GPY Test #3 Study Guide
GPY Test #3 Study Guide 11781 - GPY 235 - 02
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Klawr13 on Wednesday March 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 11781 - GPY 235 - 02 at Grand Valley State University taught by Michael Gutowsky in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see World Regional Geography in Geography at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 03/30/16
Test #3 Study Guide: MENA Middle East Steppes Large area of flat, grassland South Sudan: moderate rainfall and temperate climate steppes Aridity Main theme of the region Tropical and midlatitude deserts Chador Fullbody veil (light/thin, light colors) Clothing more restrictive (Yemen, Bahrain) o Less so in Turkey and Egypt Oases Product of land erosion and water tables at or near the surface Soil supports animals and plant life for agriculture Water mining Underground tunnels built to collect groundwater and bring it to surface o Natural springs, perennial streams for irrigation and oases Guest workers ~ 3/4 of labor force Foreigner permitted to work in another country on a temporary basis Informal Economy Activities and income completely outside of government taxation and regulations Street vendors, unregulated taxi drivers Internally displaced persons (IDPs) People uprooted from their own countries from civil war and/or human right violations Jihad Holy war Desertification Clearing, thinning, or elimination of tree cover Threatens 1/5 of MENA Druze communities Israel, Lebanon, Syria Berbers people of North Africa that travel seasonally mountains in summer Lowlands in winter Middle East 1.What is the largest desert in the world? Sahara Desert 2. What are the 3 worldwide religions conceived in the MENA? Islam, Judaism, Christianity 3. What is the world’s longest river? Nile River 4. What are the sources and what is the mouth of that river? Source: mountains of Ethiopia in East Africa, & Lake Victoria in Uganda Mouth: Mediterranean Sea in Egypt 5. Name the branches of that river and the place where the branches join. Blue Nile flows northward Joins White Nile in at Khartoum, Sudan. 6. Describe the flow of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers from beginning to end and the countries they flow through. Tigris: Anatolian plateau (Turkey) – Iraq – empty into Persian Gulf Euphrates: Syria, joins Tigris in Iraq, empty into Persian Gulf 7. What major body of water does these river systems empty into? Persian Gulf 8. Why are the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers important? Cradle of civilization, first settlement in the world 9. Know the different names for water mining in the MENA. Qanat (Iran), flaj (Arabian Peninsula), foggaro (North Africa) 10. What percentage of MENA is threatened with desertification? 1/5 of MENA (20%) 11. What percentage of the world’s oil reserves does the MENA hold? 2/3 (67%) 12. In what area is most of the oil concentrated in? Arabian Peninsula (mostly Saudi Arabia) 13. Describe ways in which the MENA countries are trying to diversify their economies and become less dependent on oil for their revenue. Bring in guest workers (Syria, Egypt, Palestinian refugees, India, Indonesia, Philippines, Pakistan) Oil revenues reinvested in economic development projects o Building/construction and service sector jobs 14. Name two cities that enviably have enormous wealth and very low populations. Jubail, Saudi Arabia & Doha, Qatar 15. Discuss three pressing issues facing the MENA. Food: limited agriculture areas (lack of water) Water: desalinizing water Increasing urbanization: roads, housing, schools, clinics/hospitals, o Access to electricity, sanitation services 16. Discuss the refugee problem in several areas of the MENA. ~5 million people displaced because of war in Iraq ~2 million Palestinians refuge Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, West Bank, Gaza Strip >900,000 Afghan and ~600,000 Iraqis Iran Turkey and Iran: ~1 million Kurdish 17. Discuss the genocide and general misery that has existed in Darfur since 2003. Social, political, economic inequality > 450,000 dead and > 2.5 million living in refugee camps or have fled the country Government supported a militia of African Arabs (Janjaweed), wipe out all the native Africans in Darfur Government obstruction of humanitarian aid has created famine conditions for the people of the area. 18. Be able to describe the relative concentrations of Sunnis and Shiites (Shia) amongst the major countries in MENA (handout). Shittes (Shia) o Iran 6670 million o Pakistan 1726 million o Iraq 1922 million o India 1624 million o North America 300,000 Sunnis o Egypt o Jordan o Saudi Arabia 19. Explain the animosity between Sunnis and Shiites going back centuries that continue today. Death of Prophet Muhammad in 632 CE Shiites power to descendants of Muhammad, prophet family Sunni elect new religious leader 20. Discuss the background behind the civil war in Syria that started in 2011. Dictatorships between Assad family, father and son Protesting demanding dictator AlAssad’s resignation Opposition supporters took up arms, first for protection Regimes failing Alawite ruling, minority rise of ISIS Bombings of Homs 330,000 killed 21. What are the implications of the Syrian civil war that we see happening in other Middle Eastern countries and in much of Europe (America?) today? Taking in/aiding Syrian refugees Harsh on the economies All want to settle dispute/war in Syria 22. How has America been affected by the civil war in Syria? Refugees Military action SubSaharan Africa Gondwanaland Southern Continent split from Pangea Antarctica, India, South America, Australia and Africa Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) Rising air/unstable cools as rises, rain Subtropical high 30 degrees north and south of equator Sinking air/stable extremely dry air Sahara and Kalahari Deserts Benguela current Makes Angola and Namibia cool and dry Savannas Tall grasslands Ungulates Large mammals, odd toes, hooves (giraffes, elephants, hippos, gazelle, wildebeest) Predators: lions, cheetahs Malaria Mosquito driven disease Affects half population (400 million) 1.5 million people killed/year $1 billion vaccine (Gates Foundation) NGO: Nothing But Nets $$$$ Shifting cultivation Moves crops from one area to another to preserve soil fertility Slashandburn Clearing patches of forest, shrubs, and grassland through burning and then using the ash to fertilize crops Intercropping planting different crops together keeps the soil covered and the nutrients in the soil, reducing erosion and evaporation Symbiosis symbiotic relationship with pastoralists through letting herds graze on alreadyharvested fields in the dry season to fertilize the land with their manure Poaching Poaching of elephants for the ivory in their tusks (horns – “white gold”) historically used to decorate homes in England, now also used for jewelry Rhino poaching bodyguards, replacing horn with plastic one Urban agriculture Using any available land in the cities for small gardens or grazing Apartheid Policy of racial separation SubSaharan Africa 1. Through what physical processes was Africa formed? Result of the break of Latin America and Asia 200 million years ago (Pangaea), leaving Africa by itself 2. Describe the characteristics of Africa’s Rift Valley. >6,000 miles long and 3060 miles wide Contains long deep lakes (Lake Victoria, Lake Tanganiyka) Mt. Kilimanjaro, highest peak in Africa 3. Describe the climate of SubSaharan Africa. What characteristics dictate the climate of different regions? Tropical (>70 degrees) Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) o Rising air/unstable cools as rises, rain Subtropical high (pressure) o 30 degrees north and south of equator o Sinking air/stable extremely dry air Sahara and Kalahari Deserts Summer monsoons, frequent draughts, top soil erosion 4. In what ways do the people of SubSaharan Africa adapt to their climate? Dependent on rains Sahel people (Sahelian Climate zone) o Pastoralists and farmers, follow the rain for crops and livestock Farming on floodplains bordering rivers Irrigation and rainwater harvesting Natural conditions expected to get worse 5. What are some ways in which the increasing population of this region is brought under increased pressure to provide for itself? Climate variability, political change, Population growth of humans and animals (limited food) Changes in access to land o Drought Famine Desertification Too much: too much grazing, too much farming, too much irrigation, too much tree cutting 6. Discuss the ways in which SubSaharan Africa is more vulnerable to climate change than other regions of the world. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Control (IPCC) Least equipped with money and resources for climate change Snow disappearing on Mt Kilimanjaro 7. Why are so many diseases, virtually unknown in America, so prevalent in SubSaharan Africa? Tropical climate and diverse ecology, low lying areas Spread: expansion/increase of human population, deforestation, and irrigation 8. What are the challenges to agricultural productivity in SubSaharan Africa? Lack of fertile soil Climate is not wellsuited and the environment breeds pests and diseases 9. What are some solutions to agricultural productivity in this region? Shifting cultivations o Slash and burn, intercropping, symbiotic relationships 10. Discuss the background behind the Europeans “scramble for Africa.” Africa: exotic, barbaric, needed to be civilized Knowledge of resources (gold, diamonds, etc) 11. What was Africa like in 1880 before European colonialism took full effect? <80% was under African rule 12. What two European countries controlled about 2/3 of Africa by the early 1900s? France and Britain 13. Discuss the legacy of the 80 or so years of European colonialism on SubSaharan Africa that continues to be felt today. Traditional ethnic groups with established territories forced to split into neighboring nations. o Yoruba: Nigeria and Benin Traditional enemies forced in one territory o Nigeria: Yoruba (SW), Ibo (SE), Hausa (N) Mining expanded (southern and central Africa) Land control o Took best for land for tea, coffee, tobacco plantation, livestock ranches Taxes imposed Difference in treatment from one European country to another This legacy of authoritarianism, little political participation, and frequent use of force is commonly seen in the ruling governments of Africa today. 14. Discuss generally the spatial and temporal flow of transition from colonialism to independence in SubSaharan Africa. Were the handovers relatively peaceful or violent? Give examples of differences in that regard. First in Ghana 1957 Violent: Somaliapiracy “Peaceful”: Dictatorship of President of Mugabe o Land conflicts, rigged elections, human right abuses, little health care, hyperinflation, and an unemployment rate greater than 90% 15. Discuss how people make a living in SubSaharan Africa. Dependent on lowpriced exports: tea, coffee, cocoa Money from $$$ resources, goes to government/corporations 65% adults in agriculture o Subsistence farmers Informal economy: Millions work as street vendors and maids Africans abroad w/education send money back from to Africa Employed by government or in tourism ( southern and eastern) Rely on food aid o Distant from markets o Dirt roads and tracks o Climate, soil, disease 16. Be able to compare the average affluence of SubSaharans relative to the average of the rest of the world. GNP of $1,823 (world average: $11,342) Less than 1/5 of world average 17. How long is it taking right now for the SubSaharan population to double in size? ~29 years 18. Give reasons why so many SubSaharans live in wretched poverty today. Dictatorship of President Mugabe Dependent on lowpriced exports: tea, coffee, cocoa $$$ resources go to government, corporations, share holders 19. What SubSaharan country has the greatest population at 156 million people (a little more than half that of the United States)? Total population: 936 million people Nigeria greatest population Lowest 22 countries on HDI 20. What is the life expectancy of the average SubSaharan? How does this figure compare to the world average? 50 years, compared to world 68 years 21. Of the worldwide total of people afflicted with HIV/AIDS, what percentage of them are from Sub Sahara Africa? 66% of worldwide total 22. In what region of SubSaharan Africa does AIDS affect the greatest percentage of the population today? Botswana 29.3% 23. Is the problem of African children orphaned by AIDS improving or regressing in SubSaharan Africa? Regressing, ~11.6 million AIDS orphans 24. Name the 3 largest cities in SubSaharan Africa. Lagos, Nigeria 10.5 million Kinshasa, DR Congo 8 million Johannesburg, South Africa >1 million 25. How many languages are spoken by more than 1 million people in SubSaharan Africa? 40 languages 26. What are the two “second” languages commonly spoken by millions in SubSaharan Africa? Swahili East Africa Hausa Sahel Region 27. Discuss some encouraging signs of progress that give people in SubSaharan Africa hope for a better life in the coming years and decades. Side Notes: Mining and GDP South Africa: gold and diamonds, Nigeria: oil accounts for more than half of the total mineral value in the region Diamonds alone make up 18% of South Africa’s $300 billion GDP, employing ~ ½ million people Mineral exports account for more than half of the total earnings for several countries Angola, Gabon, and Nigeria: oil; Botswana and Sierra Leone: diamonds; Congo: diamonds, oil and copper; Zambia: copper. Coal in southern Africa, natural gas in West Africa Ecosystem: Congo Basin nd 2 largest rainforest in world Largest animals/species Private logging companies Peace treaties to cut Only 12% set aside for conservation Syria: Bashar AlAssad o Shiite o Alawite Jihadists believe in holy war Wahhabism: strict interpretation of Sunni Islam Civil war funded by wealthy Arabs from Persian Gulf countries and spurred religious fanatics Iraq prime minister: Nouri AlMaliki o Shrugs off US advice o Forced Sunnis out of government 1000 ISIS fighters overran ~30,000 Iraqi troops o Capture Mosul, 2 largest city o Sunnis refused to fight for Maliki ISIS call themselves AlQaeda post 9/11 o modern day ISIS worst, most vicious form of AlQaeda o AlQaeda: Ayman alZawahiri o ISIS: Abu Bakr alBaghdadi
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