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Comm 104

by: Rebecca Notetaker

Comm 104 COMM 104

Rebecca Notetaker

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Exam 2
Public Communication
Dana Boreza
Study Guide
Public Communications
50 ?




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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rebecca Notetaker on Wednesday March 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 104 at West Virginia University taught by Dana Boreza in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views.


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Date Created: 03/30/16
COMM 104 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE EXAM: WEDNESDAY 3/18 Key Terms to Know  Rhetoric o The art of effective or persuasive speaking or writing, especially the use of  figures of speech and other compositional techniques  Sophists o Specific kind of teacher that specialized in the tools of philosophy and rhetoric.   Kairos o Timing aspect, there is a right time to deliver a persuasive message.  Public o The commonality among people that is based on consumption of common texts  (audience).  Public sphere o A common place where ideas and information are exchanged.  Address o The relationship between the speaker and the audience.  Problematic vagueness (PV) o A word/expression that has imprecise or unclear meaning.  Problematic ambiguity (PA) o A word or expression that has multiple meanings. Ways to resolve PA are to ask  for clarification about the intended meaning. Negotiating meaning is trying to  agree on a meaning when there are more than one.  Syllogism o Formal statement when 2 true premises equal a 3 . It is a 3 part deductive  argument.   Enthymeme o Legitimate persuasive argument that is missing premises.   Ethos o A speakers credibility (3 C’s=character, competence, caring)  Pathos o Emotional dimensions, influence audiences attitudes towards a topic/speaker.  Logos o Logical dimension of an appeal, arguments/reasoning and evidence.  Severity  Susceptibility  Efficacy  Key Concepts to Understand  The Rhetoric o 3 parts= speaker, audience and the speech itself. It is guided by 2 assumptions:  considering the audience and use many proofs   3 types of rhetoric o Deliberative­ Based on originally speaking in the legislature. Speakers must  convince the audience to complete or not complete an action. It shows future  behavior and personal identification with the audience.  o Forensic­ Originally speaking in court. It relies on past behavior and shows elicit  feelings of guilt or innocence.  o Epideictic­ Originally speaking in ceremonial situations. Its about praise or blame  and virtues or values.  3 proofs of rhetoric o Ethos­ The means used by the speaker to persuade the audience. o Logos­ A speakers credibility. 3 C’s are character, competence and caring  o Pathos­ Emotional dimensions that influence the audience’s attitudes towards a  topic/speaker.  5 canons of rhetoric     Invention  Chose the best possible arguments for your case. It is what is the best way  to convince someone to agree with your argument. Creatively choose the  facts/evidence that best supports your argument.     Arrangement  Determine the most effective way to organize your argument.     Style  Using certain language to present your arguments. Word choice, imagery,  appropriateness and formality.     Delivery  Nonverbally (physically and vocal) presenting your arguments. Originally  the voice, but today we know that other non­verbal behaviors such as  gestures, use of space, eye contact.     Memory  Delivering a speech without notes and recalling important information  during a speech. Rhetoricians disagreed on the cannon of memory and  how it should be executed.   Audience analysis  o Our goal is to know enough about your audience to make your ideas clear and  meaningful to them.  Information that is important to find out about your audience: o Demographics­ Age, gender, sexual orientation, race, ethnicity, culture, religion,  group membership. o Situations­ Number of people in audience, physical setting, occasion, disposition  toward the topic. o Adaption­ Connect with the audience by choosing arguments, reasons, examples  and speech topics that relate to them.   Parts of an argument (i.e., claim and reason),  o Claim­ statement that the speaker “claims” to be true, and is seeking to show as  true or probably true. Often it is called a conclusion.  o Reason­ parts of arguments that offer support to the truth of claims. o Argument­ built out of claims and reasons.  3 dimensions of credibility o Character­ good person, honest o Competence­ smart, knowledgeable o Caring­ concerned for others, audiences best interest in mind  3 types of ethos and influences of each type:     Initial  Credibility assigned to a speaker prior to beginning a communication act.  Background (experience, education and reputation) influence initial ethos.  Sponsorship and Halo effect (if we like one thing about someone, we  attribute other positive qualities). Effects of initial ethos: increases  likelihood of paying attention, learning and attitude and behavioral  change.      Derived  Credibility assigned to a speaker during the act of communication.  Rhetorical choices include evidence, organization, delivery and sincerity.      Terminal  Credibility at the end of the communication act. Don’t burn bridges  because we may have to speak to this audience again.   Impact of ethos: o Large immediate effects­ ethos/credibility influence many psychological,  cognitive, affective and communication outcomes. o Small long­term effects­ High ethos sources loose impact over time and may need to remind later on.  5 power bases: o Coercive­ punishment. EX: parents take away car keys. o Reward­ benefit and influence attitudes and behaviors because they have  something to offer. o Legitimate­ assigned role EX: boss or professor o Expert­ competence o Referent­ identification   How are power and ethos related? o    How to evaluate ethos/credibility of a source:  3 types of propositions: o Fact o Value  o Policy  Characteristics of good style: o Accuracy­ words should refer to the meaning intended. o Clarity­ words should contribute to an audiences understanding. o Propriety­ language should be appropriate to the source, topic and audience. o Economy­ use only as many words as necessary to communicate an idea to the  audience. o Vivacity­ audience interest depends on the language chosen.  Metaphor­ comparison of 2 things.  Antithesis­just a position of contrary or contrasting ideas  Rhyme­ end of clauses have the same like or sounds  Isocolon­ succession of clauses of approximately equal length and  corresponding structure.   Anaphora­ repeating the same word/phrase at the beginning of several  clauses. It puts emphasis on the word/phrase.  Monroe’s Motivated Sequence: o Attention­ Get the attention of your audience o Need­ Establish why the topic is important, why your audience should be  concerned. o Satisfaction­ Providing a solution o Visualization­ Painting a picture of the benefits of your solution  o Action­ Call the audience to action.   Types of evidence: o Examples­ specific instances used to illustrate/represent people, ideas, experience, conditions, etc. o Statistics­ numerical data offered to clarify or strengthen a claim. o Testimonials­ quotations of paraphrases used to support a claim.  4 functions of a theory: o Describe o Explain o Predict o Control  Questions to consider when testing the truthfulness of logos: o Recent, enough evidence, reliable source, consistent, ambiguity, relevant to claim.  Common fallacies of relevance: o Appeals to ignorance­ absence of reason is used to reject a claim o Appeals to mob­ bandwagon fallacy (assumes that because others are doing it, it  is correct) o Appeals to emotion­ relying on emotional response (rather than valid logic) to  make an argument. o Ad hominem attack­ an attack towards a person rather than his/her ideas. o Straw man fallacy­ distorting the oppositions argument or attacking an argument  that they did not make. o Playing with words­ exploiting the vagueness or ambiguity of an argument, or  using slanted language. o Misuse of authority­ believing a claim because a powerful or respected person  says it.  How to use fear appeals: o Present a risk or vulnerability to risk. It is an unpleasant state and emotion we do  not want.  Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) o Theory that predicts responses to fear appeals. The key components are fear  consisting of severity and susceptibility.  How to use guilt appeals in public comm. o Occurs when an internalized norm is violated. EX: reciprocity, loyalty, respect,  purity, helping others.  Be stuble  Use a familiar/likeable source  Provide easy and clear solution to alleviate guilt  Anticipated guilt is how the audience can avoid guilt in the future.   Effects of humor appeals o Taps into happiness or joy  Attention getter  Can be a distraction  Effects on persuasion  May not be immediate


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