BIOL 1040 | Exam 3 Study Guide
BIOL 1040 | Exam 3 Study Guide BIOL 1040
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Stewart on Wednesday March 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1040 at Clemson University taught by Dr. William Surver in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see General Biology II in Biology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 03/30/16
BIOL 1040 | Exam 3 Study Guide Chapter 42: The Immune System Fight off pathogens with: • Barriers • Nonspecific internal defenses • Specific immune response Innate Immunity: a series of defenses that act immediately upon infection • Invertebrates rely solely on this – what does it consist of? • Vertebrates use both innate and adaptive immunity – what does it consist of? • What is inflammatory response? Lymphatic System: a branching network of lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and circulating lymph – what do each of these components do? • What is this system’s 2 main functions? Adaptive immunity: a set of defenses found only in vertebrates that is only activated after exposure to certain pathogens – how does it differ from innate? • MHC markers – self vs. non-self • Antigens: any outside substance that elicits an adaptive immune response; can be viruses, bacteria, dust, etc. – anything foreign • Lymphocytes: white blood cells responsible for adaptive immunity, originate from stem cells in the bone marrow o Lymphocytes can be either B or T cells o How are they different and how are they the same? • What is clonal selection and how does it function? Must know process. • Primary immunity vs. secondary immunity Antibodies: Y-shaped, two amino acids joined by disulfate bonds; there is a constant region and a variable region • Promote antigen elimination through o Neutralization o Agglutination o Precipitation o Activation of complement system Cell-mediated immunity: an adaptive response produced by T-cells, responds to pathogens that have already entered into the body cells • Use 3 kinds of T cells – what are they? What do they each do? • How does cell-mediated immunity function? Must know process. • What is special about cytotoxic T cells? How do they interact with infected cells? Chapter 43: Reproduction and Embryonic Development Modes of Reproduction: • Asexual reproduction – what characterizes it? • Can occur via o Budding o Fission o Fragmentation o Parthenogenesis – what is special about this process? • Sexual reproduction – what characterizes it? • Two types: o External fertilization o Internal fertilization Human Reproduction: Both species must have a set of gonads, ducts for gamete transport, and structures for copulation • Male reproduction – must know structure o How is semen produced? What glands contribute to it? o What hormones regulate sperm production and how do they function? • Female reproduction – must know structure o Meant to carry a pregnancy o What hormones regulate this system and what do they do? o How is the corpus luteum formed and what does it do? o Embryonic stage vs. fetal development stage • MUST KNOW how the menstrual cycle functions
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