PSY 390 Classical+Conditioning+Paper Week 4 Ind. Paper
PSY 390 Classical+Conditioning+Paper Week 4 Ind. Paper
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Date Created: 11/13/15
Classical Conditioning Paper 1 Classical Conditioning Paper Name PSY 390: Learning and Cognition Teacher’s Name Date Classical Conditioning Paper 2 Classical Conditioning Paper Classical Conditioning was discovered by Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist who thrived to understand the world of behaviorism. “Classical conditioning is a learning process that occurs through associations between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus” (Cherry, 2011). Classical conditioning is one of the most wellknown aspects of behavioral learning and has affected science and psychology ever since it was created. There are many different situations in which classical conditioning can be used in order for one to have a successful learning process. Charts can be used to demonstrate the use of classical conditioning to train an individual to behave a certain way. For example, classical conditioning could be an effective method in training a dog to sit on command. This will require reinforcements and consistency. However, in classical conditioning, the individual has no control over Classical Conditioning Paper 3 reinforcement. “It occurs when the experimenter wants it to occur. In other words, in classical conditioning, reinforcement is not contingent on any overt response made by the organism” (Olson & Hergenhahn, 2009). Classical Conditioning Theory Classical conditioning can be described as a way to train or teach one to behave a certain way. This is done with reinforcements that can be an unconditioned stimulus or US, such as food to a dog or a conditioned stimulus, CS, such as a light or tone. These reinforceres will cause a reaction from the individual which, just like the stimulants, can be an unconditioned response or a conditioned response. The food, or US will cause an unconditioned response while the light presented before the food, causes the dog to salivate which is a conditioned response or CR. The CR is only achieved after the CS and US are paired a number of times, with the CS always presented prior to the US. The salivating response, like the one that occurred with the US, occurs to the light, or the conditioned stimulus. Now the response is conditioned because it reacted to the light. “In classical conditioning, the US is called reinforcement because the entire conditioning procedure depends on it” (Olson & Hergenhahn, 2009). However, the behavior will still occur without the CS. Scenario/ Chart A scenario in which classical conditioning could be effective in training behavior would be training a dog to sit on command. In this scenario food will not be used but instead, pushing down on the dog’s lower back actually showing him the motion will be the US. The CS will be the action of the master telling the dog to sit. The desired outcome will of course be the dog sitting by just the word sit. Below is a chart that illustrates this process. Classical Conditioning Paper 4 Reference Key: Stimulant Response US = Pushing down on dog's lower back making them sit CS = Telling the dog to sit US UR UR = The dog sitting CS No Response CR = The dog sitting US + CS UR US + CS UR US + CS UR CS CR Conclusion Ivan Pavlov changed the world of behaviorism by deciphering the cause of behavior. Classical conditioning outlines the very way organisms adapt and react to stimulants, thus a way one can be trained as well. Classical conditioning exists in everyday life. For example, the mother potty training her toddler, the husband trying to get his wife to clean out the car, or the master training their dog to sit on command are all examples of classical conditioning. Classical conditioning includes a simple inventory of factors including an unconditioned stimulant, conditioned stimulant, unconditioned response, and conditioned response. What exactly these factors are will vary in each situation and can be used in multiple ways. Classical conditioning will continue to be a tool of researchers in all fields of study while continuing to enrich the world of psychology for individuals from college students to well known theorists. Classical Conditioning Paper 5 References: Cherry, K. (2011). About.com. The New York Times Company. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/behavioralpsychology/a/classcond.htm Olson, M. H., & Hergenhahn, B.R. (2009). An Introduction to Theories of Learning. [University of Phoenix Custom Edition eText]. : Pearson Education, Inc. Retrieved from University of Phoenix, PSY390 Learning and Cognition website.
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