PSY 405 Week 4 Learning Team Assignment Dispositional Personality Theories Matrix
PSY 405 Week 4 Learning Team Assignment Dispositional Personality Theories Matrix
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Date Created: 11/13/15
Running head DISPOSITIONAL PERSONALITY THEORIES Dispositional Personality Theories Team PSY 405 Instructor DISPOSITIONAL PERSONALITY THEORIES 2 Dispositional Personality Theories Why does one person respond in a different manner than another in the same exact situation or scenario The answer is rooted in the individual The word individual describes a person Who is distinct from others in a group Merriam Webster Dictionary 2011 What differentiates us as individuals are our physical attributes traits characteristics motivations drives and experiences all of Which are explained through different dispositional theories Allport s Psychology of the Individual theory believes each person is unique and to understand an individual it is important to understand the Whole person physiologically and psychologically as he or she grows and changes throughout life The Trait and Factor theory assumes that personality can be measured by using a combination of testing observation and opinions of individuals Feist amp Feist 2009 Psychology of the Individual theory and the Trait and Factor theory each in uence the study of individual personalities With strengths and limitations through their evaluation of the individual and his or her interpersonal relationships Dispositional Theories Affect on Individual Personalities Gordon Allport played a vital role in the development of personality theories His psychology of the individual theory re ects his belief that each individual s personality is unique According to his theory one s personality is made up of personal dispositions these dispositions interact and thus create that individuals personality Allport identified specific levels of dispositions that outline the level at Which the personality is affected The cardinal dispositions are those characteristics that are most important and affect one s personality greatly Some examples include being narcissistic and chauvinistic Allport notes that not all individuals have a cardinal disposition The next level is comprised of central dispositions these include the DISPOSITIONAL PERSONALITY THEORIES 3 characteristics that would be recognized by a close friend or family member and include things like being outgoing or shy Lastly there are secondary traits and whereas these characteristics do not necessarily have a large impact on one s personality they still can affect one s behavior Feist amp Feist 2009 Allport also studied the connection of one s personality and behavior to that of one s motivation He introduced a concept known as functional autonomy This concept suggests that individuals are not motivated by underlying reasons but by motives which are independent from where the motive originated Feist amp Feist 2009 This concept allowed Allport to stamp his name on psychology and specifically the study of personality All the concepts presented by Allport demonstrate the effects of one s personal dispositions on his or her own unique personality In addition to Allport several other theorists played an important role in the development of personality theories Those individuals include Hans Eysenck Raymond Cattell Robert McCrae and Paul Costa The trait and factor theories presented by these individuals offered added insight into how one s personality traits can in uence his or her individual personality Dispositional theories affect individual personalities in two ways One personality is consistent it is consistent across situations and consistent over time Two Individuals are different if one is true the difference between two individuals lies in the circumstances that elicit a response In factoring an individual s personality for example I am an honest person a person would assume I am honest when faced with certain situations and a person would assume if I am honest at this time then I would be honest years from now People can change and a particular personality trait can manifest itself in different types of behavior Kowalski amp Western 2005 p 443 DISPOSITIONAL PERSONALITY THEORIES 4 Meaning that some individual s personality is consistent with the situation and some are not Eysenk39s biological model of personality shows an individual who monitors his behavior is high then he will not be consistent in situations because he is trying to adapt to each situation If an individual who monitors his behavior is low then he will be consistent in situations because he does not try to adapt Beauducel and colleagues supported Eysenk39s theory about the biological basis of personality traits In uenced by genes temperament is a basic personality disposition An aspect of temperament is inhibition Studies show that personality is consistent over time documented by psychologists show consistency from early childhood to early adulthood on different traits Kowalski amp Western 2005 For example confronting a child of four months with an unfamiliar stimulus the child shows a distinct crying pattern and behavior Two years later the child still shows response of fear when faced with a different stimulus such as a new room Even in later years afraid of camp or being alone McCrae and Costa s characteristic adaptations state that basic tendencies are consistent over time but characteristic adaptations are not consistent over time For example modification through psychotherapy may be difficult to change an individual s traits but is strong enough to change an individual s characteristic responses Dispositional Theories In uence on Interpersonal Relationships In the individual theory Allport believed that there are four characteristics of a healthy person an extension of the sense of self warm relationships with others emotional security and selfacceptance and a realistic view of the world The Glaring Facts 2010 para 6 Once a person has gotten a clear sense of him or herself warm relationships come with the new DISPOSITIONAL PERSONALITY THEORIES 5 confidence and with those relationships come emotional security and selfacceptance along with a realistic world view Having those characteristics allows a person to develop successfully individually which lead to successful interpersonal relationships The downside to this theory is that without knowing themselves a person cannot attain warm relationships with others which leads to lack of emotional security and selfacceptance as well as an unrealistic word view This lack of promising behavior results in the person to not develop them self as a whole which can definitely hinder the person from developing interpersonal relationships Since the trait and factor theory rely on testing to measure personality information can be obtained to locate the areas that a person could use help in improvement on or even continued therapy to correct This knowledge helps the therapist to help the patient develop successfully interpersonally because once the patient corrects them self he or she can then develop successful interpersonal relationships However the problem with tests is sometimes they missjudge or even miss material altogether So while an individual may score high on assessments of a specific trait he or she may not always behave that way in every situation Cherry 2011 para 13 Also traits are often poor predictors of behavior and do not show why or how a person develops individual personality traits Cherry 2011 Conclusion Dispositional theories impact the individual through the understanding of the personality and its in uence on interpersonal relationships Allport s Psychology of the Individual theory and the Trait and Factor theory each approach the individual with the intent to aid the individual through a greater understanding of self Each theory has a different approach with the same intent Though there are many common traits that make up personality Allport believes each DISPOSITIONAL PERSONALITY THEORIES 6 individual has a unique combination intensity and interaction between them so that every person has a completely individualized personality Motivation is a key element in awareness and understanding why people do what they do while having a conscious reason for their actions These motives do not remain the same because life does not stand still and people are constantly changing growing and learning with each new situation and experience in life This seeking to understand feeds into Allport s theory the ideal of a healthy mind is someone who keeps in touch with his or her own conscious thoughts and feelings and stays aware of his or her motives and choices Where as Allport s theory is about understanding the inner self it has no tangible testing parameters but with the trait and factor theory personality can be measured by combining results from standardized tests utilizing observations and judgments of those around an individual Those results can be applied to an individual in many ways such as emotional wellbeing as well as physical wellbeing Feist amp Feist 2009 The fivefactor model of trait and factor theory is used in counseling through clinical psychology schools health psychology and psychiatry in dealing with adjustment and emotions McCrae amp Costa 1991 The NEO Personality Inventory is used in helping counselors to determine clients specific needs The NEOPI measures one s strengths weaknesses and normal personality traits and therefore is suitable for shortterm counseling Feist amp Feist 2009 No individual is the same and not one of these theories encompasses all the answers but in understanding the strengths and limitations of these dispositional theories a more complete picture can be envisioned interpreted and developed allowing the individual to strive for excellence through self awareness learning change and growth Assumptions Reliability Validity Application Allport s Everyone is different and Though the scope of The validity of this theory The practical applications are cannot be explained in the theory is narrow is relatively difficult to mostly seen in its prompting of Psycmlogy Of general terms Personality what is covered is determine The insights professionals to view people as has to be understood on an expressed clearly and make sense and have individuals and encouraging them the IndIVIdual 1nd1v1dual casebycase comprehens1vely It generated a good deal of not to treat people on a group Theory basis puts an enlightened research but science is basis It reminds psychologists and No one theory can accurately perspective on unable to prove undeniably teachers that broadreaching describe all aspects of personality theory either that his theories are solutions do not work and that personality but each can that is rare for accurate or false Feist amp students and clients need to be contribute to understanding psychological theory Feist 2009 dealt with uniquely as each person as long as the limitations of The theory leaves and situation merits Feist amp Feist each are recognized gaping holes in 2009 Personality is formed by both aspects of personality physiological and and motivation but psychological factors and admits to these holes constantly grows and and advises changes throughout life individuals to look Though there are many for the answers in common traits that make up other theories that are personality each individual better equipped to has a different combination provide answers The intensity and interaction exacting language between them so that every lends extreme person has a completely consistency to the unique personality theory that makes it Motivation is more often highly reliable in the than not a conscious claims that it actually phenomenon where people makes Feist amp Feist are aware of why they do 2009 what they do and have a conscious reason for their actions These motives are also not static things They change over time as people grow and learn and with the situations The ideal of a healthy mind is someone who keeps in touch with his own conscious thoughts and feelings and stays aware of his motives and choices Feist amp Feist 2009 Trait and Factor Theory The trait and factor theory Although different dispositional theorists disagree on exactly how many traits one possesses most researchers believe one has five dominant traits and they continue to emerge from factor analytic techniques mathematical procedures capable of sifting personality traits from mountains of test data Feist amp Feist 2009 p 401 Eysenck s theory connects biological and psychometric components which must have a biological existence to be useful which prompted The reliability of trait and factor theory shows promising results for the most part When utilizing EPP scales internal consistencies are similar while only the expressive and dogmatic are problematic Practical which is low within the Eyesenck study has a high reliability Costa amp McCrae 1995 Although the EFF scales seem to be reliable in measuring To determine if trait and factor theory is valid is a challenge as there has previously been little evidence in determining validity and no established markers of the intended constructs were included in the study and no correlates of the factors were reported Costa amp McCrae 1995 p 2 The best validity evidence to support trait and factor theory includes using results from a new scale and combining those with previous similar validated constructs which has been Through using the trait and factor theory personality can be measured by combining results from standardized tests utilizing observations and judgments of those around an individual Those results can be applied to an individual in many ways such as emotional well being as well as physical well being Feist amp Feist 2009 The five factor model of trait and factor theory is used in counseling through clinical psychology schools health psychology and psychiatry in dealing with adjustment and emotions McCrae amp Costa 1991 The NEO Personality Inventory is used in helping counselors to his creation of criteria used to identify a factor Feist amp Feist 2009 First psychometric evidence for the factor s eXistence must be established second the factor must also possess heritability and must fit an established genetic model third the factor must make sense from a theoretical view and fourth it must possess social relevance Feist amp Feist 2009 p 408The traits established are then used to determine psychoticism P extraversion E and neuroticism N Feist amp Feist 2009 The task of systematic assessment is thus greatly simplified To be maximally effective counselors should measure traits from each of the five factors to have a comprehensive understanding of the individual McCrae amp Costa 1991 p 1 What they are intended to measure there is also the notation that they may not be grouped properly according to higher order factors Costa amp McCrae 1995 successful in predicting psychological well being as well as vocational interests Costa amp McCrae 1995 Therefore In general the correlations provide strong support for the convergent and discriminant validity of the EFF scales Costa amp McCrae 1995 p 5 determine clients specific needs The NEO PI measures one s strengths weaknesses and normal personality traits and therefore is suitable for short term counseling Although the NEO PI has many benefits in therapy it cannot be mistaken as an instrument for specialized care McCrae amp Costa 1991 References Cherry K 2011 Trait Theory of Personality Retrieved from httppsychologyaboutcomodtheoriesofpersonalityatraittheoryhtm Costa Jr P T amp McCrae R R 1995 Primary traits of Eysenck39s PEN system Threeand fivefactor solutions Journal of Personality amp Social Psychology 692 308317 Retrieved from EBSCOhost Feist J amp Feist G J 2009 Theories of personality 7th ed New York NY McGraW Hill Kowalski R amp Western D 2005 Psychology 4thed Hoboken NJ Wiley McCrae R R amp Costa P T 1991 The NEO personality inventory Using the fivefactor model in counseling Journal of Counseling amp Development 694 367372 Retrieved from EBSCOhost MerriamWebster Dictionary 2011 Retrieved from httpWWWmerriam webstercorndictionaryindividual The Glaring Facts 2010 Psychology of the Individual Retrieved from httpWWWtheglaringfactscom201007psychologyof theindividual
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