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Midterm 2 Study Guide

by: Kira Gavalakis

Midterm 2 Study Guide HIST 225 0021

Kira Gavalakis
GPA 3.4

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About this Document

Midterm Study Guide
U.S. History
Richard Meixsel
Study Guide
HIST225, history, American History, U.S. History, US History, General Education, midterm, Study Guide
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kira Gavalakis on Wednesday March 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 225 0021 at James Madison University taught by Richard Meixsel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 124 views. For similar materials see U.S. History in History at James Madison University.


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Date Created: 03/30/16
Midterm 2 Study Guide    MANIFEST DESTINY AND THE WAR WITH MEXICO  ● General Winfield Scott  ○ Famous for success in second half of War of 1812  ○ Took war to the south  ● Battle of Monterey  ○ General Taylor went into Mexico and defeated its armies  ● Battle of Buena Vista  ○ Mexicans attacked Taylor’s army but Taylor defeated the president  ● Battle of Veracruz  ○ Same place where Cortez landed with conquistadores  ○ Defeating Mexican armies, capturing Mexico city, leading to Mexican government  to finally negotiate with Americans to end the war  ● Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo  ○ Gave US northern third of Mexico (California, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada and  Utah)  ○ Paid $15 million    COMPROMISES OVER SLAVERY AND BACKGROUND TO THE CIVIL WAR  ● Massachusetts  ○ Extending slavery  ○ Strengthening slave power  ○ Obtaining control of the free states  ● Election of 1844  ○ James Polk vs. Henry Clay  ○ New York was the determining factor of this very close election  ■ Liberty Party (Birney) got 16,000 and without him it would have given Clay  the victory  ○ If Clay won…  ■ There wouldn’t be the Mexican­American War  ■ Economic diversification  ■ Whig party wouldn’t have disappeared and Republican party wouldn’t  have emerged  ■ Wouldn’t have been a Civil War  ● James Polk  ○ Ran for 1844 presidential election  ○ Expansionist; Manifest Destiny  ○ Wanted to take Texas and all land all the way to the coast  ○ Texas becomes a state­­ Mexico stops relations with America  ○ Offered Mexico $30 million for Texas and all land all the way to the coast and  Mexico denies which starts the war  ○ Difference of opinion where Texas’s border should be  ● 3/5th Clause  ○ Slaves count as of a vote  ● Importation Clause  ○ Tax on imported slaves  ● Fugitive “Laborer” Clause  ○ Slaves can’t escape one state to be free in another  ● Missouri Compromise of 1820  ○ 1819­ Congress to admit Missouri as a state of the Union  ○ Needed a certain amount of people larger than the population of the smallest  populated state (Delaware)  ○ If northerners allow Missouri as a slave state, then southerners will allow Main to  be a free state  ○ 36:30 line: slavery not allowed north of the line  ○ Slavery growing stronger  ● James Tallmadge  ○ Member of House of Representatives  ○ Says no slaves can live in Missouri but cotton gins are in need of slave labor  ● Cotton Gin  ○ Created by Eli Whitney  ○ Removes seeds from cotton  ○ Allowed cotton to be profitable inland (as it was harder than on the coast)  ○ Cotton production grew  ● The Wilmot Proviso  ○ Introduced during the war with Mexico  ○ No land acquired as a result of the war with Mexico could allow slavery  ○ Did not pass  ■ Northerners voted for it, southerners voted against it  ● California  ○ Wanted to be a free state so they wouldn’t have to compete with the slave  system  ● The Compromise of 1850  ○ John C. Calhoun, Democratic Senator of SC: “The North has used its political  power to enrich itself at the expense of the south.”  ○ North was growing more than the south  ○ South would have to choose between abolition or secession  ○ Equilibrium between north and south  ● William Seward  ○ Whig Senator of NY  ○ If the Constitution is twisted and distorted to give sanction to slavery, then  southerners should know that, “there is a higher law than the Constitution.”  ● Daniel Webster  ○ Whig Senator  ○ “I speak today for the preservation of the union. Hear me for my cause.”  ○ Didn’t win New England because he tried to find a middle ground about slavery  and New England was very against it  ● Stephen Douglas  ○ Railroad going through center of country (what about unsettled territory?)  ○ Created Kansas­Nebraska Act  ● Kansas­Nebraska Act  ○ Created by Stephen Douglas  ○ Ended the Missouri Compromise (That is, there could be no slavery in territories  north of latitude 36’30’, the southern boundary of Missouri)  ○ Popular sovereignty­­ settlers could decide whether to be slave or free state  ○ The result…? Killed the Whig Party (can tolerate slavery in the south, but they  don’t want to expand  ● “Dough Face” Presidents  ○ Means these presidents allow others to lead them  ○ Fillmore  ○ Pierce  ○ Buchanan  ● Roger Taney  ○ Chief Justice of the Supreme Court (during presidency of Jackson)  ○ Told to withdraw money from the US National Bank  ○ Dred­Scott Case­­ doesn’t deserve citizenship  ○ Fifth Amendment­ you should not have to get rid of your process until due  process of the law (can’t be committed for a crime unless you have been indicted  properly by the police)  ● The Free Soil Movement  ○ Extension of slavery in the west  ○ But they took jobs that whites could have in the west  ○ Aristocratic southerners had control over the north because they had slaves  ● Abolitionist Movements  ○ Early Movement­ gradual approach, compensation for slave owners, “race  problem” solved by “colonizing” schemes  ○ New Movement­ immediate emancipation without compensation, supported legal  equality for black Americans    THE CIVIL WAR:  ● 1860 Election  ● General Winfield Scott  ○ Created the Anaconda Plan­ use northern resources...  ○ Famous War General during War of 1812, War with Mexico, beginning of Civil  War  ● Anaconda Plan  ○ Developed by Winfield Scott  ○ Squeeze south into submission (block southern ports), convert industry to make  war materials, raise army  ● General Mcclellan  ○ First commander of the North  ● Shiloh  ○ As many Americans killed in each side in two days than they have in Afghanistan  ● Gettysburg (1863)  ○ Lee’s second invasion on the north  ○ More than ⅓ of confederate army killed, wounded or missing  ○ Lee NEVER goes north again  ○ War has been waged for just over two years at this point; it has nearly two more  years to go  ○ MIDDLE POINT OF WAR  ● Atlanta  ○ Captured by General Sherman­­ ensured Lincoln’s reelection in 1864  ○ Marches on to Savannah  ● General Sherman  ○ Marched through Georgia and burnt it down  ○ Captured Atlanta  ● General Ulysses S. Grant  ○ Fifth Northern war general  ○ Fought in the west  ○ Won battle of Shiloh, captured Vicksburg, drove Confederate from Chattanooga  (TN)  ○ Commanded all northern armies, takes charge with plan to end the war  ○ Was defeated, but went back again, kept fighting  ○ Ran for president but northerners wanted someone who could compromise  ● Antietam (1862)  ○ General Lee’s first invasion on the north (Maryland)  ○ MANY casualties  ○ failed  ● King Cotton Diplomacy  ○ Wanted a foreign recognition  ○ Drag out war­­ Jefferson Davis  ● Jefferson Davis  ○ President of Confederacy  ○ Wanted to drag out the war, avoid battle unless favorable circumstances,  graduated from West Point, former Secretary of War, fought in Mexican War at  Buena Vista  ○ Army should stay on defense, but also defend all its territory  ○ Lots of military experience  ● Draft Riots  ● Robert E. Lee  ○ Offered command of the Union armies by General Scott, but went south instead  ○ Army must strike at the north when opportunity presents themselves  ○ Only in charge of VA armies  ○ South should determine major battle locations, take war into North    RECONSTRUCTION  ● Emancipation Proclamation (1863)  ○ Only freed slaves in southern hands  ○ Slavery would collapse anyway  ○ Involuntary servitude­ guys have to register for draft at 18, have to go away,  didn’t mean military service  ● Abraham Lincoln  ○ 10% plan­ southern state can be re­admitted to the union if at least 10% swore  an oath of allegiance to the Union  ● Thaddeus Stevens  ○ Radical Republican of PA  ○ “If we leave ex­slaves to the legislation of their late masters, we had better left  them in bondage.”  ● Civil Rights Act (1865)  ● 13th Amendment  ○ Abolished slavery  ● 14th Amendment  ○ States can’t deny any male the right to vote, any person born or naturalized in the  US is a citizen  ● 15th Amendment  ○ Denial of voting rights based on race, color  ● President Lyndon B. Johnson  ○ Was impeached by Congress  ○ Didn’t support Republican ideals, said he should stand trial, on trial with Senate,  they didn’t convict him  ○ Put him out of the way  ● Carpetbaggers  ○ Northerner who moved to the south during Reconstruction  ○ Southerners believed they would loot them  ● 1876 Election  ○ Democrat: Samuel Tilden, owned NY Public Library, people were sick of  corruption  ○ Republican: Hayes  ○ Were voting irregularities, blacks forced to vote Democratic, told they couldn’t  vote  ○ Hayes barely won electoral, worked out the Compromise of 1877  ● Compromise of 1877  ○ Worked out by Hayes in return for his election  ○ Democrats would receive a cabinet seat, federal aid to southern governments  (support for levees on the Mississippi land for a southern transcontinental RR),  wouldn’t give federal jobs in south to republicans, an end to “Bayonet Rule” (take  out soldiers, now all south is democratic)  ● Black disenfranchisement  ○ 1882­­ federal laws that punish crimes such as murder and assault  ○ 1896­ Supreme Court upholds “separate but equal” doctrine in Plessy vs.  Ferguson  ○ 1898­ Supreme Court upholds state literacy laws to vote    INDUSTRIALIZATION AND THE INDUSTRIAL WORKFORCE  ● Andrew Carnegie  ○ Richest man during Industrial Era  ○ Strict rules in the steel plant, encouraged competition, dehumanized workers  ○ Carnegie Steel­ acquired sources for coal, iron ore → steamship sleet and rails to  carry raw materials to steel plant  ○ “From the moment these crude stuffs were dug out of the earth until they flowed  in a stream of liquid steel in the ladles, there was never a price, profit or royalty  paid to an outsidernside History of the Carnegie Steel Company  ● Industrialization  ○ Substitution of machine power for human and animal power and the breakdown  of production into a series of specialized and routine tasks  ● Vertical Integration  ○ Purchase or grow raw materials → transport materials to factory → fabricate  these into goods → retail products to customers  ● United Fruit Company (1899)  ○ Advertising began through this  ○ Used vertical integration  ● Horizontal Integration  ○ More firms produce the same good, supply will exceed demand and prices will  drop below production costs, so...  ○ Cutthroat competition, the Cartel or the Trade Association, the Trust  ● John D. Rockefeller  ○ Pioneered the “Horizontally Integrated” firm  ○ Formed Standard Oil Company (1867), National Refiners Association  ● Triangle Fire  ○ Killed 150 women and girls  ● William Graham Sumner  ○ Government action interfered with evolution­­ they shouldn’t get involved  ○ What Social Classes Owe to Each Other­NOTHING!  ■ Popular in Europe  ■ Socialist: Public ownership of the means of production  ■ Industrialization caused wealth… but in the upper class who kept it for  themselves­ socialism means distributing wealth  ● Labor Unions  ○ Promised immediate results  ○ Terence Powderly and the “Knights of Labor”  ○ Unite all working men and women  ○ The wage system­­ Finnerty’s document as a brass worker  ○ American Federation of Labor  ○ Emphasized organizing more skilled labor  ○ Not many people were part of unions­­ too many problems  THE POPULIST MOVEMENT  ● The Populist Movement  ○ Movement of the agrarian farmer  ○ ½ of the workforce worked in agriculture  ○ Agricultural workers moving towards the west in the 1870s and 1880s and using  the Railroads to transport their goods demanded by the East and International  markets  ● Forgotten Presidents  ○ Rutherford B. Hayes  ○ James Garfield  ○ Chester Arthur  ○ Grover Cleveland  ○ Benjamin Harrison  ● Rutherford B. Hayes  ○ Elected 1876  ○ Didn’t win on popular vote  ○ He can be president  ● James Garfield  ○ assassinated  ● Chester Arthur  ○ Kidney disease and died  ● * Grover Cleveland  ○ Elected 1884  ○ Different than others: Democrat, Divided term in office (elected once and then  again)  ● Populist party  ○ Nationalization of RRs  ○ Land and natural resources protected from monopoly  ○ Graduated income tax  ○ Popular election of senators, initiative, referendum  ○ Sub­treasury scheme  ○ Free coinage of silver  ○ 8­hour day for industrial workers  PROGRESSIVISM  ● Theodore Roosevelt  ○ Loved attention, born NYC from wealthy businessman  ○ Harvard grad, lived in west before moving east, wrote 10 books, joined Rough  Riders and war hero  ○ Assistant Secretary of the Navy under McKinley and president after McKinley got  assassinated  ○ Powerful executive in office, knew big business could corrupt but also bring  greater efficiency, good and bad trusts  ○ Progressive values, caution in early years  ● William Howard Taft  ○ Secretary of War to Teddy Roosevelt  ○ From Ohio, wanted to be lawyer (eventually Chief of Justice), gets sent over to  Philippines to be first governor under America to govern Philippines  ○ More of a progressive than TR  ○ Not as successful at projecting a “progressive” image  ○ Caught between “insurgents” and “old guard” of the GOP  ● Hepburn Act 1906  ○ Improved regulation of RRs because they were seen as corrupting  ● Meat Inspection Act 1906  ○ Upton Sinclair​he Jungle​ays meat needs inspection  ● Food and Drug Act 1906  ○ Can’t sell misbranded or poisonous food  ● Election of 1916  ○ Progressivism  ○ Roosevelt­­ The New Nationalism  ○ Bull­Moose Party/Progressives  ○ Wilson (Democrat) vs. Hughes (Republican)  ○ 1917­­ US declares war on Germany  ○ Wilson wasn’t paying attention on what was going on in Europe  ○ WWI­­ two great wars “Total War”  ○ Wilson re­elected  ● The New Deal  ○ War Finance Corporation → Reconstruction Finance Corp., War Industries Board  → National Recovery Administration, War Labor Policies Board → National Labor  Relations Act  ● The Enrollment Act  ○ Draft riots in response  ○ Inspired volunteerism  ○ Being registered doesn’t mean he has to go­­ up to the army to decide who goes  ● 19th Amendment  ○ Women get the right to vote  ● Jeannette Rankin  ○ 1916­­ Elected to Congress  ○ 1917­­ voted against war, voted out of office…  ○ 1940­­ Elected to Congress  ○ 1941­­ voted against war, voted out of office... 


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