PSY 375 Life Span Perspective Paper
PSY 375 Life Span Perspective Paper
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Date Created: 11/13/15
Running Head: LIFE SPAN PERSPECTIVE PAPER | 1 *Please be sure to use this tutorial as a guide only. Do not plagiarize and do not resell as your own work. If you have any questions or problems with the tutorial please get a hold of me before leaving any negative feedback and I will resolve the issue. If you have trouble opening or viewing the files please contact me and I will fix the problem as soon as I can. Sometimes instructors change the syllabus so if the material does not match your syllabus please let me know. If I do not respond right away please be patient, I do have a full-time job and I try to check my messages once a day. Thanks and good luck!!! :-) Life Span Perspective Paper Name PSY 375 January 10, 2011 Instructor P a g e | 2 Life Span Perspective Development begins at birth and continues throughout one’s entire life. According to Smith (1999, para.4), “The first and obvious element is change that development involves movement from one state to another.” Whether it’s physically, mentally, or both, all individuals experience transitions as they move through the different life spans. The typical stages of development that humans go through include: childhood, adolescence, early adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood. As individuals progress from one stage of life to the next there are a variety of factors that influence the unique development from one person to the next. Factors such as culture, genetics, and environmental influences all play significant roles in life span development. Each span of an individual’s life is characterized by differing stages of development. The life span perspective of development is not limited to any one specific age or stage of life, which is one of the primary aspects of the life span perspective. This perspective is also diverse in the fact that changes can occur on a social, cognitive, or physical level (Smith, 1999). According to Berger (2008) there are five primary principles that can be applied when examining the various stages of an individual’s life span. These principles include: multidirectional, multicontextual, multicultural, multidisciplinary, and plasticity. Five Principles of Development The first principle, multidirectional, takes into account the variations that exist in reference to developmental changes throughout one’s life span. The main facet of the P a g e | 3 multidirectional principle is that change is ultimately unpredictable; therefore these developmental changes can go in any direction at any point in time as the individual progresses through the stages of life. The multicontextual principle focuses primarily on the effects of one’s surrounding environment and how these factors influence one’s development. This can include one’s physical environment as well as familial influences. Multicultural principles are based on the cultural influences that can impact one’s individual development. Culture is a significant factor in majority of people’s lives, which means that it ultimately influences how they develop throughout their lifetime. The multidisciplinary principle encompasses the biosocial, cognitive, and psychosocial domains that influence an individual’s life span development. According to the last principle, plasticity, an individual’s development can be shaped or modified, to an extent, by life experiences (Berger, 2008). Theories of Life Span Development The theories that have been developed regarding human life span development typically derive from fields of psychology such as psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and cognitive approaches. Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of human development focuses on the unconscious driving factors that influence development as well as behavior. Freud’s theory is also referred to as the theory of psychosexual development. Freud believed that early childhood experiences played a significant role in personality development. He also theorized that these experiences had a lasting influence on an individual’s behavior later in life. The psychosexual theory was based on the idea that all children went through different stages in which they became fixated on a sexually based behavior (Stevenson, 1996). P a g e | 4 Erik Erikson is another theorist who developed his own theory about life span development. The basis of Erikson’s theory was the effect of socialization on one’s development. Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development is comprised of eight stages. There are two possible outcomes for each stage of Erikson’s theory. The outcome of each stage can in turn have a resounding effect on each stage thereafter. Each stage of Erikson’s theory is unique and correlates with age appropriate characteristics within the various stages of one’s life span. The stages included in Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development range from issues of trust and guilt to identity roles (All Psych, 2004). Heredity and the Environment All issues of human development typically stem from either hereditary or environmental aspects. While each of these factors is significant to human development, they are also quite different in how they contribute to individual human development. Each and every individual inherits specific genes from his or her parents. According to the Human Genome Project (2008, para.18), “With disorders, behaviors, or any physical trait, genes are just a part of the story, because a variety of genetic and environmental factors are involved in the development of any trait.” Environmental factors combine with heredity to impact one’s unique development over a life span. The naturenurture issue is a wellknown concept which concerns the influences of both heredity and the environment on an individual’s development and behavior. Both nature and nurture can influence aspects of development such as intelligence, personality, and mental illness. Conclusion P a g e | 5 As an individual advances from infancy and childhood into adulthood and late adulthood, numerous developmental changes will undoubtedly occur. There are many theories regarding the life span perspective of human development. While some of these theories may be more reliable than others, all theories have the potential to contribute important information to the overall perspective of life span development. As with many aspects of psychology, the issue of heredity and environment come into play in more ways than one. Both nature and nurture have a significant impact on human development, whether it’s on a cognitive level or a behavioral level. While it is difficult to narrow it down to a specific theory or perspective that encompasses all human development as a whole, it is undeniable that change does indeed take place over time. P a g e | 6 References All Psych. (2004). Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development. Retrieved January 10, 2011 from http://allpsych.com/psychology101/social_development.html Berger, K. S. (2008). The developing person through the life span (7th ed.). New York: Worth Publishers Human Genome Project Information. (2008). Behavioral Genetics. Retrieved January 10, 2011 from www.ornl.gov/hgmis Smith, M. (1999). Life Span Development and Lifelong Learning. Retrieved January 10, 2011 from http://www.infed.org/biblio/lifecourse_development.htm Stevenson, D. (1996). Freud’s Psychosexual Stages of Development. Retrieved January 10, 2011 from http://www.victorianweb.org/science/freud/develop.html P a g e | 7 WK One Written Assignment Grading Form- Life Span Perspective Paper Possible YOUR SCORE Pts Content and Organization (700-to-1050 words explain the Life Span perspective of 4.00 4.00 development. Summarize two theories of development. Explain how heredity and the environment interact to produce differences in development, included introduction and conclusion) Readability and Style ( Paragraph transitions present, the tone is appropriate to the content 1.00 1.00 and assignment, sentences are complete, clear, and concise, sentences are well constructed, with consistency, varied sentences) 2.00 2.00 Mechanics ( The paper, including the title page, reference page, tables and appendices, follow APA guidelines for format, Citations of original works within the body of the paper follow APA guidelines, the paper is laid out with effective use of headings, font styles, and white space) 1.00 1.00 Grammar/ spelling/ punctuation P a g e | 8 1.00 Sources ( Two to three sources used) 1.00 1.00 1.00 Turnitin Originality Report Included With Assignment Late Penalty 10.0 10.0 10 Final Grade Comments: Thank you for the hard work you put in to writing this paper! The content and organization of your work was good! All the key elements of this assignment were addressed. Keep up the good work!!
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