The differences are in the severity of the symptoms which are trouble with verbal and nonverbal abilities social skills and behavioral problems However aspergerdiagnosed children appear to have a more normal intelligence and language ability compared to those with autism In addition verbal communication seems to come without much difficulty to those diagnosed with asperger than those with autism Furthermore according to American Psychiatric Association 1994 children with both asperser s and autism share similar characteristics such as restrictions in interacting socially or developing interests in activities However those with aspergers may show rituals such as order of dressing with refusal to change difficulty in eye contact or facial expressions and body gestures along with an obsession in just a few areas of interest On the plus side children with aspergers are extremely talented in areas such as math and music Knowing the signs and symptoms of autism and aspergers will aid in identify the children with these symptoms during the hypothesis testing Hypotheses With the information given one develops a hypothesis to test his or her hypotheses or question According to Aron A and Aron E N 2009 a research hypothesis proclamation in hypothesis testing pertains to the foretelling relationship between populations which often entails prediction of a difference between population means The questionhypotheses is are boys HYPOTHESIS TESTING ASPERGER SYNDROME 5 between the ages of two to six whom live within a family who shows signs of autism more disposed to asperger s syndrome than girls are under the same parameters that the boys are under It is at this time that the verbal hypothesis is developed using as a guide the five steps in hypothesis testing The Five Steps in Hypothesis Testing for Evaluating Solutions When a researcher is interested in estimating who is more disposed to Asperger syndrome among boys and girls between the ages 26 within families who show signs of autism the researcher would place the problem in the form of a hypothesesquestion and develop an alternate and a null hypothesis An example of an Alternate Hypothesis may be a large number of boys between the ages 26 in the United States have AS compared to girls between the ages 2 6 within families who show signs of autism The Null Hypothesis says there would be no difference in the number of boys and girls with AS At this point according to Attwood 2000 a random but representative sample of 30 families that show signs of AS or ASD in their family history with no more than one boy and one girl within the ages of 26 can be in the family would take part in the research To begin the researchers would determine the characteristics of the comparison distribution which would define the population included in the test method and significance level The significance level is typically between zero and one The test may involve a mean proportion difference between means or proportions zscore tscore chisquare or other significant measures In this case researchers would test the parents in the 30 families for signs of ASD and test the children for AS through imagine testing genetic testing along with having each child observed by three specialists for two hours a day twice a week for 30 days HYPOTHESIS TESTING ASPERGER SYNDROME 6 Observations shall be verbal interaction with each child childtochild verbal interaction along with observing playtime Symptoms to note are abnormal eye contact aloofness unresponsive when child s name is called child fails to use gestures when pointing and lack of interactiveinterest play in peers Through probability or comparison researchers would compare the number of boys with AS and the number of girls with AS in the sample to determine the significance level of the probability A test statistic is now computed and is based on the number of boys in the study with AS and the number of girls in the study with AS This statistic is compared with the comparison distribution chosen mean proportion difference zscore tscore and chisquare and a statistical evaluation is calculated from the sample data and the comparison distribution to determine the acceptance or rejection of the nullalternate hypothesis The researcher would decide at this point whether to reject or accept the null hypothesis If the probability is less than the significance level chosen the researchers will reject the null hypothesis Verbal Hypothesis A verbal hypothesis allows one to express his or her educated guess pertaining to the hypothesis and the numerical hypothesis allows one to put in place the parameters to collect data and evaluate outcomes 1 Hypotheses are males aged 26 more disposed to aspergers syndrome compared to females aged 26 within families with signs of Autism Spectrum Disorder ASD 2 Alternate hypothesis males aged 26 are more disposed to aspergers compared to females aged 26 within families with signs of ASD Null hypothesis males aged HYPOTHESIS TESTING ASPERGER SYNDROME 7 26 are not more disposed to aspergers compared to females within families with signs of ASD 3 PopulationCharacteristics 30 families with signs of ASD with only one male and one female within the family aged 26 will be tested 4 Testing test the parents for signs of ASD test the children for aspergers through imagining genetics along with each child under observation by three specialists for two hours a day twice a week for 30 days Observations shall be verbal interaction with children and adults along with observing playtime Symptoms to note abnormal eye contact aloofness unresponsive to name child fails to gesture when pointing and lack of interest with peers 5 Results at least 633 of the males need to show symptoms of AS and only 366 of the females can display signs of AS to accept the alternate hypothesis and reject the null hypothesis Margin of error is 05 As one can view the verbal hypothesis states the nullalternate hypothesis along with population characteristics and level of significance which will be transformed into a numerical hypothesis Numerical Hypothesis The numerical hypothesis transforms the verbal hypothesis into data that will measure data put into numerical form the pvalue with significance and the guidelines to accept or reject the null hypothesis 1 Ho u 30 and Ha u at 30 Alternate hypothesis males aged 26 are more disposed to aspergers compared to females aged 26 within families with signs of HYPOTHESIS TESTING ASPERGER SYNDROME 8 ASD Ha mu1gtmu2 ASD prevalence mean of group 1 males aged 26gt ASD prevalence mean group 2 females aged 26 Null hypothesis males aged 26 are not more disposed to aspergers compared to females aged 26 within families with signs of ASD Ho mu1mu2 no significant difference between the groups 2 Significance level set at 005 the sum of both tails Meaning half the rejection region will be at one end of the tail and the other half at the other tail end of distribution 3 Critical value and rejection regions The critical value of z at 005 twotailed is 196 if zlt 196 or zgt 196 the null hypothesis will be rejected 4 Calculate the test statistics first calculate the sample mean of 30 which is 155 and the standard deviation is 880 To get the zscore subtract the mean 155 from the raw score of 19 to get deviation 35 which is divide by the standard deviation of 880 which puts the zscore at 251 and the pvalue level at 00121 5 Results after the test was completed 19 males out of 30 males aged 26 showed signs of AS compared to 11 females out of 30 showing signs of AS The calculation zscore of 251 fell within the margin of error and the plevel of 00121 is less than the significant level the null hypothesis is rejected The plevel by conventional standards is statistically significant to reject the null As one can view the hypothesis were completed and the test performed The results statistically reveal that males aged 26 are more disposed to AS compared to females within the same parameters so now researchers are able to determine how to battle this disorder with more understanding HYPOTHESIS TESTING ASPERGER SYNDROME Reference American Psychiatric Association 1994 Asperger s Syndrome The Harvard Medical School Family Health Guide Retrieved May 12 20011 from httpWWWhea1thharvardedufhgupdatesupdate0305ashtm1 Aron A Aron E N amp Coups E 2009 Statistics for psychology 5th ed Upper Saddle River NJ PearsonPrentice Ha11Retrieved May 13 2011 from httpsecampusphoeniXeduc1assroomicclassroomast Attwood T 2000 Asperger syndrome Some common questions Do girls have a di erent expression of the syndrome Retrieved May 07 2011 from httDWWWautismorgukaboutautismautism andasDergersvndromean introductionautism whydomoreboysthan girlsdevelopitaspx Mayo Clinic 2011 Autism Definition By Mayo Clinic Sta Retrieved May 13 2011 from httpWWWmayoc1iniccomhealthautismD800348 WebMd 2011 Asperger s Syndrome Autism Spectrum Disorders Health Center Retrieved May 12 2011 from httpWWWWebmdcombrainautismmentalhealthaspergers syndrome HYPOTHESIS TESTING ASPERGER SYNDROME 10
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