PSY 360 FINAL_Team C_Motion Paper
PSY 360 FINAL_Team C_Motion Paper
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Date Created: 11/13/15
Analysis of Emotions 1 Running head: ANALYSIS OF EMOTIONS AS A MOTIVE Analysis of Emotions as a Motive Students Name’s University of Phoenix Introduction “Some emotions don't make a lot of noise. It's hard to hear pride. Caring is real faint like a heartbeat. And pure love why, some days it's so quiet, you don't even know it's there” (Thinkexist.com, n.d.). In trying to explain emotions it can be difficult to put into words the characteristics of what leads to certain emotional responses. In the analysis of the function of emotions as motives, Team C will describe historical theories of emotion and arousal as they relate to human motivation. Included will be a summary of research methods used for uncovering basic emotions. Lastly, the facial feedback hypothesis will be discussed, particularly the eventappraisalemotion sequence. Historical Theories of Emotion and Arousal Emotions can bring motivation and cause an individual to take action (Deckers, 2010). Arousal refers to the mobilization or activation of energy that occurs in preparation or during actual behavior (Deckers, 2010). There are different categories of arousal. They are physiological arousal, brain arousal, and psychological arousal. Being physiologically aroused refers to the bodily changes that take place while corresponding to our feelings. For example: someone that gets the cold sweats and a pounding heart when they sing in front of a group of people is experiencing physiological arousal. The autonomic nervous system controls physiological arousal and is divided into two branches: the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system (Deckers, 2010). The activations that take place in the brain such as sleeping and becoming awake are called brain arousal (Deckers, 2010). Different areas of the brain are aroused depending on what operations are being performed at the time (Deckers, 2010). Psychological arousal is an anticipation that one will feel such as energetic arousal and tense arousal. Energetic arousal is the level of energy a person may feel under any situation. For example someone preparing to go to on a trip to Paris may find they have more energy as they prepare because of the excitement. Tense arousal can be on a level of being extremely calm to being extremely tense and anxious. An example of high end tense arousal would be having an unannounced performance review at work. JamesLange Theory According to the JamesLange Theory the interpretation of the interaction between arousal and affective experience shows that each emotional feeling accompanied by a unique pattern of physiological responses associated with it (Deckers, 2010). This theory proposes that a pattern can produce the same response. This can result in an individual’s behavior being affected depending on his or her level of arousal. This shows that events can cause a high level of arousal, such as fear or happiness. According to the JamesLang Theory, if physiological response patterns are similar, then there would be no basis for feeling different emotional experiences (Deckers, 2010). The Cognitive Arousal Theory In the Cognitive Arousal Theory the quality of an emotional experience depends on the evaluation and subsequent meaning given to the emotioninducing event (Deckers, 2010). The intensity of the emotional experience an individual has depends on the degree of physiological arousal (Deckers, 2010). An individual that is singing in front of a group of people for the first time may experience such physiological arousal that his or her voice begins quivering, they may forget the words and not be able to continue with the song. This shows that a high level of arousal can impact performance. Someone that has experience singing in front of a group of people may feel comfortable and sing the notes with ease. Each person experiences different levels of arousal and can respond to the same environment differently. Research Methods of Emotion Uncovering basic emotion can be done by understanding what emotions are exactly. Emotions are what a person feels within a certain situation such as; a person receiving a gift will feel happy or a person loses another person will feel sadness. When a person thinks of emotions immediately the words; happy, sad, angry, scared, surprised, fear, love, and disgust will come to mind. Though it has been found there are different degrees to each emotional category. A person can be happy, ecstatic, or simply light hearted. Such degrees were found through category analysis. Category Analysis Category analysis takes the words most commonly used with emotion and looks at their meaning and how to classify them (Enos, 2001). No matter where a person was from and what cultural background; they all organized the words of emotions fairly similar. Further studies showed that people saw emotions as either positive or negative experiences. Enos (2001) stated "Positive emotions exhibit contrary tendencies toward activity and passivity, excitement and calm. Negative emotions exhibit competing tendencies toward attack and suffering..." Understandably when a person was handed cards that had glad, cheerful, mad and hate they used what they knew of the words and placed the glad and cheerful cards under happy category being that they are positive feelings. The cards with mad and hate would be placed under angry due to the negative feeling of those words. Evolution Theory Another method to understanding basic emotions was the Evolution Theory. The Evolution Theory states that a species survival was dependant on emotions. (Deckers, 2005) The evolution theory shows that how a species emotion causes a behavior to happen in order to allow them to survive. One such case is that "...a predator evokes fear, which in turn leads to escape by running away." stated Decker. Another example would be for an abandoned offspring such as a wildebeest. A calf alone would not survive but if another female lost her own calf she in turn would take on the mother role of the abandoned offspring. Under the Evolution Theory the emotions and the basics of survival for a species work together such as happiness results reproduction, love results incorporation, surprise equals orientation, sadness equals reintegration, fear is fear, anger equals destruction, disgusted ends in rejection, and exploration. If a species lacked fear then predators would have it easy, or if it lacks reproduction then it could become extinct. Human emotions not only allow us to know how others feel but it is essential to our own survival. Facial Feedback and Eventappraisal Facial Feedback Hypothesis or known as FFH shows that the actions on people’s faces are a sensation of emotions. When walking down the street a person smiles, have an idea that he or she is happy and if he or she has a frown others people think that he or she is upset or sad about something. This will in return feedback in to the emotion itself. Bertrand Russell and Stanley Schachter explain, as the selfattribution theory that emotion is, “a joint function of autonomic arousal and cognitive attributions or ‘labels’ for that arousal” (Buck, 1980, p. 812). Schachter thought to believe that there were two objects that made up emotions physiological arousal and cognitive label. Our mental awareness comes from the body’s physical arousal and emotions are coming from here. EventAppraisalEmotion Sequence is the way he or she looks at emotions and the event that could have started them. I am thinking that this would be like going to a movie and it makes the person beside me sad in which he or she is crying but on the other side he or she are just fine and nothing bothered him or her. This is the same event but different emotions but we could go in to a different even and could see the same thing. Every event that happens in a person’s life will have an effect differently on another person. He or she can find a stimulus for every event and our emotions help him or her come out. Sometimes we know about the emotion like a death in the family or the boyfriend or girlfriend does not want to be with the person now. Our faces can tell another person so much when he or she looks at our face. My son will start crying if I look at him with a certain face because he knows that he has done something wrong and is about to be in trouble for his actions. My little girl has figured out what face I make that will find herself in trouble. Facial expression can tell others that they are eithe happy, sad, and even if he or she are mad by the frown, and sometimes even a red face. But there are times that we cannot look at a person’s face and tell he or she is upset or happy for he or she could be hiding it. I can hide my feelings and people never know that I am upset inside but outside says differently. To me facial expressions are like the old phrase “cannot judge a book by its cover” but instead “cannot judge a person’s emotions by their face.” Conclusion As the exploration of the function of emotions is made it can be difficult to understand human experience and how it relates to human motivation. Especially as emotions impact behavior and affect daily lives. In this essay Team C discussed historical theories of emotion and arousal as they relate to human motivation. The methods of research used for uncovering basic emotions were analyzed. The facial feedback hypothesis was discussed along with what facial expressions say about emotions, personality, or motives. In conclusion, as the knowledge of emotions and motives are applied to each individual’s professional and personal lives, an understanding of human motivation becomes relevant as one realizes the role of the function of emotions on motivation and behavior. References Buck, R. (1980). Nonverbal behavior and the theory of emotion. The facial feedback hypothesis. Deckers, L. (2005). Motivation: Biological, psychological, and environmental (2nd ed.). Boston: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon. Enos, M. (2001). Defining emotion with measures of intensity and range of experience. Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Chicago, United States Illinois. Retrieved Date __, 20__, from Dissertations & Theses: Full Text.(Publication No. AAT 3019914). (n.d.). thinkexist.com. Emotion Quotes. Retrieved Date __, 20__, from http://thinkexist.com/quotation/but_some_emotions_dont_make_a_lot_of_noiseit s/7199.html.
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