PSY 390 Operant Conditioning Week 3 Ind. Assign.
PSY 390 Operant Conditioning Week 3 Ind. Assign.
Popular in Course
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Department
This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by kimwood Notetaker on Friday November 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to a course at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views.
Reviews for PSY 390 Operant Conditioning Week 3 Ind. Assign.
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 11/13/15
Operant Conditioning Paper Your Name PSY 390 Learning and Cognition Teacher s Name Date Operant Conditioning Paper 1 Operant Conditioning Paper 2 Operant Conditioning Introduction Operant Conditioning was created by BF Skinner and is represents the idea that learning is a function of change in observable behavior The change in behavior is triggered by one s response to the events or stimuli that occurs The stimulus that causes the behavior is referred to as reinforceres and can be either positive or negative Reinforcement is the key factor in Skinner s operant conditioning theory and can be any factor that strengthens the occurrence of the desired behavior ranging from something one s mother tells them an award for making good grades or a feeling of increased accomplishment Rather or not a positive or negative reinforcement has a greater effect on behavior varies with each individual and situation Operant conditioning enabled Skinner along with other researchers to understand behavioral explanations for a wide range of cognitive experiences Operant conditioning has been widely applied in clinical settings ie behavior modification as well as teaching ie classroom management and instructional development e g programmed instruction Kearsley 2011 The Theory of Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning is characterized by two main principles 1 any response that is followed by a reinforcing stimulus tends to be repeated and 2 a reinforcing stimulus is anything that increases the rate with which an operant response occurs Olson amp Hergenhahn 2009 Operant conditioning can be applied to a variety of circumstances involved with one s behavior The theory of operant conditioning involves simply finding a factor that causes an individual to behave a certain way every time the factor or reinforcer is presented This theory Operant Conditioning Paper 3 also involves modifying behavior Olson amp Hergenhahn 2009 explain this by stating to modify behavior one merely has to find something that is reinforcing for the organism whose behavior one wishes to modify wait until the desired behavior occurs and then immediately reinforce the organism After this the occurrence of the desired behavior response will increase thus further strengthening the conditioned behavior In regards to other types of behaviorism operant conditioning maintains that one can produce responses instead of only eliciting a response because of an outside stimulus Positive amp Negative Reinforcement Positive and negative reinforcement do the same thing enforce behavior However their difference lies in how they do it Positive reinforcement includes presenting a stimulus that increases the possibility that a behavior will occur Positive reinforcement can include offering money to a teenager who passed a test or praising a toddler with hugs that picked up his toys Negative reinforcement is the removal of a stimulus that increases the likeliness of a behavior occurring For example studying for an exam to avoid getting a bad grade is an example of a negative reinforcement the low grade being the negative reinforcer A good grade could be a positive reinforcer in that it can trigger one to study as well A headache is a negative reinforcer in that it can cause one to take medication Many wonder which reinforcer has more effect on behavior However it depends on the situation and individual to determine which reinforcer would be more effective Skinner 1953 did not provide a rule that one would follow in discovering what would be an effective reinforcer Rather he said that whether something is reinforcing can be ascertained only by its effect on behavior Olson amp Hergenhahn 2009 Scenario of Operant Conditioning Shaping Behavior Schedule Operant Conditioning Paper 4 A response produces a consequence such as defining a word hitting a ball or solving a math problem When a particular StimulusResponse SR pattern is reinforced rewarded the indiVidual is conditioned to respond Kearsley 2011 A scenario where operant conditioning may be used to shape behaVior is a struggling student who focuses more on their facebook and nights out with friends then their academics Positive reinforcement can be used to offer rewards for good grades such as money or clothes A reinforcement schedule for this behaVior could be continuous reinforcement This would include reinforcing the good grades with reward every single time the indiVidual gets them This schedule will create a strong association between the behaVior and the response in this case the behaVior is making good grades and the response is studying Operant Conditioning Paper 5 References Kearsley G February 22 2011 The Theory Intro Practice Database Retrieved from httptiDstchologvor2 Olson M H amp Hergenhahn BR 2009 An Introduction to Theories of Learning University of Phoenix Custom Edition e Text Pearson Education Inc Retrieved from University of Phoenix PSY39O Learning and Cognition website
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'