PSY 360 Wk 5_Individual_Assignment_Language Paper
PSY 360 Wk 5_Individual_Assignment_Language Paper
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Date Created: 11/13/15
Language Paper 1 Running head: LANGUAGE PAPER Language Paper Student’s Name PSY360 Date __, 20__ Language Paper 2 Language Paper In this paper, the writer will examine language as it relates to cognition. The examination will include defining language and lexicon along with evaluating the key features of language. The writer will describe the four levels of language structure and processing. In addition, the role of language processing in cognitive psychology will be analyzed. Language The Merriam Webster dictionary defines language as “the words, their pronunciation, and the methods of combining them used and understood by a community” (para. 1). The first key feature of language is communication. Languages make it possible for people to communicate. The second key feature of language is that the relationship between the elements in the language and their meaning is arbitrary. There is no special reason why one word has the meaning that it does. Arbitrariness is a key characteristic of symbols. A sound may stand for a meaning, but which sound stands for which meaning is arbitrary (Willingham, 2007). The third key feature of language is structure, which means that the pattern of symbols is balanced. There is quite a difference in saying, “The boy ran from the angry dog” or “The dog ran from the angry boy.” The fourth key feature of language is that it is generative. Words can be put together in an unlimited number of meanings. The fifth and last key feature of language is that it is dynamic. Language is not motionless and is constantly changing as new words are added, and as the rules of grammar change. Some languages die out whereas other languages are being created (Willingham, 2007). Language Paper 3 Lexicon A lexicon is like a mental dictionary that a person has, which stores images of all the words the person knows. The lexicon stores the pronunciation, spelling, and part of speech for each word but not the meaning. “Most researchers believe that people recognize words through a matching process in which a spoken word is compared with a lexicon” (Willingham, 2007, p. 453). When a string of phonemes are pronounced whereas someone is speaking, the phoneme string is compared with the pronunciations of the words in the lexicon. If the phoneme string matches an entry, the word has been identified, and the cognitive system has access to the other properties of the word, including the spelling, part of speech, and meaning (Willingham, 2007). Four Levels of Language There are four levels of language, which are: phonemes, words, sentences, and texts. Each level has special rules governing what is acceptable at that level and what is not. Phonemes are individual sounds, which are combined to form words. Following will then combine to form sentences, and lastly will then assimilate and form texts. Phonemes are basically the individual speech sounds of the letters of the alphabet. Some letters have two different sounds such as the letter “a” being pronounced differently in the words baby and back. There are approximately 46 phonemes in English but there are about 200 in use worldwide. There is the potential differentiation of phonemes such as if two closely related sounds are to be considered different phonemes. An example of this would be noticed with the letter “p” in words such as pool and Language Paper 4 spool. If people hold their hand close to their mouth as each word is said, they can feel a puff of air when pool is said but not when spool is said (Willingham, 2007). The 46 English phonemes are combined in various ways to produce all of the approximately 600,000 words in the English language. Rules dictate how the phonemes can be combined, and where they can appear in a word. For stop consonants such as p, b, and d, sound is created as air is stopped in the vocal tract. In English, words may begin with one stop consonant but not two. Word order is very important when it comes to the construction of grammatical sentences and it is the order of phonemes that plays an important role in the proper construction of words. If people were to randomly arrange words, they will have difficulty forming a sentence (Willingham, 2007). Text refers to a group of related sentences forming a paragraph. Connections are significant for the good construction of a text. One connection is that the sentences are about the same thing and the other connection is that the sentences have reasonable connections. The second sentence is reasonably connected to the first sentence because it continues the idea. Temporal ordering alone is not enough to make good text. When people are reading or hearing a story, they build a representation of the story that spans more than a sentence. That representation is a text and is possible, or even likely, that one’s culture affects how texts are constructed (Willingham, 2007). Roles of Language Processing The view of phonemes is hard because there is so much inconsistency in how they are produced, both across different speakers because of accents and even by the same speaker. Other factors such as the phoneme restoration effect help listeners make sense of this because the Language Paper 5 surrounding words help disambiguate phonemes that are pronounced messily. Another factor that helps listeners is vision. When listening to a person whose speech is difficult to understand, the person watches the other person’s mouth carefully as he or she talks (Willingham, 2007). It is not enough to simply understand words as they may have different meanings in different orders in sentences. There are different types of sentences such as a garden path sentence where one’s cognitive system builds a phrase structure but it becomes clear later that something is wrong with the phrase structure that was built. The cognitive system is led down a path by a pattern of words that indicates one structure but actually requires another structure. Another type of sentence involves the principle of minimal attachment in which the word order and key words in a sentence are not enough to go on. The parser adds new words and phrases to an existing node instead of creating a new node (Willingham, 2007). Two key aspects of text comprehension are making inferences about texts and seeking coherence within texts. People make an effort to ensure that texts are logical and make sense. There are three levels of representation in text processing which are a surface code, a textbase, and a situation model. The surface code represents the exact wording and syntax of the sentences. The textbase represents the ideas of the text in a format called propositions, but it does not save the exact wording and syntax. The situation model refers to still deeper knowledge, relating to a combination of the information provided by the text and prior information (Willingham, 2007). Conclusion In this paper, the writer examined language as it relates to cognition. The examination included defining language and lexicon along with evaluating the key features of language which Language Paper 6 are communication, arbitrary, structure, generative, and dynamic. The writer described the four levels of language structure and processing which are phonemes, words, sentences, and texts. In addition, the role of language processing in cognitive psychology was analyzed. References Merriam Webster. (2010). Language. Retrieved Date __, 20__, from http://www.merriam webster.com/netdict/language Willingham, D. T. (2007). Cognition: The Thinking Animal (3rd ed.). Published by Pearson Prentice Hall: Pearson Education, Inc. GRADED RUBRIC FOR THE EVALUATION OF WRITTEN ASSIGNMENTS CRITERIA NEEDS IMPROVEMENT SATISFACTORY EXCEPTIONAL Minimum Points Medium Points Maximum Points CONTENT The writer does not demonstrate The writer demonstrates limited The writer demonstrates an understanding of (50%) cursory understanding of subject understanding of the subject matter inthe subject matter by clearly stating the You demonstrated matter, and the purpose of the paperthat theories are not well connected toobjective of the paper and links theories to that you had a is not stated. The objective, a practical experience or appropriate practical experience. The paper includes general therefore, is not addressed and examples, though the attempt to relevant material that is correctly referenced, supporting materials are not research the topic is evident, anand this material fulfills the objective of the understanding of correctly referenced. materials are correctly referencepaper. the objectives of the required assignment by clearly stating the objective of the paper and links theories to practical experience. Language Paper 7 ORGANIZATION Paragraphs do not focus around a Topics/content could be organized in The writer focuses on ideas and concepts central point, and concepts are a more logical manner. Transitions within paragraphs, and sentences are well (20%) Your paper had a disjointedly introduced or poorly from one idea to the next are often connected and meaningful. Each topic defended (i.e., stream of disconnected and uneven. logically follows the objective. The good introduction consciousness). introduction clearly states the objective or and conclusion that ideas’ leading to the purpose of the paper, and supported the a conclusion draws the ideas together. objectives. FORMAT The paper does not conform to APAThe paper does not conform The paper is correctly formatted to APA style (10%) style. completely to APA style (e.g., (e.g., margins, spacing pagination, headings, Good job! margins, spacing, pagination, headers, citations, references, according to the headings, headers, citations, APA Manual). references, according to the APA Manual). SPELLING, The writer demonstrates limited The writer occasionally uses The writer demonstrates correct usage of understanding of formal written awkward sentence construction or formal English language in sentence GRAMMAR, & PUNCTUATION language use; writing is colloquial overuses and/or inappropriately uses construction. Variation in sentence structure (10%) (i.e., conforms to spoken complex sentence structure. and word usage promotes readability. There language). Grammar and Problems with word usage (e.g., are no spelling, punctuation, or word usage Good job with the punctuation are consistently evidence of incorrect use of errors. spelling, grammar, incorrect. Spelling errors are Thesaurus) and punctuation persist, and punctuation. numerous. often causing difficulties with grammar. In the future, make sure to double check your work for consistency. The writer struggles with limited Some words, transitional phrases, andThe reading audience is correctly identified, CLARITY & STYLE (10 %) vocabulary and has difficulty conjunctions are overused. Ideas demonstrated by appropriate language usage conveying meaning such that only may be overstated, and sentences (i.e., avoiding jargon and simplifying You did a nice job the broadest, most general messageswith limited contribution to the complex concepts appropriately). Writing is writing to the are presented. subject are included. concise, in active voice, and avoids awkward intended audience. transitions and overuse of conjunctions. I would caution you to review your work thoroughly before submitting. STUDENT’S NAME: L. R.S. GRADE 15 out of 15 ASSIGNMENT: Language Paper Dametrius Byno, Ph. D., GCDF Faculty University of Phoenix Language Paper 8
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