PSY 405 Week 4 Individual Assignment Personality Analysis
PSY 405 Week 4 Individual Assignment Personality Analysis
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Date Created: 11/13/15
Running head: PERSONALITY ANALYSIS 1 Personality Analysis Name PSY/405 Instructor PERSONALITY ANALYSIS 2 Personality Analysis Disposition refers to a tendency or habit adapted by individuals depicting an added inclination towards various dimensions of life. Natural and are inborn causes have been attributed to being the critical predisposing factors for disposition hence rarely affected by environmental factors. The ability for an individual to alter his or her stored knowledge through the means of acquisition and expansion requires the process of learning. Learning encompasses some many different areas and so many types. There are three types of learning, visual, auditory and kinetic. You can get more knowledge by reading a book, performing an experiment or listening to speech. Learning can also be associated with a person's emotions, their individual thought processes and their learning environments. According to research a genetic component is absent from those individuals presenting with situational behavior, depicting flexible personalities. The environment plays an important role in the behavior of situational individuals. Making a sound assessment between personality and situational behavior is difficult. Interpersonal relations aspects portrayed by the theories are dependent on the personality presented exclusively by the individual (Feist & Feist, 2009). For example the behavior of children can be considered situational. A child may be well mannered, polite and obedient in the presence of his or her parents. However, in the presence of the babysitter the child may become unruly and act out. The main change in the environment is the babysitter verses the parents. The same goes for other individuals in society. Think about the last time you were driving down the road and you noticed a speeding motorist. Then you suddenly notice the same motorist has slowed down in front of you. Then you notice the police car that is two cars ahead of the speeding motorist. In this situation bad PERSONALITY ANALYSIS 3 behavior is shifted to good behavior in the presence of an authority figure. Situational and behavioral changes like this one are very common. One more example involves family members which we can all relate to. During family outings with distance relatives or inlaws the family may seem perfectly happy and excited to be there. After the families have separated there may be talk about how terrible the event was and how they wish they didn't have to see those relatives again for a long time. Learning is not simply a process it's also a theory. The learning theory simply focuses on the way that people learn. We've already addressed the three types of learning but human beings are more complex than those three areas. Two such theories that warrant examination are classical conditioning and operant theories. Classical conditioning was discovered by Ivan Pavlov (18491936), it is a reflexive or automatic type of learning that involves a stimulus with the ability to cause a response that was caused by another stimulus originally. The most popular example of this type of learning came from his experiment with dogs. He noticed that dogs salivate in the presence of food. He wanted to know what would happen if a bell was rung before the introduction of the food (Learningtheories.com). During the experiment he noticed that the dogs would salivate from the ringing of the bell in expectation of getting food. The dogs would even salivate when no food was ever given (Learningtheories.com). Humans experience classical conditioning through our everyday lives. Think about it, how many times have you gotten up early on a Saturday or Sunday and couldn't go back to sleep because during the week you always get up early for work. Your body has been conditioned to get up early in the morning no matter what day it is. It also stands to reason that you would wake up in the morning without an alarm clock, once again because your body has PERSONALITY ANALYSIS 4 learned to get up at a certain time. You can also linked classical conditioning to habits that we have acquired over the years. The next type of learning is different from classical conditioning, it's called operant conditioning. Operant conditioning focuses on the cause and effect, you don't learn anything until you actually do something. This method is most often associated with punishment when children disobey their parents. In psychological terms this is known as reinforcement and it fits into two categories positive and negative. Positive reinforcement means the form of disciple is being given to the child such as a slap on the hand for touching something hot. The goal is not to harm the child but for the child to associate pain with the action and know not to do it again. Negative reinforcement involves taking something away from the child. This could be taking away the child's Xbox for one month or taking away the teenagers car keys for a week. The same concept works on adults (Feist & Feist, 2009). Think about the laws in America, when any of those laws are broken what happens you end up going to jail. Think of it this way, the police don't walk around and arrest people simply because they want to or because you look like you should be in jail. There must be an action – breaking the law, that causes a reaction – being arrested by the police. Also, the level of punishment is also determined by the type of crime that you committed. Jaywalkers are not sentenced to life in prison without parole. Murderer’s are not given a heavy fine and a few days in jail followed by release back into society (Feist & Feist, 2009). As touched on before people's personalities are important when examining depositional and learning theories. In the learning category individuals must be observational and motivated. PERSONALITY ANALYSIS 5 In the process of learning the individual must first pay attention to what is being taught. This most often requires, asking questions, taking notes, interacting in discussion, doing the homework, etc. This is an active process that requires the learner to do something (Fesit & Feist, 2009). The more information that you observe the more you'll be able to learn and apply later in life. The individual must also be motivated to learn. This is the catalyst that will keep the individual coming to class on time, completing the assignments and not giving up when things get harder. Without this component individuals may never learn at all. It's interesting to note that in the area of dispositions some of the same concepts apply. The situation dictates how the individual will behave that day, so the individual is aware of his or her surrounds and then choses the type of behavior that is displayed. Choses is a tentative word especially for those individuals that have some type of disorder. Think for a moment about individuals that suffer from OCD, these individuals are aware of their actions but are not able to control them. The most common reaction is hand washing in the presence of germs. The situation and environment are not important the individual will continue this action or until he or she feels clean again. Learning and actions can also be influenced by the types of people that we spend time with. Look at Bandura's social learning theory, basically he is saying that people behave like and learn from the people they spend the most time with (Feist & Feist, 2009). This theory would prove to be true because our first encounter at learning comes from our parents. Then we move on to our siblings if we have any, then to peer groups and societies expectations. It's like being a mirror. The influence of a situation or an environment could be lessened or heightened depending on the people that we interact with. The situation could be making a speech, the PERSONALITY ANALYSIS 6 person up next is nervous because he doesn't like public speaking. His friends are there with him giving him encouragement and pointers on how to make the speak effectively without passing out. The outcome, a few mistakes, the speech was completed and the guy didn't pass out. If his friends had been negative the outcome would have been much worse. The type of learning that you engage in has many factors to be considered. The environment in which you live and operate is a factor. So are the people that are in the environment. We can learn involuntarily through actions that we do everyday or we can learn by making the wrong choices and then suffering the consequences for our actions. We can also learn by observing and mimicking our peers and friends. Remember how we learn is as important as what we learn, the process itself is a teaching tool to help us improve. PERSONALITY ANALYSIS 7 References Feist, J., & Feist, G. (2009). Theories of personality (7th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill. Learningtheories.com. (N/A). Index of Learning Theories and Models. Retrieved from http://www.learningtheories.com/ PERSONALITY ANALYSIS 8
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