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UNM / Engineering / ANTH 160 / What does Hamilton's Rule state?

What does Hamilton's Rule state?

What does Hamilton's Rule state?

Description

School: University of New Mexico
Department: Engineering
Course: Human Life Course
Professor: Tanya meuller
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: anthropology 160
Cost: 50
Name: Anth. 160 Exam 2
Description: Here are some key points needed for the multiple portion of the exam. Take in mind that there is also a written portion that requires complete sentences and your own opinions. Be careful to not plagiarize, and give examples of the things you say. Goodluck everybody
Uploaded: 03/30/2016
5 Pages 9 Views 15 Unlocks
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Weekly Quiz 5


What does Hamilton's Rule state?



1. Which of the following life-history patterns may promote the development of altruism? ∙ Long lifespan

∙ Early age at weaning

∙ Short inter-birth intervals

∙ Rapid growth

2. Reciprocal altruism (reciprocity) is more likely to be stable and favored by natural selection if: ∙ There is an asynchrony of abundance and "need" of time and/or resources ∙ The benefits outweigh the costs to both individuals

∙ There are many future interactions

∙ All of the above

3. What does Hamilton's Rule state?

∙ That the benefit to the recipient, devalued by the coefficient of  relatedness, must be greater than the cost to the donor.

∙ That the cost to the donor, devalued by the coefficient of relatedness, must be  greater than the benefit to the recipient.

∙ That the coefficient of relatedness, r, is irrelevant in determining whether or not to  behave altruistically towards other individuals.


What do the data from the Albuquerque Men Study show us?



∙ That we should always behave altruistically towards kin, regardless of whether they  are close kin or more distant kin.

4. What do the data from the Albuquerque Men Study show us?

∙ Men in Albuquerque, when rearing a child who is not their biological offspring,  are much more likely to raise their relatives’ children than their mate’s children. ∙ Anglos are much more likely to raise non-biological offspring who are kin than  Hispanics.

∙ Men in Albuquerque are equally likely to raise related non-biological offspring  as unrelated non-biological offspring, and make no distinction in their financial  support of these children.

∙ Children are more likely to receive financial support for  college from their biological fathers when their parents  

remained in the same household for their entire childhood.  They are least likely to receive financial support for college  from step-fathers who did not live with them their entire  


What is tolerated scrounging/theft?



childhood.

5. Diminishing returns curves relate to altruism and reciprocity because:

∙ They recognize that once you give a benefit to someone else, you will never  recoup the cost you pay. Individuals share because they can afford to pay that  cost.Don't forget about the age old question of Who do I want to be, what do I want to strengths to be, what do I want to do, where do I want to go?

∙ They recognize that you should only give away a resource to someone else if the  cost you pay outweighs the benefit the other receives. Individuals share  

because they want to.

∙ They recognize that all resources offer the same value to all individuals  

regardless of how much quantity of that resource is possessed. Individuals  

share because these values are identical.

∙ They recognize that the value of a resource to a given  

individual will depend on the amount of the resource the  

individual always possesses. Individuals share because the  

cost they pay now is less than the benefit they might receive  in the future.

Weekly Quiz. 7

1. What is tolerated scrounging/theft?

∙ Sharing food (or other resources) because a proportion of your genes are in your  close kin – you tolerate the scrounging of resources by your kin because of your  relatedness.

∙ Sharing food (or other resources) because it would be quite  costly to defend them – you tolerate the scrounging of resources  by other individuals instead of incurring the cost of defense. Don't forget about the age old question of which of the following is not a form of asexual reproduction? see section 47.1 (page) .

∙ Sharing your food (or other resources) because you know you may need someone  else’s resources in the future – you tolerate the scrounging of resources because  you know you may need to scrounge resources from someone else at a later date. ∙ None of the above.

2. Which of the following life-history patterns may promote the development of altruism? ∙ Long lifespan

∙ Early age at weaning

∙ Short interbirth intervals

∙ Rapid growth

3. Reciprocal altruism (reciprocity) is more likely to be stable and favored by natural selection if: ∙ There is an asynchrony of abundance and "need" of time or resources

∙ The benefits outweigh the costs to both individuals

∙ There are many future interactions over an unspecified period of time

∙ All of the above

4. Which of the following is true about the payoff structure for the Prisoner’s Dilemma?

∙ The punishment for defecting (P - both players “squeal”) is the worst possible  payoff (maximum jail time in the prisoner scenario).

∙ The temptation to cheat (T – one player implicates his/her  partner while the other remains silent) is the highest possible  payoff (go free while the partner gets maximum jail time).

∙ The reward for cooperation (R – both players “keep silent”) is the highest  

possible payoff (both players get reduced sentences).

∙ None of the above

5. Which strategy to play the Prisoner’s Dilemma would yield the highest payoff over repeated  rounds?

∙ Always Cooperate (All C)

∙ Alternate Cooperate and Defect (CDCD) We also discuss several other topics like What is Klinefelter Syndrome?

∙ Tit for Tat (TFT)

∙ Defect Every Third Round (CCD)

Weekly Quiz 8

1. Which of the following is not a major life history tradeoff?

∙ Current versus future reproduction

∙ Quality versus quantity of offspring

∙ Anisogamy versus polygamy

∙ Mating effort versus parental effort

2. An organism’s life history refers to:

∙ The pattern of events experienced by an organism’s ancestors

∙ A complete description of the events experienced over the  organism’s life, related to age specific schedules of mortality and  fertility

∙ An organism’s ability to learn historical facts.

∙ the story of a person's life, especially when told at tedious length

3. Which of the following is not an example of a life history question?

∙ How altricial or precocial an organism is a birth?

∙ How fast an organism grows?

∙ How many offspring an organism has each reproductive bout?

∙ How much food does an organism eat a day?

4. Which of the following indicates that early hominins were scavenging meat rather than actively  hunting? Don't forget about the age old question of bo winegard

∙ The cut marks from stone tools overlay the tooth marks from  predators on faunal remains

∙ The faunal assemblages are mostly high utility, including the femur

∙ The prey profile is prime dominated, with mostly adult males present

∙ The faunal assemblages are mostly difficult or dangerous prey, including cattle and bush  pigs.

5. Which of the following are we not able to infer from the fossil record?

∙ Age at weaning

∙ Muscle stresses from patterns of production

∙ Cranial capacity

∙ Marriage patterns

Weekly Quiz 10

1. Which of the following is not a difference between human and non-human primate diets? ∙ Non-human primates eat less calorically dense foods

∙ Non-human primates eat a larger percentage of extracted than collected  foods

∙ Humans eat more hunted foods

∙ Humans differentiate food acquisition by sex

2. Complementarity in parental investment:

∙ Means that mothers and fathers are polite to their children

∙ Occurs when male investment does not affect offspring well-being

∙ Is more prevalent in non-human primates than in humans

∙ Means that mothers and fathers have specialized parenting roles  that work best when carried out together If you want to learn more check out wiline pangle

3. Humans and non-human primates differ with regards to key life history traits. Which of the  following is a way in which we differ from monkeys and apes?

∙ Human juveniles are dependent on parental provisioning for  an incredibly long time; non-human primate juveniles are self  feeding when they wean.

∙ Humans have incredibly low brain size to body size ratios, while non-human  primates have incredibly large brain size to body size ratios.

∙ Humans utilize low skill, low nutrient density foods while non-human primates  utilize high skill, high nutrient density foods.

∙ None of the above

4. Which of the following is true with regards to patterns of human male production compared to  chimpanzee production across the life course?

∙ Human males begin to produce more than they consume in  their teens, reaching maximum productivity around the mid Don't forget about the age old question of hum1020 uf

30s (and continuing through their 50s or later), while  

chimpanzee males never produce more than they consume. ∙ Human males and chimpanzee males begin to produce as much as they  consume as soon as they are weaned, and never produce more than they  

consume.

∙ Both human males and chimpanzee males begin to produce more than they  consume in their teens. Humans, though, produce a lot more than chimpanzees  for a much longer lifespan.

∙ Though both human males and chimpanzee males produce more than they  consume, neither produce near the excess of human females.

5. Which of the following is true with regards to patterns of human female production compared  to chimpanzee production across the life course?

∙ Human females produce more than they consume for much of their reproductive  lifespan, allowing them to feed their dependent juveniles even while they may be  pregnant or nursing an infant. Chimpanzee females never produce more than they  consume.

∙ Both human females and chimpanzee females produce more than they consume during  their reproductive careers. This amount is never enough, however, to feed more than  one juvenile at a time.

∙ Human females do not produce more than they consume, but chimpanzee females do.  Thus chimpanzee females are able to raise their fertility relative to humans by feeding a  dependent juvenile while pregnant or nursing another offspring.

∙ Neither human females nor chimpanzee females produce more  than they consume during their reproductive careers. Human  females rely on other individuals to subsidize the growth of their  dependent juveniles. Human females only begin producing more  than they consume after menopause.

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